Goals of this course 

We have 3 main aims
± To provide an insight into one of the biggest entertainment industries in the world. Globally, the computer game market worth billions of dollars ± To describe the stages involved in developing a game concept, using industry examples, also to introduce gaming terminology. This will provide the necessary basic knowledge to further an understanding of games and their development. ± To provide practical exercises that require some of the skills and techniques necessary to becoming a computer game designer.

What this course do for you 

It will start you off on the long but exciting journey to becoming a professional in the game industry 

Keeping up with change:
± Game industry is a rapidly developing phenomenon, technological innovation sees continued changes in the devices people use to play games. ± As the market develops, players become more sophisticated and the types of game they play are ever-changing. ± There is a plenty of activity on the game development such as browser game and user-developed modifications and additions of the games. ± This is an exciting time to be involved in the industry. 

Developing Experience

Challenge --.What is a game       Game is a structured or semi structured activity± used for enjoyment or education purpose Key component of a games are ± Goals --. physical or both Need practical skills Games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures The word Game± Ludwig Wittgenstein address the definition.Interactivity Games involve mental.Rules--.1951) ± went to school with Hitler . ± Austrian (1889.

according to rules freely accepted but absolutely binding. and the consciousness that it is different from ordinary life´ Fun Separate Uncertain± random outcome± like dice or coin toss Non-productive Governed by rules Fictitious  French Sociologist Roger Caillois defined a game as: ± ± ± ± ± ± . joy. having its aim in itself and accompanied by a feeling of tension.History      Mankind has been playing games since historical records began Oldest Ancient Egyptian game called Senet± 3500 BC Royal Game of Ur also played in Egypt ± 2600 BC Go ( 4000 years old) and Chess( 1000 years old)± simple games± black and white pieces on squared board 1938± Johan Huizinga± defined game as follows: ± ³Play is a voluntary activity or occupation executed within certain fixed limits of time and place.

if the player can only outperform the opponent.An activity with some rules engaged in for an outcome Greg Costikyan:.    Kevin Maroney:. and entertainment if made for money ± A piece of entertainment is a plaything if it is interactive. However. but not attack them to interfere with their performance. ³ it is a puzzle.Game --. the conflict is a competition. if attacks are allowed.A game is a form of art in which participants. if there is one.A form of play with goals and structure Eric Zimmermann:.continue  Chris Crawford ( founder of journal of computer game design and computer game developer conference ) defined game as follows:± Creative expression is art if made for its own beauty. then the conflict qualifies as game. . it a conflict ± Finally. termed players. ( movies and books non-interactive entertainment) ± If no goals are associated with a plaything. ± If a challenge has no ³ active agent against whom you compete. make decision in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal. a plaything is a challenge. it is a toy± if it has goals.

. Art beauty Creative Expression money Entertainment Interaction Plaything Toy No Goal Challenge Puzzle Competition No NO Competitor Conflict Attack Allow Game NO Movie .Game ± Continue.

represented by matrix Characteristic Form Partition function form Cooperative and non-cooperative ± players are able to form binding commitments Symmetric and asymmetric Zero sum and non-zero sum game-players neither increase nor decrease the available resources Simultaneous and sequential Perfect information and imperfect information Infinitely long games Discrete and continues games Meta games± rules for another game Political Science± Economics and Business-Biology± Computer Science and Logic-Philosophy Game Theory  Types of Games ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±  Applications:± .formalize games with some important order Normal Form:. Famous Game theorist± John Nash± Beautiful Mind Game theory was also theme for movies ( war games) and other game show ( Friend or Foe. NUMB3RS) Representation of Games ± ± ± ± Extensive Form:. 1944 John von Neumann± Theory of game and economic behavior± RAND cooperation also helped. Alias.      Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics It studies strategic interactions between agents.

IBM Scientist Arthur Samuels devised a program that played checkers AI used in many fields including gaming ± Strategy± determine the optimal action from a possible actions ± Path finding.Artificial Intelligence     1950¶s Alan Turing. ± Simulated people and creatures ± Planning ± Learning ± Deduction.John McCarthy ± coined the name AI 1959. reasoning. ± Search and Many More applications . ± Natural language Parsing± computer try to understand language ± Natural language generation± generate language ± Pattern recognition± voice recognition. detecting patterns in player behavior.Can Machine Think 1956. space recognition. problem solving ± Knowledge representation ± Motion manipulation.find best path through a simulated landscape filled with lots of obstacles.

Game Mechanics
Rules are what game designers call game mechanics.  Crucial aspects of games are goals, rewards, entertainment, and challenges.  Here are some common examples of game mechanics 

± Skill± physical skill (wrestling, tug of war) ± mental skill( chess..) ± Luck± this is random choice, an outcome that the player has no control over( role of die, gambling, snake and ladder,..) ± Strategy± this is almost exact opposite of luck± ability to plan turns and moves within a game determines the outcome( checkers, chess, go, tic-tac-toe, «) ± Resource Management± player has certain assts± must be used carefully if he is to succeed ± Territory control--- control the game space is often important ± Diplomacy± How players interact 

Many games help to develop practical skills, exercise, educational, psychological role«

NonNon-digital game classification    

You don¶t need computer to play these games± as a game designer you should be familiar with these games. Many of the characteristics found on these games are used in computer games. Board Games:-Games played on a specially designed board can cover a whole range of themes± chess, Go, Risk and Monopoly« Card Games:- use as a central tool such as a deck of cards± standard deck± customized decks. Some collectible card games such as Magic: The Gathering are played with a small selection of card ± Role playing:- Dungeons and Dragons was created by Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson Tabletop war games± usually played on a large playing surface with miniature figures

Some Milestone Game 

Monopoly:- 1930¶ during depression, it concerns real estate transactions Board War games:
± Napoleon at Waterloo; Star Force Alpha Centauri ± War in the East ; Battle for Germany; Russian Civil war ± Breitenfeld ; Battle of General Mac Arthur ; Diplomacy 

Other Non computer Games
± Cosmic Encounter ; Dungeons & Dragons ; ± Magic the Gathering ; Whack a Mole Illuminati 

Video Games
± Space Invaders ± Dragon¶s Lair Pac-Man Space Panic Donkey Kong 

Computer Games
± ± ± ± ± Star Raiders; Eastern Front ; Wizardry; Dandy; Civilization Deadline; M.U.L.E ; Balance of power; Doom King¶s Quest; Trust & Betrayal; The 7th Guest; Myst Warcraft; Secret Weapons of Luftwaffe; Populous SimCity:- Create City like real world city, traffic delays, crimes, police stations, tax revenues to build city «

java) Some of the online games like Quest for Chaos.RPG ± is a game in which the participants assume the roles of fictional characters and collaboratively create or follow stories. sports and most other types of games. flash. They rarely have winners or losers. Online Games . GameCube have online functionality like the PC Browser Games:. card games. First person shooter games:. and Lineage II charge monthly fees. Wii. World of Warcraft. Massively Multiplayer online games± using internet to allow hundred of thousands of players to play the same game together Role Playing Games:.using a game browser. Final Fantasy XI.many contain some form online component Real-time strategy games± multiplayer play over a modem or local network Cross-platform online play± Playstation 3. Dreamcast. Xbox 360.         Games that are played over some form of computer network With the current technology ( internet. The above two groups are most often combined. ± it is different from board games. Star Wars Galaxies.

joystick. coin operated video game± Nolan Bushnell. Steve Russell ± Space War . .DEC PDP11 ± 1971. Douglas¶s OXO for EDSAC ± 1958± William Higinbotham¶s interactive game called Tennis for Two ± 1961 MIT student Martin Graetz. ± 1975± Atari¶s Pong ± Video Game Industry exploded afterwards.Video Game      Games involve interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device (raster display device) Now Video game systems for any display device ± Large to small Input device used in Video games is called Game Controller± Consists of buttons. headphone. History:± 1947 Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr.Olden days it uses keyboard keys Other devices± speakers.Computer space was released and first commercially sold. Estle Ray Mann ± got Patent 1948² Simulated missile firing at targets on the CRT monitor ± 1952± Alexander S.. and Ted Dabney ± 1972± Magnavox Odyssey ± the first home console. vibrations and force feedback peripherals. --.

Continue Game-         Platforms:.combination of electronic hardware + low level software± the terms system or console are also used Types:-. propaganda. Team ranges from 5. special interest group« ESRB.Game development and authorship± programmer.Many types ( Educational. advergaming( form of advertising). modify the game colors.. profanity.Artistic and Entertainment ± Some people argue it is good for educational such as literary and science Controversy:. «-. Demographics: ± Age group 20-40 played significantly ± 40% female game players     Multiplayer games Benefit:. Development:-. graphical appearances. sexual themes. «.designed with end-user modification Cheats:.Now more complex.Cheating codes. technician. religious. types of goals. Glitches:. musicians.method of game play. social.Entertainment Software Rating Board rates software for age groups .graphic violence. desinger.50 even 100 members Modification:.Video Game-. consumptions of drugs/ alcohol/tobacco. Political..problem with software± fix by patches. «) Genres:-. sound designer.

000 internet café¶s to play online games ± NPD Group ± track US sales 2007 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Retail price $17. ± North Korea ± computer games± over 20.6 million PS3 2.04 Billion up 54% from 2006 Nintendo ± ranked first 8.3 million Nintendo DS 6.53 billion Japan Sales is about $6.3 Billion in 2007 Hardware sale $7.94 billion Last December. Game Boy Advance 70M with 290 M units of software Game Cube 20 M with 166 M units of software Top 5 software from Nintendo . Japan.82 billion on video game 44% up from 2006 sale of $12. and UK Other European and Asian Markets are rising significantly Sales varies among the countries ± Japan is ranked first in console video game sales.6 million Total:-± ± ± ± Xbox 18 M.3 million Wii Best selling game Microsoft's first person shooter ³ Halo 3´ Xbox sold 4.Gaming Industry    Three largest gaming markets± North America. Americans spent $4.

Game Development 

Game developments:- the process by which a game is produced. Commercial games are created by a team and costs from $1M $20M ± normally funded by a publisher± normally takes 1-3 years Development team consists of :
± ± ± ± ± ± ± One or more producer to oversee the production At least one game designer Artists Programmers Level designers Sound engineers( composers, sound effects, voice acting) Testers 


Some members handle more than one role. Often the development team is overseen by managers such as art directors. Development Process:± ± Pre-production:- the idea must be approved by upper management or publisher Production:- programmers write code, artists develop game assets that 3D model of game elements, sound engineers develop sound effects and composer develop music for the game. Milestones:- Need to meet deadlines. Nearing Completion:- Weeks before completing the game are very intense. Group work overtime without pay± Extra effort has taken to make sure every thing works well Testing:- Make sure the game¶s every feature works well Completion:-after the game goes gold and ship± most of the time team gets compensation for their overtime. Maintenance:- any patches± fix bugs and any glitches.

± ± ± ± ±

Game Development-- continue Development-  


There are well over 1000 video development companies today± most of them are tiny with 1 or 2 members Culture:- game development culture has always been and continues to be very casual by normal business standards. Durations:- it depends on a number of factors ± it will take 1-3 years. Locales:- Most of the time they are very close to major universities. Stability:- Game industry is very volatile, only 5% of products make profits. Indie game development( Independent game development)± self funded small team, sometime operating over the internet. They have full control over the game± they publish over internet or sell to publishers.

What is game programming 


Playing games is one thing. Let¶s talk about how these games are produced. Can you make your own game? How do the companies make games? How is art, music and story brought together? Programming is like art. It means a collection ( millions ) of instructions tell the computer/ video console what to draw, how to make the character act, what to show on screen and so on. Programming contains± collision detection, vectors, mathematics ... It is possible to get a job in this industry. Imagine working with other creative, like-minded individuals to develop games that millions of people potentially play« Many companies offer internships for students. If you know C/ C++ perfectly that doesn¶t mean you will get a job in game development± You need more than that such as 3D Knowledge, mathematics, AI, Physics etc. Some Recommendations:-- Do not develop bad sleeping habits, take regular breaks, divert your eyes every 10 min for about a min by looking outside the windows«

get help²do not give up. understand the necessary IDE( integrated Development Environment) .Get Started  Programming environment± choose programming language ± How easy is it to learn ± Is it suitable for gaming ± Does the language work with suitable game development libraries or APIs ( Application Programming Interface) ± What platform will the language run on ± Will I able to find support if I have a problem ± Is there documentation available  Choose Game development Library or API ± ± ± ± ± Is this library compatible with my language Is this library suitable for my skill level Is this library suitable with the kind of game I plan on working Is there enough information available for this API Understand and agree with the library licenses  You now have a language and library± game libraries will provide gaming components such as graphics. sound«-.when you are ready to write a program.then you should learn and read everything you can ± if you did not understand.

so start small Plan± otherwise you will run into problems Wait± Analyze your ideas Get Feedback from fellow gamers and developers   Creating Game Media:.create your game media± if you are not an artist ± get some help± find partners.. Coding your Came: ± ± ± ± Flexibility Prototype Don¶t optimize early Keep all tested code   Deploying your game Market your game ± Find a publisher ± Find independent publisher ± Sell by yourself .Get Started..collect all the tools( software and hardware) Designing your game ± ± ± ± Start Small± it is a huge and complex task.   Gather your tools:-. Conti.

AI algorithm to find a path AAA.rating± Game with big budget Adaptive learning± AI system that can reprogram based on the environment Aimbot± method of cheating in multiplayer game± use script to perform perfect target.light that is refracting off objects around the us API.Gaming -Glossary                    A*-. Alpha channel± In 32 bit object which describe the viewpoint of the player Clipping± process of removing some parts DLL± Dynamic Link Library Dynamic adjusted in real time for changing light sources Engine:.Application Programming Interface Backspace Culling± Hidden surface removal Blending ± Mixing color from different sources Buffer of one or more classes that perform special tasks .include various details in texture.step by step procedure Aliasing. 24 used for real color and 8 bit for alpha values Ambient Lighting:. Algorithm.high resolution image in low resolution screen Alpha-first stage program Alpha blending.

LIFO.trick used in 3-d graphics to display a horizon( far away stuff) Stack Texel. FIFO. Voxel± Volume Pixel 3-d counter part of 2-d pixel X-Y position . Lossy.used in rendering process Sky Box.Gaming -Glossary                      First person shooter:.Picture Element Shader.. math formula«. made of line.part of animation technique which uses data to set up snapshots Lossless .is simply a specific type of game GLSL²OpenGL Shading Language GDI. Linked List.Graphical Device Interface Key frame.Massive Multiplayer online role playing game OLE( oh-ley) Object Linking and Embedding± create an object within one program and embed it into another a genre of games in which you view the world from the perspective of the character.memory allocated to data but no pointer to pointing out MMORPG.Texture element VectorVector graphics.a single time step Game Genre. Linear Interpolation Matrix Memory Leak.Object Oriented Programming Pixel.

Game Play       What is game play? It is a series of interesting choices We are going to defines in terms of challenge and actions Challenge:.In a symmetric game.any task set for the player that is nontrivial to accomplish Action:. Fantasy and imagination play an important role in game Fairness:. all the players play by the same rules and try to achieve the same victory condition Competition and Cooperation ± ± ± ± Two player Multiplayer Team player Single player .players expect that the rules will guarantee that the game is fair Symmetry and asymmetry:.The rules specify what actions the players may take to overcome the challenge and achieve the goal of the game Game Play: ± The challenge that a player must face to arrive at the object of the game ± The actions that the player is permitted to take to address those challenges      This definition lies at the heart of the game.

Different people enjoy different things. game design consists of inventing and documenting the game Most of the games are designed to be entertainment± you cannot be a successful game designer if you create a game in abstract ± you must be an entertainer.How games entertain       At the most elementary level. you should create a game that entertains in a variety of ways Game play is the primary source of the entertainment in all video games Lets list some of types of challenges that we will come across. Physical Coordination Challenges ± ± ± ± Speed and reaction time Accuracy or precision Timing and rhythm Learning combination moves Tetris Need for Speed Dance Dance Revolution Street Fighter Mastermind   Formal Logic Challenges ± Deduction and decoding Pattern Recognition Challenges ± Static pattern Heaven and Earth ± Patterns of movement and change Sonic the Hedgehog  Time pressure ± Beating the clock Frogger ± Achieving something before some one else Indy car racing .

Challenges continues«  Memory and Knowledge Challenges ± ± Trivia Recollection of objects or patterns Identifying spatial relationship Finding keys Finding hidden passages Mazes and illogical spaces Strategy. and logistics Survivals Reduction of enemy forces Defending vulnerable items or units Stealth Accumulating resources or points Establishing efficient production systems Achieving balance of stability in a system Caring for living things String clues from red herrings Detecting hidden meanings Understanding social relationships Lateral thinking Aesthetic success Construction with a functional goal You don¶t know jack Concentration Descent Ultima Doom Zork Warcraft Pac-Man Half-life ICO Thief Civilization The settlers Sim Earth Creatures Law and Order Planescape Facade The Incredible Machine The Sims Mind Rover  Exploration Challenges ± ± ± ±  Conflict ± ± ± ± ±  Economic challenges ± ± ± ±  Conceptual reasoning challenges ± ± ± ±  Creations/Construction Challenges ± ± . tactics.

for themselves.It is Elegance. Other motivations are secondary ‡ The duty to empathize: to design a game that entertains the player.  The player-centric Approach ± Player centric game design is a philosophy of design in which the designer envisions a representative player of a game the designer want to create. not opposing the player.Design Component and Processes   Before we can discuss the process of game design itself. we will talk about how to approach it. and it is the designer¶s obligation to create a game that does so. Misconception 2: the player is my opponent± NO. Is game design an Art or Engineering or Craft? ± Some people think it is art. game design is about entertaining the player. it is engineering because it involves math and technology. the designer must imagine that he is the player and must build the game to meet the player¶s desires and preferences for entertainment Misconception 1: I am my own typical player± designer build video games in effect. Over the years. But some customers may not enjoy it. Other Motivations that Influences design:± ± ± ± Design-driven game License Technology driven Art-driven    . people tried many approaches and some of them is better than others. then accepts two key obligation to that player: ‡ The duty of entertain: a game¶s primary function is to entertain the player. some people thing it is a craft ± Answer:.

so the designer must understand what benefits it brings and exploit them to the game¶s best advantage.Conti. All games fall along between abstract and the representational ± User Interface:Player Output Input User Interface Actions Challenges Core mechanics . so the designer must understand the technology ± A game must be attractive. The quality of the core mechanics is their degree of realism..Design Component and Processes.. so the designer must consider the audience¶s preferences. coherent experience. so the designer must have a vision ± A game must sell well. seamless experience. ± A game must offer an intelligent challenge and a smooth. so the designer must think about its aesthetic style.  The key Components of Video Games:± Core mechanics:.turn general rules of the game into a symbolic and mathematical model that can be implemented algorithmically. ± A game with a license must pay back the license¶s cost. Processes Integrating for Entertainment: ± The game must present an imaginative.

. The user interface must display the space from a visual perspective: a particular camera angle or point of view FYI: Many of the early games were text-based.the relationship between the player¶ s button-presses and the resulting actions is dictated by the game¶s interaction model Perspectives: If a game includes a simulated physical space or game world. designed to be played on a printing terminal attached to a mainframe computer. then it will almost certainly use graphics to display it to the player.Interaction Model PLAYER Output Input Interaction model Perspective Challenges User Interface Game Play Actions Core mechanics     Two essential features of the user interface of a game are its perspective and its interaction model Interaction model:.

Shell menus and Screens:. most games also have several other modes in which the player cannot affect the game world. that is. plus the user interface that presents that subset of the gameplay to the player.consists of the particular subset of game¶s total game play that is available at any one time in the game. . These modes are collectively called shell menus because they are usually experienced before and after playing the game itself. actually playing the game.whenever the player is taking actions that influences the game world. However. a virtually important concept in our approach to game design.Structure of Video Game PLAYER Output Input Interaction model Perspective Game Play Mode User Interface Game Play Challenges Actions Core mechanics    The structure is made up of game play modes. Game Play Mode:. then the game is in a gameplay mode. and shell menus. but can make other changes.

Concept Stage Elaboration Stage Tuning Stage . with repeated play testing and tuning. The concept Stage:. Not all parts of the design process can be revisited. The tuning Stage:.Stages of Design Process     In the 1980¶s games were simpler± they could easily complete the entire design and then code the game. Now games are more complex± it must be designed and constructed in an iterative process. We divide the process into 3 major parts: ± 1. The elaboration which you perform first and whose results do not change ± which you add most of the design details and refine your decisions through prototyping and play-testing ± which point no new features may be added. throughout development. and occasional modifications to the design. but you can make small adjustments to polish the game.

and staff requirements± mainly.The 3 Stage   Before the concept stage.if the game is to have a single main character who is the protagonist (whether or not the interaction model is avatar-based) ± Defining the game world ± Designing the core ± Creating additional modes ± Level Design ± Writing the story ± Build. and figuring out the budget. schedule. producers give green lights for game development The concept stage ± ± ± ± Getting concept Defining an audience Determining the player¶s role Fulfilling the dream  The elaboration Stage ± Defining the primary gameplay Mode ± Designing the protagonist( Hero). and iterate  The Tuning Stage . there is a stage called preproduction stage± it is the planning stage of game development during which a developer is deciding what sort of game to make. testing ideas. Test.

Don¶t¶ design by Committee:. .take the essential components of the game provided by the game designer. cut-scenes and so on ± Art not treat the design work as a democratic process in which each person¶s opinion has equal value. Over the years. ± Game designer:. and the others must acknowledge this person¶s authority.defines and documents how the game actually works.oversees all the visual assets in the game ± Audio director± oversees all the audible assets in the game  FYI:.the user interface.Game Design Teams    A large video game is almost always designed by a team± unlike Hollywood there is no union Game industries job titles and responsibilities are not standardized from one company to another company. back-story.responsible for creating the instructional or fictional content of the game± introductory material. One person must have the authority to make final decisions. dialog.layout of the screen in the various gameplay modes ± Writer:. ± Level designer:. a few roles have evolved: ± Lead designer:. core mechanics and game play and uses those components to design and construct the levels that the player will play through the course of the game ± User Interface designer.the person oversees the overall design of the game and is responsible for making sure that it is complete and coherent.

Broad outline to someone who's¶ already interested in it and wants to hear more about it.4 pages ± main concept± to present to producers.whenever they have eggs in their nests. ± This is what creating design documents is all about.specify the rules of play .not more than 2. ± Flow board:± cross between flow chart and story board± story board is linear ± Story and level progression document:± record the large scale story ± The game script document:. female dragons will not move beyond visual range from the nest.record the design of the characters ± World design document:. Types of design documents ± High concept document:. ± Character design document:. the dragon will abandon any other activity and return to the nest to defend the eggs. She will defend the eggs to her death.Documenting the Design   Why do we need documents? ± Dragons should protect their eggs:. If an enemy approaches within 50 meters of the nest. She will not leave the nest until no enemy is within a 50 meter radius for at least 30 seconds. ± Game Treatment documents:.basis for building all of the art and audio that portray your game world.

Game designer¶s talent and skills  Effective game designer requires a wide base of skills such as ± Imagination:‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Visual and auditory imaginations Dramatic imagination Conceptual imagination Lateral thinking Deduction ± ± ± ± ± ± Technical awareness Analytical competence Mathematical competence Aesthetic Competence General knowledge and ability to research Writing skills ‡ Technical writing ‡ Fiction writing ‡ Dialog writing ± Drawing skills ± The ability to compromise± able to work with others .

you don¶t have to have all the detail worked out yet. Computers can create almost any sort of visual experience you can imagine. More ideas are always better Dreaming the Dream:. and you must be able to answer certain essential questions. movies. and the target audience. The design of a computer game begins with the question ³ What dream am I going to fulfill´? Game Ideas from other Media:. a fleshed-out version of the idea that can be used as the basis for further discussion and development. One idea isn¶t enough. Here we discuss how to make those decisions Getting an Idea:. But larger. It¶s a common misconception that a brilliant game idea will make you a fortune. television and other entertainment media can be great sources of inspiration for game ideas. Lets discuss how to turn your idea into a game concept.A lot of computer games are light entertainment. richer games begin with a can find game idea anywhere but only if you¶re looking for them. but you do need a clear understanding of what your game is about. the player¶s role in it. To do this. ± Cops show inspired the game Interstate 76 ± The Sims was partly inspired by a nonfiction book called A Pattern Language .Books. Creating game concept is what you do in the concept stage of game design. designed to whittle away a few minutes with a puzzle or a simple challenge. about the game itself.Game Concepts        Designing a video game begins with an idea.

 From Idea to Game Concept:. multiplayer« A general summary of how the game will progress from beginning to end A short description of the game world Note:.A two or three sentence description of what the game is about The player¶s role(s) in the game Proposed primary gameplay mode The genre of the game or an explanation of why its gameplay does not fit into any existing genre. and details of any special equipment the game will require The licenses that the game will exploit. a computer game is something that you make for someone else. It gives insight and lets you compare and contrast the features of different games. a publisher will want to see several additional details . A great many people who play computer games want to design them as well. The platform on which the game will run. When you play a lot of games. if any The competition modes that the game will support± single. It should include a minimum of the following points ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±  Game Idea from other Games:- The High concept statement:. You and your development team are entertainers. dual. the game¶s potential competition. you can be pretty certain that a number of people already share your dream.A game concept is a description of a game detailed enough to begin discussing it as a potential commercial product. you develop a sense of how they work and what their good and bad points are.Game Concept  Continue«. the unique selling points (UPS) that will make your game stand out in the market place . Playing games is a valuable experience for a game designer.  Communicating your dream to others: A game dream is fantasy that you have by yourself.In a commercial environment. If your game is in a well-known genre and setting.a piece of software that the public might want to buy. The description of target audience for the game.

romance fiction. How realistic do you want your game to be ± you should have a general idea of whether you want your game to be abstract or representational. to the type of challenges that a game offers. The first step toward turning the idea into a game concept is to answer the question. wouldn't it be fun to play a game set in ancient Rome? It is an already taken idea. what the player will be in the game world.   Defining the Role :± Answer the question. ± Def:. Choosing a Genre:± In describing movie or books. you must know what the player will do. ± Historical fiction. You cannot make a game from a setting or character alone.A genre is a category of games characterized by a particular set of challenges. . genre refers. What is the player is going to do? Be original.what his/her role is. What is the player is going to do? ± It¶s sometime tempting to start thinking about a game in terms of its setting or its characters . ± With video games.The Player¶s Role   To understand your own game and to explain it to others. the genres are independent of the content. regardless of setting or game-world content. however. For example. These are the first questions you face in creating your game concept. the term genre refers to the content of the work. ± In games. spy fiction and so on are genres of popular fiction. and in a sense.

Classic Game Genres  As you flesh out your concept. including military vehicles. and they compromise by including challenges from both. . ± Construction and management games such as Roller Coaster Tycoon primarily offer economic and conceptual challenges ± Adventure Games chiefly provide exploration and puzzle-solving ± Puzzle games offer logic challenges and conceptual challenges almost exclusively.Some games cross genres. and sometimes logistic challenges. and exploration challenges ± Real world simulations include sports games. and vehicle simulations. although occasionally there¶ time pressure or an action element. ± Hybrid Games:. ± Most role-playing games involve tactical. logistical. tactical. combining features not typically found together± this occasionally happens when two people on the design team want the game to belong to different genres. you should consider whether or not it falls into one of the classic video game genres described below ± Action Games include physical challenges ± Strategy Games including strategic.

if you do. so the designer has only to examine his own experience to know how to make a game entertaining. Adults Boys and Girls Players with disabilities Players of other cultures Types of game machines ± ± ± ± ± Home console PC Hand held device Mobile phone and wireless device Other devices . You cannot make game for every one so choose a target audience ± ask the questions like ± who will like this game? What kind of challenge do they like? One group will like it while another group may not like it± this is called binary thinking Reasoning statistics about player groups:. you will produce a game that has too many features and no harmony. --.Defining your target audience            A common conception among game designers is that all players enjoy the same things that the designer survey Strive for inclusiveness not universality ± you cannot make a game that appeals to everyone by throwing in a hodgepodge of features because group A likes some of them and group B likes others. It is between core gamers and casual gamers Men vs. Women Children vs.

are quantitative and can be given numerical values.  Purpose of the game world.  Physical dimension ± Video game worlds are almost always implemented as some sort of simulated physical space. the game is the place they pretend to be ± Not all games have a game world.  The dimensions of a game world: ± A games world is defined by many different properties. such as size of the world. A football game takes place in a real location. Others. such as the world¶s mood. ± Games entertain by several means: gameplay. When the player enters the magic circle and pretends to be somewhere else. an imaginary place in which the events of the game occur. social interaction and so on. are qualitative and can only be described with words. Some. novelty. ± Certain properties are related to one another. The player moves his avatar in and around this space or manipulates other pieces or characters in it. not an imaginary one. and we have characterized these related sets of properties as dimensions of the game world. The physical properties of this space determine a great deal about the gameplay . ± The other purpose of a game¶s world is to sell the fame in the first place.Game World  What is a game world? ± A game world is an artificial universe.

. Mario could run left and right and jump up and down.Game World Continue   Spatial Dimension:. ± 2D± A few years back most of the games had only two dimensions. For example Super Mario Bros.First question you need to ask is how many spatial dimensions your physical space will have The following are the typical dimensionalities found in video games. but he could not move toward the player or away from him.

a-half D´. shows plateaus and lowlands. one above the other.5D ± typically pronounced ³ twoand. a war game. StarCraft. as well as aircraft that pass over obstacles and ground units. This is found in game worlds that appear to be a 3-D space but in reality consists of a series of 2D layers. .Game World Continue  2.

Thanks to 3D hardware accelerators and modeling tools.Three true dimensions. They give the player a much greater sense of being inside a space( building. with a 3D world. With a 2D world.Game World Continue  3D. . cave. or whatever) than 2D spaces ever could. the players feels as if he is looking at it. spacecraft. he feels as if he is in it. 3D spaces are now easier to implement.

create 2 or more 3-D spaces that look similar but offer different experiences as the avatar moves among them. .Game World Continue  4D. In other words.if you want to include a 4th dimension for some reason( not the time dimension) you can implement it as alternate version of the 3D game world rather than an actual four-dimensional space.

as measured in units meaningful in the game world ( meters. for example) and the relative sizes of objects in the game. miles or light years.Game World Continue  Scale:. . we mean both the absolute size of the physical space represented.By scale.

sports games. Because computers don¶t have infinite memory. For example.Game World Continue   Boundaries:. In some cases. the boundaries of a game world arise naturally. the edge of the board constitutes the edge of the game world.In board games. and we don¶t have to disguise or explain them. the physical dimension of a computer game world must have an µ edge¶ as well. . or racing games take place in a stadium or track or road.

4. time in the game world usually runs much faster than in reality ± Time in games also jumps. handles this problem differently. a complex economic simulation. game time usually runs at the same speed as real time. Variable time ± In games that do implement times as a significant element of the gameplay. a tree can grow from sapling to full size in about the same length of time that it takes for an iron foundry to smelt 4 or 5 bars of iron  Letting the player adjust time ± In sports game or vehicle simulations. don¶t bother to implement night time or require soldiers get any rest. ± Another Example ± The Sims. a game about managing a household.  Anomalous Time ± In the Settlers III. 8 times . skipping periods when nothing interesting is happening. In some case you can speed the time by 2. ± Most war games for example.Temporal Dimension   The temporal dimension of a game world defines the way that time is treated in that world and the ways in which it differs from time in the real world.

How game entertain  Anomalous Time ± In the Settlers III. a tree can grow from sapling to full size in about the same length of time that it takes for an iron foundry to smelt 4 or 5 bars of iron . a complex economic simulation.

we are talking about culture in the anthropological sense± Cleopatra: Queen of the Nile .Environmental Dimension   The environmental dimension describes the world¶s appearance and its atmosphere. the environmental dimension is about what¶s in that space. Cultural Context:. We have seen that physical dimension defines the properties of the game¶s space.

The following is from Grim Fandango .Environmental Dimension  Physical Surroundings: defines what the game actually looks like. This is a part of the game design it which it¶s most helpful to be an artist or to work closely with one. In the early stage you don¶t need to make drawings of every single thing that can appear in the game world.

Environmental Dimension  Detail:.that is to say.Every designer must decide how much detail the game world needs. See a scene from Thief II . how richly textured the world will be and how accurately modeled its characteristics will be.

you are defining a visual style for your game that will influence a great many other things as well.Environmental Dimension  Defining a describing how your world is going to look. All of the locations in XIII were rendered in a flat-shaded style .

clothing fashions.Art and architecture. . The source of Inspiration:. books or television.All too often.Environmental Dimension   Over Used Style:. games borrow settings from one another or from common settings found in movies. literature and religion. history and anthropology. and product design are all great sources of cultural materials. Look at the scene from Armies of Exigo. A huge number of games are set in science fiction and fantasy worlds.

more important. the emotions that you.Emotional Dimension  The emotional dimension of a game world defines not only the emotions of the people in the world but. . as a designer feel. See the scene from Final Fantasy VII.

± Players greatly enjoy defining themselves. choosing an avatar that either resembles themselves physically or that is fantasy figure with whom they identify. or unconstrained. ± Female players in particular like to choose or design avatars that resemble them selves and dislike having to play with avatars that they find unappealing. ± Self defining which players present other players with a drama of their own invention.Creative and Expressive Play  We will talk about several types of creative plays that you can build into a game.which players modify the avatar that represents them in the game ± Constrained creative play:.  Self Defining Play:± Many games allow the player to choose an avatar from a number of different ones available and to customize the avatar in various ways. ± Because the avatar represents the player in the game which players may exercise their creativity but only within certain limits ± Freedom. creative play:± Story telling play:. we call these activities self-defining play. .

weapons and armor. choosing every details from a set of available options. clothing. tires and breaks  Avatar construction: ± Give the player the greatest freedom of all. transmissions. . the customizable features may include the paint color of the car and its engine.  Avatar Customization:± Allow the player to modify the appearance or abilities of her avatar by selecting interchangeable features ± In role playing games. It takes several forms Avatar Selection:± allow the player to choose from a number of predefined avatars. usually at the beginning of the game. this often takes the form giving the avatar new skills.SelfSelf. ± In driving games. ± These avatars are most often humanoid characters but in driving and flying games they are vehicles.defining play Continue     Boys and men are more willing to play with default avatar supplied by the game Self-defining play give the player an opportunity to projects his personality into the game world by means other than gameplay choices. he can construct his avatar from the ground up.

which we call cosmetic attributes. which we call functional attributes and those that don¶t affect the gameplay.which define fundamental aspects of a character and change slowly or not at all ‡ Status attributes:. Functional Attributes ± Functional attributes can further divided into ‡ Characterization attributes:.Attributes   The attributes that a player may modify can be divided into those that affect the gameplay. ± Example:.which give the current status of the character and may change frequently.In Dungeons & Dragons± 6 characterization attributes used ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Strength Dexterity Intelligence Wisdom Charisma Constitution ± Each of these attributes affects a character¶s ability to perfom certain actions in the game ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Fight Cast magic spells Charm others Withstand poisons and many other tasks. .

they don¶t have to be tested and balanced as thoroughly a as functional attributes Just be sure that your cosmetic attributes really are cosmetic Typical cosmetic attributes for human characters ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Headgear Clothing Shoes Jewelry Hair color Eye color Skin color And body type and size . to bring his own personal style to the avatar. Cosmetic attributes exist to let the player define himself in the game world. but the player will enjoy the game more if he can choose a color that he likes. cosmetic attributes can play a more important role because other players rely on visual appearances to make decisions.Cosmetic Attributes        Cosmetic attributes don¶t have any effect on the players ability to perform actions or overcome challenges: that is they¶re not part of the core mechanics of the game. The paint color of a racing car has no effect on the car¶s performance characteristics. In multiplayer video games. Cosmetic attributes make a game more fun at a low implementation cost because they don¶t effect the gameplay.

Creative Play        Many games offer the player the chance to design or build something In SimCity.If the game lets the player use all the facilities that it offers without any restrictions on the amount of time or resources available . take screenshots. copy them to other players¶ machine. Computerized creative play falls into 2 categories ± Constrained creative play:.if the player may only create within artificial constraints imposed by the rules. and this kind of play is the main point of construction and management simulations If you offer creative play. it s clothing People enjoy designing and building things. and upload them to websites. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Play limited by an economy± In Simcity you can build entire city Creating to physical standard. you should allow players to save their creations at any time and reload them to continue working on them You should also let players print their creations out. it is a city In Barbie Fashion Design .player gets standard parts to build robot and fight Test against a fixed set of rules that you established Create a system of trends that the player can research Allow public to vote online ± Freedom creative play:.

± Your game¶s original content can keep people interested for only a certain amount of time. people will continue buy your game just to be able to play the mods.Mods bring with some risks.More Information  Storytelling Play ± Some players enjoy creating stories of their redesign it them selves extremely popular with gamer community and ± Game modifications or mods almost an obligatory feature of any large multiplayer networked game ± Providing the player with mod building tools also make good business sense. When you allow players to modify your game. using features provided by a game. but if people can build mods that make use of your game engine.allow player to construct their own levels for a game. Danger of allowing Mods:. you risk the possibility that they will create a mod that includes material you would never use yourself.a bot is an artificially intelligent opponent the the player can program for himself. you can permit them to modify the game itself--. We will talk about level editors more   . Level Editors:.  Bots:. which they can then distribute online for others to read  Game Modifications: ± To give your players the utmost creative freedom with your game.


Goals of this lesson  We have 2 main aims ± To understand the different technical elements that various games and game engines use to create two and three dimensional environments. where. . and how they are best suited. ± To analyze a few of the different styles of level design and when.

± 3D Artwork: Creating modeled details to be placed in the world. ± Logical Programming: Creating planned events for the world.What is level design?  Level design is a multi part sub-field of game design that includes multiple elements: ± Architecture: Creating the 3D worlds the player can move through. . ± 2D Artwork: Creating textures to be applied to surfaces.

and immersiveness. Focuses on many aspects including level layouts. and where much of the work will be done.Architecture    This portion is sometimes referred to as ³mapping´. . 3D environments. This is the most well-known and obvious portion of level design. game-play balancing.

and corridors and pathways between them.Level Layouts A layout of the level should be kept in mind well before any actual mapping takes place. what¶s contained in them.  A basic layout will typically be a sketch of rooms. .

A Sample Layout  This would be a typical layout for a death-match level. .

many things need to be taken into consideration: ± Is this a multiplayer level or a single player level? ± If it is multiplayer: ‡ How many players are going to be in it? ‡ Is it a free for all.Considerations  When creating a layout for a level. or is it team/objective based? .

The layout of the level needs to reflect this in some way. A variety of level design ³elements´ have naturally surfaced over the years that have shown to be successful.Single Player Level Layouts    Most single player levels have a purpose: to tell some sort of a story to the player. ± Bounce ± Loops .

Bounce Layouts A bounce layout is something that simply requires the player to move into an area.  These help to add meaningful ³filler´ to the game by giving the player an objective to accomplish. . then return to the starting position. accomplish a task.

Green Xs represent attacks on the player on the return trip back to the main path. The building has windows so the player is sure he or she accomplished the necessary task. The red Xs represent attacks on the player on the way too the switch.A Bounce Example     The player must enter a building off the main path in order to open a gate. .

.  Key difference is that the player does not have to backtrack.Loop Layouts A loop design layout is very similar to a bounce design. ± Reaching the end of the secondary path allows the player to continue with the primary path immediately.

The grey line represents a cliff the player can jump down from after opening the gate. .A Loop Example   The player must once again open a gate.

.  Atmosphere ± Since the game most likely has some sort of story setting.Other Notes on Single Player Design  Freedom versus Constraint ± Single player levels should offer the illusion of freedom to the player. the atmosphere of the level must reflect that. but actually limit what he or she can do.

± Often level designers will start their careers doing multiplayer levels.  Though there are very few restrictions. . a number of multiplayer level theories have evolved.Multiplayer Level Layouts  Multiplayer levels can be much less restricting for the designer.

Types of Multiplayer Levels  Free for all levels: ± These are most likely going to be death-match oriented  Team based levels: ± Team Death-Match ± Zone Control Based ± Capture the Flag ± Push ± Objective Based .

Levels must include locations for players to start and respawn when killed. Layouts are often small and contain few rooms. Overall shape of the level may be circular as opposed to linear or star-like. Game play is meant to be fast and closequartered.DeathDeath-Match Levels      Often designed to keep players around other players.Players being killed as soon as they spawn. ± These areas should offer some level of protection in order to prevent ³telefragging´ ‡ Telefragging . .

 Green Xs represent spawn locations.  Red Xs represent power-up locations.  ± ± ± ± Health Armor Weapons Ability Boosters .A Typical Death-Match Level DeathCapable of supporting eight players.

zone control.Team Based Levels  Players are divided into two or more teams. and objective) are symmetrical.  Goal is to defeat the other team in some way.  Most team based levels (except team death-match. ± Symmetry guarantees level balance ± Also lessens map design time .

Team Death-Match Death Exactly the same as standard deathmatch games except the players are assigned to a team. . ± Must attack players from the other team and assist players from your own.  Team death-match and standard death-match games can often share the same levels.

 The level layout need not be symmetrical. ‡ Game could also end on a pre-defined score.  Teams gain points for holding a certain area of the level. ± A team wins when the other team has no ability to spawn. ‡ Could also be timed. . its players can not respawn.  Players can only respawn at a zone their team controls.Zone Control Players are split into teams.  ± When a team controls no zones.

± This is where a player must be to take control of the zone for his team.A Sample Zone Control Map  Red Xs represent the actual capture points of the zone.  Green Xs represent spawn locations for their respective zones. .

and return it back to your own flag. pickup their flag. identical to the other team¶s.Capture the Flag   Possibly the most common and well known type of team based game. . Each team has its own half of the map. ± Only exception to this would be the colors to denote which side is which.  Goal is to infiltrate the other team¶s half of the level. even outside of video games.

± Often. and communication.A Sample Capture the Flag Map    Red Xs represent the locations of each team¶s flag and where a player must return the opposing team¶s flag to. and must rely on teammates. Green Xs represent possible spawn locations. defense. if a player is carrying the opponent¶s flag. . Capture the flag is relies very strongly on teamwork. he or she will not be allowed to use a weapon and will be defenseless.

Each team starts on opposing ends of a very linear layout. . ± Teams must take control of the points in order and eventually capture the opposing team¶s home point. Control points are placed throughout the level.Push Levels    These levels are often (but not always) symmetrical.

3 2 1 . This design often creates ³fronts´. ± The top team must capture in the order: 5 4 3 2 1 ± The bottom team must capture in the order: 1 2 3 45 5 4   Points cannot be captured out of order.A Sample Push Level  Red Xs represent points of control. a location where opposing teams meet repeatedly until one team is able to ³push´ the other player back.

Objective Based  One team is defending while the other team attacks.  Similar to Push.  Attackers must accomplish certain tasks to progress through the level. but the defending team is unable to push back. .  Often based on a time limit.

Attackers Initial Spawn .A Sample Objective Level  Red Xs represent a switch that must be thrown to open the associated gate. ± Initially. ± Once the attackers break through. the defenders spawn behind the gate. Final Objective  Green Xs represent spawn locations. they then take control of that location. ‡ Attackers always spawn as far forward as possible to save them time. ± The X at the top represents the final objective.

± ± ± ± ± ± ± Walls Floors Ceilings Grass Skies Roads Cement . Creation of all artistic surfaces (textures) that can be placed within a level.2D Artwork    While not as obvious as architecture. but they rely very heavily on the mapping team for feedback and suggestions. this is just as important. Often performed by the art team.

± Do not make something too specific.Principals of 2D Artwork  In order to have an efficient 2D artwork creation process. it is not worth its own file size. . ‡ If it can only be used in a very limited number of places. some principals should be adhered to. ‡ Each texture should be able to have multiple uses.

but not identical. ± Allows level designers to build a room with a similar style. then duplicate it with slight differences.  Example: ± ± ± ± A cinder block wall A cinder block wall with a rust stain A cinder block wall with a window A cinder block wall with an electrical outlet .Principals of 2D Artwork  Variations are very useful. ± Create a texture.

± Very useful for walls. floors. and ceilings. ± Level designers need to be able to place a texture.Principals of 2D Artwork  Textures MUST be tileable. then there will be a sharp line where one edge of the texture ends and another begins. There are some exceptions to this rule.   If it is not tileable. then have it repeat seamlessly. but not very many. .

Applying Textures to Levels  Level designers should have a clear idea of how they want a room or area to look before they start building architecture and texturing surfaces. ± Concept art can be helpful (from the art team). . and a glass ceiling would not be an attractive combination.  The room should have a distinct style. shag carpets. ± Cinder block walls.

± Not always easy to accomplish.Applying Textures to Levels  Textures should be well aligned. . ± Some level design software is better at this than others. the textures should flow smoothly. ± When two walls meet.

It would be incredibly difficult. visually unappealing. .3D Art Assets    Many modern computer and video games rely on extra detail to make the level look more visually appealing. Games now have the ability to import 3D Models into the level as detail artwork. and very inefficient for most game engines if every piece of detail was created as standard level architecture.

Examples  Any type of furniture  Statues  Artwork in game (statues. paintings«)  Railings  Trees and bushes  Lights and lamps .

.  Some must be properly aligned to the architecture. ± A railing must be properly aligned to the stairs it is connected to.Using 3D Art in Levels  Knowing how to effectively use 3D artwork is important. ± A ceiling light or chandelier needs to be attached to the ceiling.

Communicating with the Art Team   Level designers need to be able to effectively communicate with the art team what art assets they require. . as well as what sort of environment the model is going to be placed in. ± Allows the artists to see exactly what the designer wants. then sketch the type of detail needed over top. One popular and effective way to do this is to take a screenshot of an area needing art.

Many multiplayer games rely on entities to control the game. ± ± ± ± Spawn locations Locations of flags in capture the flag Control points for zones Scripted sequences for objective games . Planning scripted events is the job of the level designer of that area.Logical Programming     Level designers should have at least some very basic knowledge of programming. Modern games (especially single player) heavily rely on scripted events.

Lights turning on with switches. electricity. . An enemy spawning when the player enters an area.Examples of Scripted Events       A gate opening up. Non-Player-Characters (NPCs) delivering dialog or performing animations on cue. A player being hurt or killed when entering an area (fire. radiation). Defining where and how the enemy can move.

.Entities  Most game engines use something called an ³entity´ to define these scripted events. ± Some engines may have different names.  An entity is basically an object with parameters and the ability to affect other entities and the player.

 Key Values ± These are the parameters. blast. fall. radiation. energybeam. crush. the amount of damage dealt ± damagetype ± Choices include: generic. slash. shock. drown. poison. sonic. nervegas. paralyze. slowfreeze ± damagemodel ± Option of doubling the amount of damage dealt each half second or not .An Example Entity: trigger_hurt (from Half-Life 2) Halftrigger_hurt is a volume of space in the level that takes away an amount of the players health if he or she passes through it. bullet. freeze. chemical. slowburn. club. drownrecover.  ± targetname ± What other entities use when communicating with it ± StartDisabled ± True or False ± damage ± A number. burn.

An Example Entity: trigger_hurt (from Half-Life 2) Half Flags ± These can all be set to true or false by the level designer. ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Applies Applies Applies Applies Applies Applies Applies Applies Applies to Clients (players) to NPCs to Pushables to Physics Objects to Player Ally NPCs to Clients in Vehicles to Everything to Clients not in Vehicles to Physics Debris .

± Kill ± Removes the entity from the world ± Enable ± Enables the entity ± Disable ± Disables the entity ± Toggle ± Toggles the enabled/disabled state ± SetDamage ± Changes the amount of damage dealt .An Example Entity: trigger_hurt (From Half-Life 2) Half Inputs ± Commands other entities can send to it.

± OnStartTouch ± Sends a command when something starts entering the trigger_hurt volume. ± OnHurtPlayer ± Sends a command when this entity does damage to the player.An Example Entity: trigger_hurt (From Half-Life 2) Half Outputs ± These are events that can cause this entity to send a command to another entity. . ± OnHurt ± Sends a command when this entity does damage to something. ± OnEndTouch ± Sends a command when something leaves the trigger_hurt volume.

The bridge could be configured to then break apart when it is attacked. ± A trigger on a bridge could send a command to a group of NPCs to attack the bridge when the player is on it. ± An NPC can send a command to an entity to spawn a new NPC if it is killed by the player. ± A trigger sends a command to an NPC to attack the player when he or she enters an area.Entities Working Together Entities can be used to create complex scripted sequences for the game. .  Examples:  ± A trigger sends a command to turn on a light when the player enters the room. ± A switch can be used to send a command to a gate to open or a door to unlock.

± Some also allow the level designers to specify weights and other physical properties of each object in the world. and other entities that can all work together. pulleys.Miscellaneous Notes  Many modern games now include complex physics. . these are configured within the level editor as entities. Often. ± Some games allow for the creation of ropes. motors.

± In most cases. and how much damage is required to destroy it.Miscellaneous Notes  Some game engines allow terrain to be destroyable. . this is pre-configured within the level editor. how it will be destroyer. ± The level designer can use this element to make the level more interesting. ‡ The level designer chooses what the player can destroy.

Miscellaneous Notes  A relatively new field of research in game design is something called Procedural Content Generation. ‡ Some would most likely still be required for complex cinematic sequences that are integral to a game¶s story. ± Has the potential to one day eliminate the need for most level designers. . no company has created a generator capable of building a complete level. ± Currently. ± Uses algorithms to create content rather than actual designers.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful