You are on page 1of 30

“Terrorism”

Chaos in southwest, west


and southern regions
Terrorism

 noun: terrorism

the use of violence and


intimidation in the pursuit of
political aims
Rebel Groups

Al Qaeda
ISIS
Taliban
Arab Spring
Arab Uprisings
 Western media popularized “Arab Spring” in
2011.

 uprising in Tunisia against former leader Zine


El Abidine Ben Ali emboldened similar anti-
government protests in most Arab countries.

 turmoil in Eastern Europe in 1989, when


seemingly impregnable Communist regimes
Islamic State
 TheIslamic State evolved out of the civil
wars in Iraq and Syria

 Terrorism,in this context, is part of


revolutionary war: it is used to undermine
morale in the army and police; an
adjunct to a more conventional struggle
Egypt

Sudan
Arab Spring
Egypt, Tunisia and Yemen

Syria and Libya


Arab Spring
The main legacy of the
Arab Spring is in smashing
the myth of Arabs’ political
passivity and the
perceived invincibility of
arrogant ruling elites.
Al Qaeda and ISIS
 AlQaeda network has spanned to three
continents- Africa, Asia and Europe

 ISISis also known as the Islamic State in


Iraq and the Levant

 “Violent extremist group”- US


Eastern Syria and Western Iraq
 ISISis poised to control a substantial part
of Eastern Syria and Western Iraq as a
terrorist bastion-state. Iran is pressured to
move beyond the use of proxies to
intervene for the Shi’ia government in
Iraq.
Henley-Putnam Faculty members are
leaders from world renowned strategic
security organizations such as:

 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)


 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
 National Security Agency (NSA)
 National Reconnaissance Office
(NRO)
 US Secret Service Defense
Intelligence Agency (DIA)
Al Qaeda vs. ISIS
 attacks on the World Trade Center and the
Pentagon on 9/11 are the most prominent
 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya
and Tanzania
 attack on U.S.S. Cole in the port of Aden in
2000.
 2005 attempt to down over 10 transatlantic
flights all show an emphasis on the
spectacular
Al Qaeda
At the same time, Al Qaeda
has backed an array of lesser
terrorist attacks on Western,
Jewish, and other enemy
targets; trained insurgents; and
otherwise tried to build guerrilla
armies.
Al Qaeda vs. ISIS
 Yet although Al Qaeda has repeatedly
called for attacks against Westerners, and
especially Americans, it has refrained from
killing Westerners when it suited its
purposes. Perhaps the most notable
example of this is found in Al Qaeda’s
decision on multiple occasions to grant
Western journalists safe passage into Al
Qaeda safe havens and allow them to
interview Bin Laden face to face.
Divisions in the Islamic world
 the Islamic State uses mass executions,
public beheadings, rape, and symbolic
crucifixion displays to terrorize the
population into submission and “purify”
the community

 Al Qaeda, in contrast, favors a more


gentle approach.
Fight for affiliates
 AlQaeda and the Islamic State both
profess to lead the jihadist cause
throughout the Muslim world. After 9/11,
Al Qaeda began to create affiliates or
forge alliances with existing groups,
expanding its range but at the same time
exposing its brand to the misdeeds of
local groups, as happened in Iraq.
Fight for affiliates
 As part of its competition with the Islamic
State, Al Qaeda has stepped up
affiliation, establishing relationships with
groups in the Caucasus, Tunisia, and
India. The Islamic State is playing this
game too, and wherever there is a call to
jihad, there is a rivalry. Afghanistan,
Algeria, Libya, Pakistan, Sinai, Yemen, and
other Muslim lands are part of the
competition.
ISIS in SEA
 ISIS’ reach in Southeast Asia is based on
several factors. First, certain devout
Muslims feel a theological affinity for the
militant group. They see parallels between
ISIS’s mission and prophecies in Islamic
holy texts of the eventual creation of a
Khilafah Minhaj Nebuwwah (“end-times
caliphate”) following the fall of dictators
in the Arabian Peninsula
Taliban
Taliban
1994–1996 (militia)
1996–2001
(government)
2004–present
(insurgency
Taliban
Taliban
 Originated as students of Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam

 Allies: Tehrik-i-Taliban
Pakistan,
Haqqani network, al-Qaeda,
TNSM, Islamic Emirate of
Waziristan, Hezb-e-Islami
Gulbuddin, Caucasian Front;
,
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi ISIL (In
Kunduz)
Taliban
 The Taliban emerged in the southern Asia

 Afghan city of Kandahar around


September 1994.
Taliban
 In a bid to establish their rule over
Afghanistan, the Taliban started shelling
the capital in early 1995.[68] Amnesty
International, referring to the Taliban
offensive, wrote in a 1995 report:
 This is the first time in several months that
Kabul civilians have become the targets
of rocket attacks and shelling aimed at
residential areas in the city.
Taliban
 The Taliban, however, suffered a
devastating defeat against government
forces of the Islamic State under the
command of Ahmad Shah Massoud. The
Taliban's early victories in 1994 were
followed by a series of defeats
Taliban
 Pakistan,however, started to provide
stronger military support to the Taliban.
Many analysts like Amin Saikal describe
the Taliban as developing into a proxy
force for Pakistan's regional interests.
Taliban
 On September 26, 1996, as the Taliban with
military support by Pakistan and financial
support by Saudi Arabia prepared for another
major offensive, Massoud ordered a full
retreat from Kabul to continue anti-Taliban
resistance in the Hindu Kush mountains
instead of engaging in street battles in Kabul.
The Taliban entered Kabul on September 27,
1996, and established the Islamic Emirate of
Afghanistan.
Assignment
What are the countries involved in Al
Qaeda, Isis and Taliban wars? Explain how
these countries are affected by “terrorism”?

Answer in
 One 8 by 11 typewriting
 Times New Roman, font 12
 Single-space