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DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION OF REACTIVE POWER

COMPENSATOR FOR LINEAR & NON-LINEAR LOADS

PROJECT MEMBERS: PROJECT GUIDE:


1. VIJAYAN.R (9811006032) MR.S.PONNAYIRA SUNDARA VEL,
2. MOHAMED HUSSAIN .P.S ASST.PROFESSOR 1, EEE DEPT
(9811006038) KALASALINGAM UNIVERSITY.
3. PANDI PRABU.S (9811006043)
4. RAMANATHAN.R (9811006049)

KALASALINGAM UNIVERSITY
(Kalasalingam Academy of Research and education)
(A NAAC Accredited Institution)
Anand Nagar, Krishnan Kovil- 626 190
CONTENTS:

• Abstract
• Objectives
• Reactive power, linear loads & non linear loads definition
• Introduction
1. Project description
2. Why power converters instead of capacitors & inductors
• Block diagram
• Work done
• Future Work plan
• References

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ABSTRACT

• In an integrated power system, efficient management of active and


reactive power flow is very important. Quality of power supply is judged
from the frequency and voltage of the power supply made available to the
consumers.
• For better efficiency, it is necessary to compensate reactive power flows in
the system. The maintenance of voltage level is controlled by delivering
the reactive power to an area.
• So to provide the reactive power in this project, we have carried out
STATIC REACTIVE COMPENSATOR or also called STATCOM.
• The STATCOM must provide variable shunt impedance from maximum
capacitive to maximum inductive output at a given bus voltage, and also
generate (or) absorb the reactive power to met the following mentioned
objectives.

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OBJECTIVES

• To increase steady state transmittable power.


• The voltage profile along the line must be a controlled value.
• The line “over-voltage” must be avoided under light load
conditions.
• The line “under-voltage” must be avoided during heavy load
conditions.
• Better utilization of machines to the system.
• Increased system stability.

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• What is Reactive power?
In AC circuits, energy is stored temporarily in inductive and capacitive
elements, which can result in the periodic reversal of the direction of energy
flow. The portion of power flow that is temporarily stored in the form of
magnetic or electric circuits, due to inductive and capacitive network
elements is returned to source which is known as Reactive power.
The energy stored in capacitive or inductive elements of the network give rise
to reactive power flow. This flow strongly influence the voltage level across
the network.
Voltage level and Reactive power flow must be carefully controlled to allow a
power system to be operated within acceptable limits.
• What is Linear load?
An AC electrical load in which both current and voltage wave reach their
peak simultaneously. The current at anytime is proportional to voltage.
Ex: Incandescent lamp, Heaters.

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• What is Non-linear load ?
Applies to those AC loads where the current is not proportional to the
voltage. The nature of non-linear loads is to generate harmonics harmonics in
the current waveform.
Ex: Computer, Laser prints, Television, Motor loads, etc.,

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INTRODUCTION
• Power Generation and Transmission is a complex process, requiring the
working of many components of the power system in tandem to maximize
the output. One of the main components to form a major part is the
reactive power in the system.
• In VAR compensator the switched bank consists of several individual banks
of capacitors and controller. The controller measures the power factor and
connects the proper amount of capacitor to the system. So the switching
of the capacitors can generate transient voltage. The combination of
power electronic devices minimizes the transient voltage generated during
switching.( Fig 1)
• In STATCOM, the possibility of generating controllable reactive power
directly without the use of AC capacitors (or) reactors by various switching
power converters.

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• Such types of power converters are operated as voltage source & current
source and they produce reactive power essentially without use of energy
storage components
• In voltage source converter scheme, the reactive power generation is
based on voltage comparisons (V & E).
where
V = system voltage (bus)
E = synchronized output voltage of STATCOM (converter).

• By varying the amplitude of output voltages(by PWM) produced, the


reactive power exchanges between the STATCOM (converter), and the AC
system can be controlled in a manner similar to that of “Rotating
synchronous machine”.

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

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VAR compensator and
STATIC VAR compensator (Fig 1)

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IMPACT OF REACTIVE POWER DISPATCHING

1. Improved voltage profile


2. Cost saving due to reduced system losses
3. Improved system security
4. Improved system operation
5. Improved inter change transfer capability

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WORK DONE

• Designed the electrical circuit for power supply.


• Purchased the required components for power supply.
• The PCB layout for power supply was produced.
• Soldered the power supply board with respective components.
• The power supply board (DC) was tested (PCB 1).
• Designed the electrical circuit for Intelligent Power Module

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FUTURE WORK PLAN

• To verify the Intelligent power module (IPM) layout after designing.


• List out the required components for IPM (PCB 3) and purchase.
• Develop the MATLAB/SIMULINK for overall control strategies of STATCOM
• To make soldering for IPM (PCB 3) and establish the circuit.
• To verify the output for IPM board (PCB 3).

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REFERENCES

1) C. L. Wadhwa, Electrical Power Systems, New Age International


Publishers, 2009
2) Hadi Saadat, Power System Analysis, WCB McGraw Hill, 1999.
3) Narain Hingorani & L. Gyugi, Understanding FACTS, Concepts and
Technology of Flexible
4) AC Transmission Systems, IEEE Press, 2000.
5) Reactive power management and its present status in India, Third
National Conference on Power and Energy systems (NPES 11) organised
by kalasalingam university.
6) Shunt versus Series compensation in the improvement of power system
performance, International journal of applied engineering research,
volume 2, no 1, 2001 (REASEARCH ARTICLE).

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THANK YOU

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