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** Sampling design refers to the method used to choose the sample from the population
**

± Method should be impersonal to avoid favoritism by the sampler

Motivation for conducting a sampling procedure: ± Lower Costs ± Large population size ± Greater Accuracy ± Greater speed of data collection .

Sample: a part of the population that we actually examine in order to gather information. . Population: the entire group of individuals that we want information about. Sample size: number of observations/individuals in a sample.

Types of Sampling Design: ± Simple random sampling (SRS) ± Stratified Random Sampling ± Cluster sampling ± Multi-stage sampling .

or a software package. ± Randomly select four number between 00 and 99 . need to choose 4 to answer a set of questions. Eliminates bias in a sample To conduct a simple random sampling ± Give each unit a number ± randomly select the sample numbers. all the samples with the same size is equally likely to be chosen. Use a random digits table.Simple random sampling In simple random sampling (SRS). Suppose we have 100 students.

and then draw simple random samples from each stratum. Occupation professional clerical blue-collar Age under 20 20-30 31-40 41-50 Gender Male Female . With this procedure we can acquire information about ± the whole population ± each stratum ± the relationships among strata.Stratified Random Sampling Separates the population into mutually exclusive sets (strata).

For example.000-29. Stratum 1 2 3 4 Income Population proportion Stratum size 250 400 300 50 Total 1. keep the proportion of each stratum in the population.000-50.000 of each income category 15.999 40% 30.000 30% 5% .000 over 50.Stratified Random Sampling There are several ways to build a stratified sample.000 These are the population proportions25% under 15.

Cluster sampling increases sampling error.Cluster sampling Cluster sampling is a simple random sample of groups or clusters of elements. because there are probably similarities among cluster members. . This procedure is useful when ± it is difficult and costly to develop a complete list of the population members ± the population members are widely dispersed geographically.

± Any one of the previous sampling schemes can be applied during each stage. . ± Usual practice for national households or population survey.Multistage sampling Sampling is carried out in stages.

4 million people responded. the Literary Digest predicted an overwhelming victory of Landon over Roosevelt: 57% to 43%. What went wrong? . 2. Roosevelt won the election by a landslide ± 62% to 38%. Literary Digest mailed questionnaires to 10 million people (25% of voters at the time).The Literary Digest Poll In the 1936 presidential election.

Problems in the Literary Digest Poll Selection bias: telephone directory.000 people and correctly predicted Roosevelt's victory . automobile ownership lists. Non-response bias: Only 24% responded (and these were biased toward the Republicans) Gallup Poll: surveyed 50.

Biased because people with strong opinions (especially negative) tend to respond. . and 70% of them said No. would you have children?³ Almost 10. Similar example: TV shows call-in polls. A statistically design opinion poll a few months later found that 91% of parents studied said Yes! This is a self-selected sample.000 readers wrote in. worthless as indicators of opinion of the population. internet polls. "If you had it to do over again. However.Voluntary response Bias A magazine columnist Anand asked his married readers having children. etc.

m .Other examples of bias Under-coverage bias: Telephone survey of household conducted from 9 a.m to 5 p. inaccurate memory ± "Do you wash your hands before eating?´ ± ³Have you used illegal drugs in the past two months?´ Don't trust survey results unless you've actually looked at questions! . it will miss the working population. Response bias: when respondents lie about illegal/unpopular behaviour.

± Selection Bias ± Non-response bias Bias can not be corrected by increasing the sample size! The ultimate test of a sample design is how well it represents the characteristics of the population it purports to represent. .Cautions about sampling Poor designs can produce misleading conclusions.

. This is called sampling error.Sampling Error The numerical descriptors that describe samples may be expected to differ from those that describe populations because of random fluctuations inherent in the sampling process. Sampling error is what is left after all biases have been accounted for.

Sampling Distribution A parameter is a value that describes the population. . A statistic is a value that describes a sample. Sampling distribution is the distribution of values taken by the statistic in all possible samples of the same size from the same population. It¶s known once a sample is obtained. The variability of a statistic is described by the spread of its sampling distribution. It¶s fixed but unknown in practice.

use random sampling. use a larger sample. To reduce the variability.To Manage Bias and Variability To reduce bias. ± When we start with a list of the entire population. SRS produces unbiased estimates. .

Types: ± Convenience ± Purposive Judgment Quota ± Snowball .Non Probability Sampling Subjective Type of Sampling used because of low cost and convenience of the researcher.

They are the least reliable design but normally the cheapest and easiest to conduct. .Convenience Sampling Non probability samples that are unrestricted are called convenience samples.

It is based on the logic that certain relevant characteristics will better describe the population .Purposive Sampling A non probability sample that conforms to certain criteria ± Judgment ± Based on the subjective judgment of the researcher ± Quota ± To improve representiveness.

this group is then used to locate others who possess similar characteristics and who in turn identify others. individuals are discovered. Thus snowball gathers subjects as it rolls on. .Snowball Sampling In the initial stage of snowball sampling.

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