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Dan Kevin Castro Mandocdoc

8 August 2013
 Avoid plagiarizing another’s work
 Aid the future researcher find one’s sources
 Provide evidence for one’s argument
 Not an overnight thing
 Tips for thesis:
 Settle on a thesis topic as early as possible
 Complete the citation details while writing the
 Primary authorities
 Secondary authorities
 Books
 Journal articles
 Theses
 News clips
 Reliable websites
 Ateneo Law School:
 Footnotes
▪ ALJ Legal Citation Guide
▪ The Bluebook
 Bibliography
▪ Atty. Quan: Modified Turabian
 General rules:
 Footnotes = sentences
 Accuracy
 Subsequent citations
 Block quote v. “direct quote” v. paraphrasing
 Footnote reference placement
 After the punctuation mark/quotation mark
 Philippine Constitution:

PHIL. CONST. art. ___, § ___, ¶ ___.

Always cite the Constitution in full.

1. PHIL. CONST. art. II, § 3.

2. PHIL. CONST. art. II, § 3.
 Codes/Statutes:

Full Title, [Short Title], Statute Number,

subdivisions, (year).

3. An Act to Ordain and Institute the Civil

Code of the Philippines [CIVIL CODE],
Republic Act No. 386, art. 21 (1950).
 Subsequent citations:

Short Title, subdivisions.

4. PHIL. CONST. art. I.

5. CIVIL CODE, art. 3.
6. Id. art. 207.
 Supreme Court Decisions:

Case Title, volume number SCRA/SCAD/Phil.

first page, cited page (year).

7. Caguioa v. Magtoto, 436 SCRA 3, 41

 Subsequent citations:

First Party, volume number SCRA/SCAD/Phil.

at cited page.

8. Caguioa, 436 SCRA at 54.

9. Id.
10.Id. at 52.
 Separate opinions

Cite like an ordinary case (J. Surname of

Justice, separate/concurring/dissenting

11.Pabilane v. Magtoto, 436 SCRA 30, 41

(2007) (J. Quan, dissenting opinion).
12.Id. at 59 (J. Cervantes-Poco, concurring
 Books with Single Author

AUTHOR, TITLE cited page (year of publication

or edition number year of publication).


CONSPECTUS 45 (4th ed. 2009).
14.Id. at 342.
 Books with Multiple Authors


TITLE cited page (year of publication or
edition number year of publication).


LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE 89 (3d ed. 2006).
 Subsequent Citations

SURNAME OF AUTHOR(S), supra note footnote,

at page being cited.

16.REGALADO, supra note 13, at 13.

17.VITUG & ACOSTA, supra note 15, at 432.
 Consecutively Paginated Journals

Author, Title of the Article, volume number

JOURNAL first page, cited page (year).

18. Ryan Jeremiah D. Quan, Revisiting the

Element of Exploitation in the Definition
of Trafficking in Persons in Republic Act
No. 9208, 57 ATENEO L.J. 402, 405 (2012).
19.Id. at 408.
 Unpublished Theses
Author, Title of the Article, at page number (date)
(description, institution that awarded the degree)
20. Jose P. Tejada Jr., A Critique of the
Jurisprudence on the Matter of Supreme
Court’s Administrative Supervision, at 11 (2002)
(unpublished J.D. thesis, Ateneo de Manila
University) (on file with the Professional
Schools Library, Ateneo de Manila University).
 Websites
Author, Title of the Article, available at URL (last
accessed date).
21. United Nations Office of the High
Commissioner for Human Rights, What are
human rights?, available at http://
WhatareHumanRights.aspx (last accessed
June 26, 2012).
 News Articles Online
Author (if available), Headline, NEWSPAPER, date
of publication, available at URL (last accessed
22. Maila Ager, Tupas on disclosure of evidence:
What’s wrong?, PHIL. DAILY INQ., Jan. 4,
2012, available at http://newsinfo.inquirer.
net/122301/tupas-on-disclosure-of -
evidence-what’s-wrong (last accessed June
26, 2012).
 Subsequent Citations

23. Quan, supra note 18, at 430.

24. Tejada Jr., surpa note 20, at 35.
25. Ager, supra note 22.
 Double citations
 “the text is citing another text”
 Follow this: X (citing Y).

26. Quan, supra note 18, at 435 (citing PHIL.

CONST. art. I).
27. Go v. Perez, 123 SCRA 45, 63 (1987) (citing
Ruiz v. Cruz, 4 Phil. 23, 45 (1930).
 Other uses of footnotes: Explanations
 The use of footnotes for explanations makes the work
more focused and cohesive.

Has the Philippines successfully transitioned

from its Marcosian28 past?

28.The Proponent uses the term “Marcosian” to refer to

the massive violations of civil and political rights and
the economic plunder committed by those in public
office during the time of Marcos.
 Other uses of footnotes: Indirect Citations
 Introductory signals
▪ Convey the relation between the text and the authority
cited in the footnote text
▪ May signify support, comparison, or divergence.
▪ Italicized for emphasis.
 Introductory Signals
 Support
▪ See
▪ See, e.g.,
▪ See generally
 Introductory Signals
 Comparison
▪ Compare ____ with _____.
▪ Contrast ____ with _____.
 Introductory Signals
 Divergence
▪ Contra
▪ But see
 Tip: Use introductory signals to make your
thesis more scholarly.
 The use of introductory signals gives the
impression that you conducted a thorough
 It also gives makes your thesis more holistic
 The Bibliography is the summary of the
sources you used during your research
 It must be organized based on these:
 Grouping
 Clustering
 Sequencing
 Note: Panelists check the Bibliography.
 Tip: Start early, fix the Bibliography as early
as this semester so you can focus on the
substantive part of the thesis.
 Grouping
 First Part: Primary Authorities
 Second Part: Secondary Authorities
 Clustering
 Organize sources of the same class together
 Example: All books must be listed together.
 Grouping + Clustering

I. Primary Authorities
A. Constitution
B. Statutes
C. Cases
II. Secondary Authorities
A. Books
B. Journals
C. Internet Sources
 Sequencing
 For primary sources:
▪ Constitution – based on year of effectivity
▪ Statutes – based on class (BP, PD, RA)
▪ Then, based on year of effectivity
▪ If same year, based on BP/PD/RA number.
▪ Format: ALJ Bluebook (same with footnotes)
▪ Cases – based on level of court (SC, CA, RTC)
▪ Then, alphabetically
▪ Format: ALJ Bluebook
▪ Treaties, UN Documents, etc. – follow rule on statutes.
 Sequencing
I. Primary Authorities
A. Constitution
B. Statutes
Batas Pambasa
Presidential Decrees
Republic Acts
C. Jurisprudence
Supreme Court
Court of Appeals
 Sequencing
 For secondary sources: Turabian
▪ Surname first
▪ Alphabetical