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CONSTRUCTING TEXT:

ACHIEVING COHERENCE
DEFINING TEXT

• BEFORE PLUNGING INTO TEXT CONSTRUCTION, IT WOULD BE USEFUL TO REFLECT ON THE


NOTION OF TEXT:
• IN LINGUISTICS, THE WORD “TEXT” REFERS TO ANY PASSAGE, SPOKEN OR WRITTEN, OF WHATEVER
LENGTH, THAT FORMS A UNIFIED (OR COHERENT) WHOLE.

• IN OTHER WORDS, ANY SPEAKER OF ENGLISH WHO READS OR HEARS A PASSAGE WHICH IS
MORE THAN ONE SENTENCE IN LENGTH, IS ABLE TO UNDERSTAND WHETHER IT FORMS A
UNIFIED WHOLE OR WHETHER IT IS JUST A COLLECTION OF UNRELATED SENTENCES.
TEXTURE
• AS TEXTS ARE BEST REGARDED AS SEMANTIC UNITS (UNITS OF MEANING), THE CONCEPT OF
TEXTURE IS APPROPRIATE TO EXPRESS THE PROPERTY OF “BEING A TEXT”. TEXTURE COULD
REFER TO THOSE TEXTUAL FEATURES SUCH AS CONJUNCTIONS, CONNECTIVITY, SPECIFICITY, TOPIC
AND TOPIC SHIFT. IT MAKES THE PHYSICAL TEXT SEEM TO BE A TEXT
• ALL TEXTS HAVE TEXTURE, AND THIS IS WHAT DISTINGUISHES THEM FROM WHAT IS NOT A TEXT.
SO, IF A PASSAGE IN ENGLISH CONTAINING MORE THAN ONE SENTENCE IS PERCEIVED AS A TEXT,
IT MEANS THAT IT HAS SOME LINGUISTIC FEATURES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO ITS SEMANTIC UNIT
GIVING IT TEXTURE.
• WE ARE NOW GOING TO EXPLORE ALL THE RESOURCES THAT THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE HAS FOR
CREATING TEXTURE BUT FIRST, LET’S LOOK AT SOME BASIC ELEMENTS OF DISCOURSE.
DISCOURSE

DISCOURSE IS A COMMUNICATIVE PROCESS RESULTING IN A COMMUNICATIVE ACT REALIZED


AS A TEXT.
o A TEXT BY THE WAY, IS ANY WRITTEN, SPOKEN OR SIGNED COHERENT PIECE OF
COMMUNICATION AS MENTIONED EARLIER.
FEATURES OF DISCOURSE

Text

Language

Context

appropriateness grammaticality acceptability


FEATURES OF A TEXT

• WHEN GENRE AND REGISTER ARE MATCHED IN AN EFFECTIVE WAY FOR THE INTENDED
PURPOSE, THE RESULTING TEXT IS LIKELY TO BE HIGHLY ACCEPTABLE
• NOTE, HOWEVER, THAT NO TEXT- WRITTEN, SPOKEN, SIGNED OR OTHERWISE
COMMUNICATED-IS EVER DEVOID OF CONTEXT.
• CONTEXT IS THE BACKGROUND AGAINST WHICH A TEXT APPEARS AND FROM WHICH IT IS
PRODUCED. CONTEXT THEREFORE CAN BE EITHER CULTURAL OR SITUATIONAL.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACCEPTABILITY AND DISCOURSE

• DIFFERENT DEGREES OF ACCEPTABILITY OR UNACCEPTABILITY RESULT FROM COMBINING


DIFFERENT DEGREES OF APPROPRIATENESS OR INAPPROPRIATENESS WITH DIFFERENT DEGREES
OF GRAMMATICALITY OR UNGRAMMATICALITY.
• WHEN PERCEIVED BY THE READER OR HEARER OF A TEXT, THESE VARYING COMBINATIONS
TRANSLATE INTO JUDGMENTS OF RELATIVE ACCEPTABILITY OR LACK OF ACCEPTABILITY.
ACCEPTABILITY

• ACCEPTABILITY IS A FUNCTION OF APPROPRIATENESS (CONTEXT)


AND GRAMMATICALITY (USAGE)
• YOU DRAW ON CONTEXT AND LANGUAGE TO CREATE TEXT.
• WITHIN EVERY CULTURE CERTAIN STANDARDS OF TEXT,
WHETHER SPOKEN OR WRITTEN, ARE CONSIDERED BY THE
MAJORITY OF READERS OR HEARERS TO BE ACCEPTABLE.
• SO ANY TEXT THAT WE CREATE MUST MEET THIS BASIC
REQUIREMENT.
REGISTER

• APPROPRIATE FORM OF TEXT (GENRE) IN TURN SPECIFIES A CERTAIN KIND OF LANGUAGE


ACCEPTABILITY OR GRAMMATICALITY I.E. THE REGISTER OF THE TEXT.
WHY WRITE?
• IDEAS ARE WHAT DRIVE BUSINESS SUCCESS. BEING ABLE TO COMMUNICATE
OUR IDEAS THROUGH WRITING IS A CRITICAL SKILL SINCE COMMUNICATION IS
THE LIFEBLOOD OF ANY VIABLE ORGANIZATION.
• IN BUSINESS, IN THE WORKPLACE, AND IN OUR PERSONAL LIVES, WE ALL STAND
TO BENEFIT FROM MORE EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS NOT LESS. AND SO,
WRITING IS ESSENTIAL TO COMMUNICATE OUR MESSAGE AS CLEARLY AND
PROFESSIONALLY AS POSSIBLE AND TO INCITE ACTION IN THOSE WE SUPERVISE,
WORK WITH AND REQUIRE ACTION FROM.
• MANY IN THE WORKPLACE TODAY, HOWEVER, STRUGGLE WITH THE BASICS OF
WRITING INCLUDING GRAMMAR, SPELLING AND PUNCTUATION AND THIS CAN
HOLD THEM BACK AND DIMINISH THEIR CAREER PROSPECTS.
• THE STYLE AND SKILLS REQUIRED FOR FORMAL BUSINESS/WORKPLACE WRITING
FORMS OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

• LET’S THINK FOR A MINUTE ABOUT HOW MUCH TIME IN A DAY WE SPEND WRITING BE IT
FORMAL OR INFORMAL BITS OF WRITING. THESE MAY INCLUDE THE REPORTS, LETTERS, AND
PRESENTATIONS WE PREPARE, AND ALL THE EMAILS WE WRITE AND THE MEMOS WE SEND
OUT AS WELL.
• EVERY PIECE OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION IS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR US TO MAKE AN
IMPRESSION. THAT IMPRESSION CAN BE POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE, AND MUCH OF THAT
DEPENDS ON HOW EFFECTIVELY WE COMMUNICATE.
THE TWO MAIN PARTS
• EFFECTIVE WRITTEN COMMUNICATION COMES DOWN TO TWO MAIN ELEMENTS:

• THE QUALITY OF YOUR MESSAGE, AND


• THE QUALITY OF YOUR WRITING.

• THE BETTER WE ARE AT CONNECTING WITH OUR AUDIENCE, THE BETTER OUR IDEAS WILL BE
RECEIVED. THE BETTER WE ARE AT WRITING, THE CLEARER OUR MESSAGE WILL BE.
• THESE TWO ELEMENTS WORK IN HARMONY. NEGLECT ONE, AND A POOR IMPRESSION OF BOTH
IS GIVEN.
• FOR EXAMPLE, A MEMO WITH AN INFORMATIVE MESSAGE WILL DISTRACT AND LOSE VALUE IF IT
IS RIDDLED WITH SPELLING AND GRAMMAR MISTAKES. LIKEWISE, A REPORT WRITTEN BY AN
ENGLISH PROFESSOR WILL FAIL TO IMPRESS ANYONE IF IT HAS LITTLE SUBSTANCE.
• GOOD WRITING USUALLY TRANSLATES TO GOOD BUSINESS AND OR RADIANT PROFESSIONAL
IMAGE.
THE RHETORICAL TRIANGLE
Writer’s purpose, which the Context of the message,
writer should not veer from which must be clearly
understood

Three sides
to a Text

Audience’s needs, which the writer must


stick to
PARAGRAPHS AS TEXTUAL UNITS

• BY THE WAY, A TEXT BY DEFINITION IS A UNIFIED WHOLE NOT A CHUNK OF RANDOMIZED


SENTENCES. THE FOLLOWING SLIDES HIGHLIGHT TEXT FORMATION USING PARAGRAPHS.
WHERE DO WE GET PARAGRAPHS?

 PARAGRAPHS ARE DERIVED FROM MAIN POINTS OF THE THESIS STATEMENT.


 EACH MAIN POINT DEVELOPS A DIFFERENT ASPECT OF THE TOPIC OF THE ESSAY IN SEPARATE
SECTIONS OF THE ESSAY CALLED A PARAGRAPH.
 NOW LET’S LOOK AT THE THESIS STATEMENT AGAIN FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF BOTH
ESSAY AND PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE.
 WHAT IS A THESIS STATEMENT?
 A THESIS STATEMENT IS A SENTENCE OUTLINE OF YOUR TOPIC. IT SUMMARIZES YOUR ENTIRE
PAPER/ESSAY BY STATING THE TOPIC, THE MAIN POINTS AND THE ORDER IN WHICH THE POINTS
WILL BE DISCUSSED. IT’S THE ORGANIZATIONAL KEY TO YOUR PAPER

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FORMULA FOR A THESIS STATEMENT
 FORMULA FOR CONSTRUCTING THESIS STATEMENTS
 S CONSISTS OF I, II, AND III…….
 (SUBJECT) (LINK) (MAIN POINTS)

 SPECIFIC THESIS STATEMENT


 TOPIC OF THE PAPER PARTS OF TOPIC
I II III
 THE MAIN CAUSES OF DIVORCE IN SEREKUNDA ARE INFIDELITY, POVERTY AND INFERTILITY.

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THESIS WRITING
 TO FORMULATE A THESIS STATEMENT, SIMPLY COMBINE TOPIC WITH THE
THREE MAIN IDEAS TO FORM A SENTENCE. SEE BELOW:

 TOPIC – DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF TV ON CHILDREN
 MAIN IDEAS – IMPEDES IMAGINATION, INHIBITS CREATIVITY AND DISTORTS WORLD
VIEW

 THESIS STATEMENT:
 SOME DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF TV ON CHILDREN ARE IT IMPEDES IMAGINATION,
INHIBITS CREATIVITY AND DISTORTS WORLD VIEW.

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ADDITIONAL THESIS STATEMENTS
 CIGARETTE SMOKING IS EXPENSIVE, DISGUSTING AND UNHEALTHY.
 YOUR REQUIREMENTS SEEM TO CLOSELY PARALLEL MY WORK EXPERIENCE,
ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS AND PERSONAL PLANS.
 KHULA, LIAN AND TALAQ ARE THE THREE KINDS OF DIVORCE IN ISLAM.
 THE THREE MAIN CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I ARE MILITARISM, IMPERIALISM AND
NATIONALISM.
 HIGH MOBILE PHONE USE CAN LEAD TO CHRONIC PAIN, VISION PROBLEM AND
IMPAIRED CONCENTRATION.
 BLOOD PRESSURE IS DIVIDED INTO THREE MAIN CATEGORIES: HYPOTENSION,
NORMAL AND HYPERTENSION.
 DISORIENTATION, DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY ARE IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF
MARIJUANA SMOKING.

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THE PARAGRAPH

 PARTS OF A PARAGRAPH:
o TOPIC SENTENCE
 INTRODUCES THE MAIN IDEA OF PARAGRAPH
o SUPPORT AND DEVELOPMENT
 PROVIDE SPECIFIC DETAILS TO EXPLAIN, MAKE VIVID, INTERESTING AND UNIQUE
o CONCLUSION
 MAKES YOUR POINT AGAIN, TRANSITIONS TO NEXT PARAGRAPH.

 FEATURES:
o UNITY
 EVERY SENTENCE SUPPORTS THE MAIN POINT
o COHESION
 CONNECTS TOGETHER SPECIFIC EVIDENCE SUPPORTING THE PARAGRAPH USING
COHESIVE DEVICES.
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CONSTRUCTING PARAGRAPHS

 IN GENERAL, THE PURPOSE OF A PARAGRAPH IS TO EXPRESS ONE POINT, IDEA OR OPINION.

 THIS MAIN IDEA IS EXPRESSED THROUGH THREE SECTIONS/ PARTS OF A PARAGRAPH:

 BEGINNING(TOPIC SENTENCE), WHICH INTRODUCES YOUR MAIN IDEA.

 MIDDLE (SUPPORTING SENTENCES), WHICH EXPLAINS YOUR IDEA.

 END (CONCLUSION) WHICH MAKES YOUR POINT AGAIN, TRANSITIONS TO NEXT PARAGRAPH.

 ON THE NEXT SLIDE IS A PARAGRAPH TAKEN FROM AN ESSAY ON SOME CAUSES OF DIVORCE IN SEREKUNDA:

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SAMPLE PARAGRAPHS I
• ONE MARITAL PROBLEM, WHICH OFTEN LEADS TO A BREAKDOWN, IS
INFIDELITY. FROM DAY ONE OF THE UNION, EACH MARITAL PARTNER HAS
GREAT EXPECTATIONS OF LOYALTY FROM THE OTHER AS SYMBOLIZED BY THE
EXCHANGE OF RINGS IN THE CHRISTIAN TRADITION AND IN OTHER WAYS IN
THE MUSLIM. SIGNIFICANTLY, BOTH WAYS UNQUESTIONABLY DEMAND FIDELITY
FROM THE SPOUSE IN THEIR RELATIONSHIP. THIS INCLUDES CONTROLLING
ONESELF FROM HAVING ANY ILLEGAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH SOMEONE OTHER
THAN ONE’S MARITAL PARTNER. FAITHFULNESS IS THEREFORE AN
INDISPENSABLE THREAD IN MARRIAGE SINCE VERY FEW IF ANY WOULD LIKE TO
SHARE THEIR LOVED ONE WITH OTHERS. INFIDELITY THUS UNDERMINES MUTUAL
TRUST, WHICH IN TURN GNAWS AWAY AT THE VERY FABRIC OF MARRIAGE.
FOR EXAMPLE, IT RAISES PERPETUAL QUESTIONS OVER PATERNITY. BUT EVEN
MORE DISTURBING IS THE FACT THAT IT GIVES PROMINENCE TO THE FEARS OF
VENEREAL DISEASES SUCH AS SYPHILIS, GONORRHOEA OR HIV. THE COMING
TOGETHER OF THESE FEARS OFTEN EXERTS ENORMOUS PRESSURES ON
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SAMPLE PARAGRAPH II

 ANOTHER MARITAL PROBLEM, WHICH EXERTS HEAVY PRESSURE ON THE


VIABILITY OF MARRIAGE, IS POVERTY. VERY FEW MARRIAGES, PARTICULARLY IN
THE URBAN AREAS, PROSPER IN THE PRESENCE OF PERSISTENT POVERTY. THIS IS
THE CASE PRIMARILY BECAUSE MONEY IN THE POCKET IS WHAT MAINTAINS
FAMILIES IN TOWNS NOT THE HARVEST. GIVEN THE FACT THAT HUSBANDS ARE
TRADITIONALLY EXPECTED TO PROVIDE BASIC NEEDS SUCH AS FOOD, SHELTER
AND CLOTHING FOR THEIR WIVES AND CHILDREN, IF THEY FAIL TO DO SO, THE
MARRIAGE IS VERY LIKELY TO BE IN TROUBLE. THIS IS MORE SO IF A WIFE IS NOT
IN PAID EMPLOYMENT OR ENGAGED IN INCOME GENERATING VENTURES SUCH
AS PETTY TRADE. THE FAMILY, IT MUST BE REMEMBERED IS NOT ONLY A
CONJUGAL UNIT, BUT ALSO AN ECONOMIC UNIT. SO, IF MONEY STOPS
FLOWING INTO IT TO RUN IT WELL, IT BECOMES DYSFUNCTIONAL. THE
HUSBAND’S AUTHORITY GRADUALLY ERODES AWAY AS MEAL TIMES COME AND
GO WITHOUT ANY MEAL. FRUSTRATION BUILDS UP AND IT TAKES ONLY ONE
FALSE STEP TO WRECK THE RELATIONSHIP EACH GOING SEPARATE WAYS.
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PARAGRAPH UNITY

o THE BASIC RULE IS EVERY SENTENCE IN A PARAGRAPH MUST REFER TO AND


SUPPORT THE MAIN IDEA IN TOPIC SENTENCE. IF THERE IS ANY SENTENCE
THAT DOES NOT, DISUNITY IS CREATED

o CHECK WHETHER YOU WILL SPOT THE ODD SENTENCE IN THE PARAGRAPH
ON THE NEXT SLIDE:

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SAMPLE PARAGRAPH III
 IN PULAAR, IT IS SAID THAT RAIN DOES BEAT LEOPARDS BUT DOES NOT WASH AWAY THEIR SPOTS.
LIKEWISE, NO MATTER HOW MANY DEGREES A GAMBIAN APPEARS TO POSSESS, HE/ SHE CAN
HARDLY FREE HIM/HERSELF FROM THE CONTROL OF AN OLD MAN IN A COBWEB COVERED HUT
SOMEWHERE IN THE BUSH. THIS OLD MAN TELLS THE INTELLECTUALS HOW TO ENTER THEIR OFFICES;
WHO TO SPEAK WITH OR HOW TO CARRY OUT THEIR FUNCTIONS. CLEARLY, INTELLECTUALS THAT
IMBIBE SUCH MARABOU POWER CANNOT USHER IN CULTURAL PROGRESS. TRIBALISM IS A TERRIBLE
THING AS WELL. INSTEAD OF EXPOSING THE MARABOUS AS MAINLY SPIRITUAL FRAUDSTERS, THEY
HAVE BECOME THEIR GREATEST CUSTOMERS. AS A RESULT, IN TOWN TODAY, GOD HARDLY DOES
ANYTHING ANYMORE; PROMOTIONS AND DISMISSALS, OR MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ALL ARE
CONTRIVED BY MARABOU ENERGY. NOTHING HAPPENS BY MEANS OF SHEER HARD WORK, HONESTY
OR MERIT ALONE. IT DOES ONLY WITH MARABOU INTERVENTION. SINCE MARABOUS THRIVE ON
EITHER INTRIGUE MAKING OR STOKING UP FEARS OF THE OMNIPRESENCE OF EVIL SPIRITS AND
DEADLY ENEMIES ONE WOULD HAVE THOUGHT THAT OUR INTELLECTUALS WOULD LEAD THE WAY TO
OUR COLLECTIVE FREEDOM. THAT IS YET TO HAPPEN, THOUGH, SINCE MANY OF THEM ARE BUSY
EXHIBITING TRINKETS OF ENSLAVEMENT. WITHOUT DOUBT, IF YOU FREQUENTLY INTERACT WITH THESE
INTELLECTUALS, YOU WILL SEE JUJUS BULGING OUT OF THEIR GARMENTS; SEE IMPREGNATED RINGS
WEIGHING DOWN THEIR FINGERS OR BECOME ENSHROUDED IN THE SMOTHERING ODOR OF
‘SAFARA’, SPIRITUAL WATER. IN MANDINKA, IT IS SAID THAT DRUMMING AND SCRATCHING OF THE
BUTTOCKS ARE INCOMPATIBLE; SO ONE CANNOT BE RATIONAL AND IRRATIONAL AT THE SAME TIME.
OUR INTELLECTUALS MUST CHOOSE THE WORLD THEY MOST CLOSELY IDENTIFY WITH.
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TRANSITION WORDS
• DEFINITION: TRANSITION WORDS SIGNAL THE DIRECTION OF A WRITER’S
THOUGHT AND GIVE CONNECTION TO THE TEXT. OTHER WORDS SUCH
AS REPEATED WORDS, PRONOUNS, SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS ALSO
CONNECT PIECES OF TEXT TOGETHER.
• BY AND LARGE, TRANSITIONS DO THREE THINGS:

o HELP THE READER EASILY AND SMOOTHLY FOLLOW YOU FROM ONE IDEA TO
THE NEXT THROUGHOUT THE PAPER.

o SHOW THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FACTS (MAIN IDEAS) AND THE
SUPPORTING IDEAS CAUSING A PARAGRAPH OR PAPER HANG TOGETHER.

o SIGNAL THE WRAP-UP SHOWING THE PAPER IS COMING TO A CLOSE.


COMMON TRANSITIONS
• HERE ARE SOME COMMON TRANSITIONS YOU CAN USE TO KEEP YOUR
READER ON TRACK:
o TO SHOW TIME RELATION: FIRST, SECOND, NEXT, BEFORE, DURING, AFTER, NOW,
THEN, FINALLY, LAST
o TO ADD AN IDEA OR EXAMPLE: IN ADDITION, ALSO, ANOTHER, FURTHERMORE,
SIMILARLY, FOR EXAMPLE, FOR INSTANCE
o TO SHOW CONTRAST: ALTHOUGH, BUT, HOWEVER, INSTEAD, NEVERTHELESS,
ON THE OTHER HAND, IN CONTRAST, ON THE CONTRARY
o TO SHOW A CAUSE-EFFECT RELATION: AS A RESULT, CONSEQUENTLY, BECAUSE,
SINCE, THEREFORE, SO, THUS
o SEE HANDOUT ON TRANSITIONS FOR MORE INFORMATION.
SAMPLE PARAGRAPH IV
• HERE IS A PARAGRAPH WITH ADEQUATE DEVELOPMENT BUT NO
TRANSITIONS:
– THERE ARE MANY REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD NOT SMOKE. SMOKING IS
HARMFUL TO YOUR LUNGS AND HEART. IT IS ANNOYING AND DANGEROUS
TO THOSE AROUND YOU WHO DO NOT SMOKE. IT IS AN UNATTRACTIVE
AND DIRTY HABIT. IT IS DIFFICULT TO QUIT SMOKING. MOST WORTHWHILE
THINGS IN LIFE ARE HARD TO ACHIEVE.

– NOT VERY EASY TO READ, IS IT? READERS ARE JERKED ABRUPTLY FROM POINT
TO POINT UNTIL THEY REACH THE END. THE IDEAS MAY BE THERE BUT NO ONE
KNOWS HOW THEY FIT TOGETHER.
SAMPLE PARAGRAPH
• NOW READ THE SAME PARAGRAPH WITH THE TRANSITIONS ADDED:
– THERE ARE MANY REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD NOT SMOKE: AMONG THEM,
THREE STANDOUT AS THE MOST PERSUASIVE. FIRST, SMOKING IS HARMFUL TO
YOUR LUNGS AND HEART. SECOND, IT IS ANNOYING AND DANGEROUS TO
THOSE AROUND YOU WHO DO NOT SMOKE. IN ADDITION TO THESE
COMPELLING FACTS, SMOKING IS AN UNATTRACTIVE AND DIRTY HABIT. ON THE
OTHER HAND, ONCE YOU BEGIN, IT IS AWFULLY DIFFICULT TO QUIT; BUT THEN,
MOST WORTHWHILE THINGS IN LIFE ARE HARD TO ACHIEVE. SO TO BE SMOKE
FREE, YOU HAVE TO PERSEVERE.

– HERE READERS ARE GENTLY GUIDED FROM ONE POINT TO THE NEXT. THEY
KNOW NOT ONLY WHAT IDEAS THE WRITER HAD IN MIND BUT ALSO HOW THEY
FIT TOGETHER.
EDITING PARAGRAPHS
 WHAT IS THE THIRD STAGE OF WRITING?
◦ THE EDITING STAGE IS WHEN YOU CHECK YOUR PARAGRAPHS FOR MISTAKES AND CORRECT THEM.

 GRAMMAR AND SPELLING


◦ CHECK YOUR SPELLING.
◦ CHECK YOUR GRAMMAR.
◦ READ YOUR PARAGRAPH(S) AGAIN.
◦ MAKE SURE EACH SENTENCE HAS A SUBJECT.
◦ SEE IF YOUR SUBJECTS AND VERBS AGREE WITH EACH OTHER.
◦ CHECK THE VERB TENSE OF EACH SENTENCE FOR CONSISTENCY.
◦ MAKE SURE THAT EACH SENTENCE MAKES SENSE.

 CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION


◦ MAKE SURE YOUR PARAGRAPH HAS A TOPIC SENTENCE.
◦ MAKE SURE YOUR SUPPORTING SENTENCES FOCUS ON THE MAIN IDEA.
◦ CHECK THAT ALL YOUR SENTENCES FOCUS ON THE MAIN IDEA.
◦ MAKE SURE YOU HAVE SUFFICIENT SUPPORTING DETAIL.
◦ MAKE SURE EVERY SENTENCE IN THE PARAGRAPH IS RELATED / LINKED TO ANOTHER.
◦ SEE IF YOUR PARAGRAPH IS INTERESTING.
◦ RE-WRITE. 17/02/2018 29
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION
• IN ANY AND EVERY ORGANIZATION, INFORMATION FLOW IS THE LIFEBLOOD OF
BUSINESS. THIS USUALLY CREATES CLARITY AND CLOSES CHANNELS FOR AMBIGUITY AND
INTRIGUE MAKING (GRAPEVINE) OFTEN GENERATED BY LACK OF TIMELY
COMMUNICATION FROM OFFICIAL CHANNELS.
• INFORMATION FLOW:
• EXPLAINS MANAGEMENT DECISIONS AND ACTIONS IN A TIMELY MANNER SO AS TO
FORESTALL GOSSIP AND RUMOR PEDDLING.
• SERVES AS A STORE / INSTITUTIONAL MEMORY.
• VALIDATES MANAGEMENT IN THE EYES OF SUBORDINATES.
• PROMOTES PROFESSIONALISM.
• CREATES COMMITMENT TO ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS.
REFERENCES
IDEAS FOR THIS PRESENTATION WERE GLEANED FROM MULTIPLE
TEXTS BUT THE MAIN TEXTS ARE:
o ADVANCED WRITING, JAMES HEARD AND TED TUCKER
o CANADIAN CONTENT, NELL WALDMAN AND SARAH NORTON
o COLLEGE WRITING STYLES, JOHN LANGAN
o ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR: UNDERSTANDING LIFE AT WORK,
GARY JOHNS
o THE BARE ESSENTIALS, DR. IAN LEA
o THE POWER OF DISCOURSE: AN INTRODUCTION TO DISCOURSE
ANALYSIS, MOIRA CHIMOMBO AND ROBERT L. ROSEBERRY
o WRITING GUIDELINES FOR BUSINESS STUDENTS, LISA EMERSON
THANK YOU!!!