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STHE as Closed Feed water Heater

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
I I T Delhi

A Three in One STHE !!!


Thermodynamic Analysis of A Power Plant
Regeneration
256.21 0.024 M
0.000 M 40.57 740.70
639.314 247.0 D 0.935 M

150.0
2.186 M

C B A
0.0 K 61.067 352.2

639.314
38.54 740.70
537.0
61.067 350.4

40.57
816.06

210.3 6.0 K
61.067 206.0

14.970 M
205.5 2.154 M
A

572.218 352.2

Radiation losses are Ignored


740.70
639.314 200.0 15.87 789.9 0.701 M
34.700 423.0 0.018 M

HEAT RATE=1985.05 K CAL/KW


0.0 K
0.043 M
B C C

172.0 0.946 M
B

16.70
6.0 K

34.700
95.766 170.0 205.5 168.3 36.52
639.314 164.1 572.156

789.9
424.5

6.414
537.0

639.314
843.89

6.564 735.8
34.520 309.4

kg

T/HR
cm 2
162.1
160.7
121.3 2.269 683.2
777.2 H
4.352 M

509.026 120.8 26.299 195.5


2.8 K

CEL
1.251 M
B
A

124.0
7.135

KCAL/KG
0.057 M
34.520
C

26.299 123.8 0.5616 642.9


16.883 106.8
2.8 K
310.0
735.8

509.026
7.135

506.53

95.0
0.4143 619.8
26.299 195.8
2.389 683.2

92.4
92.2
43.183 95.0
20.510 76.5 0.078 M
3.7 K
735.8
310.0

0382 M
B C

76.2
509.026 49.2
63.693 76.3
509.028 49.0
0.4361

72.7
16.833 107.1
0.9069 642.9

72.6

58.8 47.0
12.0K
20.510 77.96
619.8

63.693 58.8 509.028 46.8


0.299 M
D
C

99.9 748.8 H
B

0.299 99.9 0.382


0.078
C

D
LAYOUT OF MODERN 210 MW COAL FIRED POWER PLANT

19.38
0.854 M

0.1033

0.1033
509.028
3.068 M
D

64.846 M
B

509.028 46.3
P=210.061 MW

46.7
46.4
46.1
441.114 46.45

D
577.3
Train of Shell & Tube HXs.
Power Plants for Future : Mid 2013: Denmark
Mass flows through CFWH


mbleed1 & hbleed1

 
m fw & h fw1,out mfw & h fw1,in


m drain1 & hdrain1
Special Anatomy of CFWHs

• The economic analysis of the heaters should consider a


desuperheater section when there is a high degree of superheat
in the steam to the heater and an internal or external drain
cooler to reduce drains below steam saturation temperature
• Type: The feedwater heaters will be of the U-tube type.
• Location: Heaters will be located to allow easy access for
reading and maintaining heater instrumentation and for pulling
the tube bundle or heater shell.
• High pressure heaters will be located to provide the best
economic balance of high pressure feedwater piping, steam
piping and heater drain piping.
HP Closed Feed Water Heater
LP Closed Feed Water Heater
High Pressure CFWH

• A HP Closed Feedwater Heater has three zones:


• Desuperheating zone.
• Condensing Zone.
• Drain cooling Zone.
• Each zone is designed as a separate heat exchanger and heat
transfer coefficients and pressure drops are evaluated
separately.
Thermodynamic Layout of HP Closed Feed
Water Heater

HP Turbine

Tbi, pbi, Tbsi

Condensing Shell Drain Cooler

Desuperheater
Tfi Tfi+1

TRAP
Bleed Steam
Feed Water in C=Condenser

DC C DS Feed Water out


DC=Drain cooler

Feedwater heater with Drain cooler and Desuperheater DS=Desuperheater



m SG  y & h2
Bled steam
Condensate 


TTD m SG & h8
m SG  y & h6
T -TTD=Terminal
temperature difference


mSG & h5
C
DC DS

L
Design of Condensers and Condensing Zones

Lowest Shell side Thermal Resistance !!!


Basic Anatomy of Condenser
Basics of Condensation

• The heat is removed by contacting vapor with a cold surface


(the tube wall).
• The liquid then flows off the tube under the influence of
gravity, collects, and flows out of the exchanger.
• In some cases, vapor flow rates may be high enough to sweep
the liquid off the tubes.
• This is called vapor shear and is a concern when liquid is
condensing inside a tube.
• Condensing vapor may be a single component or a mixture,
with or without the presence of noncondensibles.
• Usually, mixed vapors are condensed inside tubes, while
single components are condensed on the outside of tubes.
• Under similar conditions, horizontal tubes tend to have
larger condensing heat transfer coefficients than vertical
tubes.
• Vertical tubes are preferred when substantial subcooling of
the condensate is required.
• In calculations, it is common to assume the vapor-liquid
interface is at thermodynamic equilibrium at the vapor
temperature.
• Liquid adjacent to the cold surface is assumed to be at the
surface temperature.
• It is also common to treat condensers as constant pressure
systems, since the total friction losses through an
exchanger are usually small.
Condensation Mechanisms
• There are two main mechanisms of condensation:
• Film Condensation:
– The condensate "wets" the surface, a film forms as the drops coalesce.
– The condensate forms a continuous layer that flows over the tube (gravity
flow) in film type condensation.
– The primary heat transfer resistance is in the film.
• Dropwise Condensation:
– The condensate does not wet the surface, drops form at nucleation sites
(pits, dust, etc.) and remain separated until carried away by gravity or
vapor flow.
– Only then do they coalesce, prior to falling off the tube.
– This is dropwise condensation.
• Most of the tube surface remains uncovered by liquid, so there is
little heat transfer resistance and very high transfer rates.
• In both cases, nucleation is typically the rate limiting step, rather
than heat transfer.
• Most industrial applications are based on film mechanisms, since it
is tricky and expensive to build non-wetting surfaces.
• After condensation, the liquid flows down the tube surface under
the influence of gravity (unless vapor rates are high enough to
produce vapor shear).
• The flow may be laminar or turbulent, depending on the fluid, rate
of condensation, tube size, etc.
• The film tends to thicken as it flows to the bottom of the tube, and
the weight of the fluid may cause ripples to form.
• These will cause deviations from pure laminar flow.
Noncondensibles

• The presence of even small amounts of noncondensible gases


drastically reduces heat transfer.
• It has been suggested that only 1-2% air in steam can reduce
heat transfer by 75%.
• Since the condensing vapor in such systems must diffuse
through a noncondensible gas to reach the cooling surface, full
consideration requires modeling of both heat and mass
transfer.
• Vents are sometimes installed to bleed noncondensibles from
the system.
Correlations for Condensing Heat Transfer

• Choice of a correlation depend on whether you are looking at


horizontal or vertical tubes, and whether condensation is on
the inside or outside.
• Preliminaries
• The condensate loading on a tube is the mass flow of
condensate per unit length that must be traversed by the
draining fluid.
• The length dimension is perpendicular to the direction the
condensate flows;
• the perimeter for vertical tubes,
• the length for horizontal tubes.
Condensate Loading
Mass flow of condensate

Perimeter
m condensate
 for vertic al tubes.
d 0
m condensate
 for horiontal tubes.
Ltube
General values of condensate loading for horizontal tubes:
0.01 to 0.1 kg/m.s
This can be used to calculate a Reynolds number
4
Re condensation 
 film
Onset of Turbulence & Turbulent Film Condensation

• The transition film Reynolds number for the tube bundle is


adapted from a vertical plate turbulent transition criterion of
1600 (but also values of 1200, 1800 and 2000 have been
proposed).
• Thus, the film will become turbulent on the tube bundle at ReΓ
equal to 1600.
• The flow is nearly always laminar on single vertical tube
because of the short cooling length around the perimeter
•Flow is considered laminar if this Reynolds number is less than 1600.
•The driving force for condensation is the temperature difference
between the cold wall surface and the bulk temperature of the saturated
vapor

Tdriving  Tsat  Twall  Tvapour  Tsurface


The viscosity and most other properties used in the condensing
correlations are evaluated at the film temperature, a weighted mean of
the cold surface (wall) temperature and the (hot) vapor saturation
temperature

3Tdriving
T film  Tsat  Tsaturation  Twall   Tsat 
3
4 4
Wall Temperatures
• It is often necessary to calculate the wall temperature by an
iterative approach.
• The summarized procedure is:
1. Assume a film temperature, Tf
2. Evaluate the fluid properties (viscosity, density, etc.) at this
temperature
3. Use the properties to calculate a condensing heat transfer
coefficient.
4. Calculate the wall temperature. The relationship will
typically be something like

 1 
 UA 
Twall  Tsat  
1 Tsat  Tcoolant 
 hA 
 o o
5. Use the wall temperature to calculate a film temperature
6. Compare the calculated film temperature to that from the
initial step.
7. If not equal, reevaluate the properties and repeat.
The Laminar film Condensation on a Horizontal
Tube

• The Nusselt integral


approach to laminar film
condensation :
• Condensation on the outside
of horizontal tube bundles is
often used for shell-and-tube
heat exchanger applications
and the first step is the
analysis of a single tube.
• The flow is nearly always
laminar on single tube
because of the short cooling
length around the perimeter.
Rate of Condensation

hf
Condensation on Horizontal Tube Bundles
• Condensation on tube bundles
raises several important
considerations:
• In what manner does the
condensate flow from one tube
to the next?
• Is subcooling of the film
important?
• Is the influence of vapor shear
significant and, if so, how can
this be accounted for?
• At which point does the film
go through the transition from
laminar to turbulent flow?
Laminar Flow Outside Horizontal Tubes
When vapor condenses on the surface of horizontal tubes, the flow is
almost always laminar.
The flow path is too short for turbulence to develop. Again, there are two
forms of the same relationship:

 k  f  f   v g 
1
3 3
1.51

f
hcond  
3 Re
condensation  f 2


 k  f  f   v ghLG 
1
 3

4

 0.725
f
hcond 
  f Tdrivingd 0
 

The constant in the second form varies from 0.725 to 0.729.
The rippling condition (add 20%) is suggested for condensate Reynolds
Numbers greater than 40.
Condensation on Tube Bundle
Condenser tubes are typically arranged in banks, so that the
condensate which falls off one tube will typically fall onto a tube
below.
The bottom tubes in a stack thus have thicker liquid films and
consequently poorer heat transfer.
The correlation is adjusted by a factor for the number of tubes,
becoming for the Nth tube in the stack

 k  f  f   v gh fg 
1
 3

4
htop
 0.725 
f
hcond 
 N f Tdrivingd 0 
 4
 N
The heat transfer coefficient on the Nth tube row

• The heat transfer coefficient on the Nth tube row in the bundle
h(N) is
h( N )  f4  f  f 34  v gh fg 
1
 k 3

4
htop
 
3
hcond  0h.(725
1)  N T
N  N  1  

 f drivingd 0 

4
N
• Kern (1958) concluded from his practice experience in
designing condensers that the Nusselt tube row expression was
too conservative and that this resulted in condensers that were
consistently over-surfaced.
• To improve his thermal designs, he replaced the exponent of (-
1/4) in the Nusselt expression with a value of (-1/6).
Condensation on Horizontal Bundles: Prediction of
Heat Transfer Coefficient in Nth Tube Row

h( N )
h(1)

N
Falling Film Condensation on Horizontal Tubes

• Falling-film heat exchangers are attractive because they


provide good heat transfer performance and low working-fluid
inventories.
• The design of falling-film heat exchangers has been largely
based on empirical data.
• A thorough understanding of the falling-film flow and heat
transfer interactions is important.
• An ability to predict the falling film mode would allow better
data correlation and improve the modeling and analysis of heat
transfer and fluid flow.
Modes of Condensation on Tube Bundle

The droplet The jet mode The sheet mode


mode
Flow Rate Vs Mode of Falling Film
Identification of flow Regimes
Identification of flow Regimes
Condensation on Horizontal Tube Bundles : Flow Map
• Hu and Jacobi (1996) proposed flow mode transition equations
with ReΓ versus Ga+ (film Reynolds number vs. the Galileo
number) for the following principal flow modes: sheet flow,
column flow and droplet flow.
• The mixed mode transition zones of column-sheet and droplet-
column were also considered as regimes, bringing the total to five.
• Hence, they presented four flow transition expressions (valid for
passing through the transitions in either direction and hence the
symbol ⇔):
Flow Transition Map
Final Correlation
Onset of Turbulence & Turbulent Film Condensation

• The transition film Reynolds number for the tube bundle is


adapted from a vertical plate turbulent transition criterion of
1600 (but also values of 1200, 1800 and 2000 have been
proposed).
• Thus, the film will become turbulent on the tube bundle at ReΓ
equal to 1600 and thus when ReΓ > 1600 the following
expression should be used.
Condensation on Horizontal Tube Bundles :
Turbulent Flow
• Turbulent flow of the condensate film may be reached in a
condenser, which significantly increases heat transfer.
• Comparatively little has been published on turbulent film
condensation on tube bundles compared to the information
available for laminar films.
• Butterworth (1983) recommends adapting the Labuntsov
expression for turbulent film condensation on a horizontal
tubes for predicting local turbulent film condensation on the
Nth tube row in horizontal tube bundles

h
Drain Subcooling Zone

• When the heater drains temperature is required to be lower


than the heater saturation temperature, a drain subcooling zone
is employed.
• The drain subcooling zone may be either integral or external,
and as a general rule, it is integral.
• The integral drain subcooling zone perates as a heat exchanger
within a heat exchanger, since it is isolated from the
condensing zone by the drain subcooling zone end plate,
shrouding, and sealing plate.
• This zone is designed with generous free area for condensate
entrance through the drains inlet to minimize friction losses
which would be detrimental to proper operation.
• The condensate is subcooled in this zone, flowing up and over
horizontally cut baffles.
Breakdown of Heat Transfer Surface Area

C1 DS 1
C2 DS 2

C3
DC

DS : Desuperheating Area
C : Condensation Area
DC : Drain cooling Area
Case Study : Design of CFWH
Thermo-hydraulic Details
Thermo-hydraulic Details
Geometrical Details of Desuperheater
Thermo-hydraulic Details of Desuperheater
Geometrical Details of Drain Cooler
Thermo-hydraulic Details of Drain Cooler