LEVELS & LEVELING

Ref: 1. Surveying ± Vol I by Punmia 2. Surveying by Aziz & Shahjahan

Major Joarder Md sarwar Mujib Instructor Class B Dept of CE MIST, Mirpur, Dhaka

LEVEL
A level is an instrument by which the relative heights of different points on the surface of the earth are determined

LEVELING
Leveling is the process by means of which the difference in elevation ( relative height) of various points on the earth¶s surface is calculated/determined

LEVELING INSTRUMENT
‡ Level with Tripod ‡ Leveling Staff

Methods of Leveling 
Barometric Leveling  Trigonometric Leveling  Spirit Leveling ( Direct Leveling)

Types of Level 

Dumpy Level Wye ( or Y ) Level Reverse Level Tilting Level

What these means ?
Level Surface Level Line Horizontal Plane Horizontal Line Vertical Line

Datum Elevation Vertical Angle Mean Sea Level (MSL) Bench Mark (BM)

How to ?
Set the Level in the field
+ Important Aspects

Hold the Staff
+ Important Aspects

Take a reading
+ Important Aspects

Hand Signal while taking Reading

Adjustment of Level
Temporary/ Situation Adjustment
Setting Up Leveling Up Elimination of Parallax Focusing the Eye Piece Focusing the Objective

Adjustment of Level

HOLDING A LEVELING STAFF

NO TILTING

Base of Staff at Slope

Bottom plane of staff Bottom plane of staff Error

Point of interest

Point of interest

Correct

Incorrect

(a)

(b)

Take a Reading

Alignment during taking reading

How Staff Looks

Reading Staff

Terms & Abbreviations
Station Height of Instrument (H.I.) Back Sight (B.S.) Fore Sight (F.S.) Turning Point (T.P.) Intermediate Station (I.S.)/ Change Point Reduced Level (R.L.)

Leveling at Level Surface

Leveling at Slope

Points to remember before the start

‡ What is the approximate height difference between points? ‡ Where should the level be placed to ensure
± Visibility of back and forward stations ± efficiency of work

Methods of Calculating R.L.
Rise and Fall Methods

Height of Instrument / Line of Collimation Methods

Rise & fall method
± Compute all rises & falls  Start at a BM with known RL To get RL of next station:
‡ add rise to previous RL, or ‡ subtract fall from previous RL 

Repeat for all subsequent stations

Rise & Fall Method
Station Bearing Distance Staff Reading Back Inter Fore Difference Rise Fall R.L. Remarks

Sum

Check : Sum of Back Reading ~Sum of Fore Reading = Total Rise ~ Total Fall = Last R.L. ~ First R.L.

Rise & Fall Method
Station Bearing Distance 00 Staff Reading Back Inter Fore 5.42 Difference Rise Fall 100 B.M. R.L. Remarks

A

46°15'

Rise & Fall Method
Station Bearing Distance Back 00 50 100 150 200 5.42 7.24 6.46 5.38 6.55 Staff Reading Inter Fore Difference Rise Fall 100 R.L. Remark s B.M.

A

46°15'

Rise & Fall Method
Station Bearing Distance Back 00 50 100 150 200 5.42 7.24 6.46 5.38 6.55 0.78 1.08 1.17 1.82 Staff Reading Inter Fore Difference Rise Fall 100 98.18 98.96 100.04 98.87 R.L. Remark s B.M.

A

46°15'

Rise & Fall Method
Station Bearing Distance 00 50 100 150 200 Staff Reading Back Inter Fore 5.42 7.24 6.46 5.38 6.55 8.78 6.92 0.78 1.08 1.17 0.37 1.82 Difference Rise Fall 100 98.18 98.96 100.04 98.87 98.50 Change Pt B.M. R.L. Remarks

A

46°15'

B

75°45'

250

Rise & Fall Method
Station Bearing Distanc e 00 50 100 150 200 Staff Reading Back 5.42 7.24 6.46 5.38 6.55 8.78 8.52 6.24 5.96 6.35 7.54 6.92 0.26 0.28 0.28 0.39 1.19 0.78 1.08 1.17 0.37 1.82 Inter Fore Difference Rise Fall 100 98.18 98.96 100.04 98.87 98.50 98.76 101.04 101.32 100.93 99.74 Change Pt R.L. Remark s B.M.

A

46°15'

B

75°45'

250 300 350 400 450 500

Rise & Fall Method
Station Bearing Distance 00 50 100 150 200 Staff Reading Back Inter Fore 5.42 7.24 6.46 5.38 6.55 8.78 8.52 6.24 5.96 6.35 7.54 14.20 14.46 4.68 6.92 0.26 0.28 0.28 0.39 1.19 4.96 0.78 1.08 1.17 0.37 1.82 Difference Rise Fall 100 98.18 98.96 100.04 98.87 98.50 98.76 101.04 101.32 100.93 99.74 Change Pt B.M. R.L. Remarks

A

46°15'

B

75°45'

250 300 350 400 450 500

Sum

Rise & Fall Method
Station Bearing Distance 00 50 100 150 200 Staff Reading Back Inter Fore 5.42 7.24 6.46 5.38 6.55 8.78 8.52 6.24 5.96 6.35 7.54 14.20 14.46 4.68 6.92 0.26 0.28 0.28 0.39 1.19 4.96 0.78 1.08 1.17 0.37 1.82 Difference Rise Fall 100 98.18 98.96 100.04 98.87 98.50 98.76 101.04 101.32 100.93 99.74 Change Pt B.M. R.L. Remarks

A

46°15'

B

75°45'

250 300 350 400 450 500

Sum

Check : Sum of Back Reading ~Sum of Fore Reading= Total Rise ~ Total Fall 14.20 ~ 14.46=0.26 Last R.L. ~ First R.L. =99.74 ~100=0.26 4.68 ~4.96=0.26

????????
Any Question about Rise & Fall Method ?

Height of Instrument Method
Station Bearing Distance Staff Reading Back Inter Fore Ht of Instrument R.L. Remarks

Check : Sum of Back Reading ~Sum of Fore Reading = Last R.L. ~ First R.L.

Height of Instrument Method
Station Bearing Distance 00 Staff Reading Back Inter Fore 5.42 Height of Instrument R.L. 100 Remarks B.M.

A

46°15'

Height of Instrument Method
Station Bearing Distance 00 Staff Reading Back Inter Fore 5.42 Height of Instrument 105.42 R.L. 100 Remarks B.M.

A

46°15'

Height of Instrument Method
Station Bearing Distance 00 50 100 150 200 Staff Reading Back Inter Fore 5.42 7.24 6.46 5.38 6.55 Height of Instrument 105.42 R.L. 100 Remarks B.M.

A

46°15'

Height of Instrument Method
Station Bearing Distance 00 50 100 150 200 Staff Reading Back Inter Fore 5.42 7.24 6.46 5.38 6.55 Height of Instrument 105.42 R.L. 100 98.18 98.96 100.04 98.87 Remarks B.M.

A

46°15'

Height of Instrument Method
Station Bearing Distance 00 50 100 150 200 Staff Reading Back Inter Fore 5.42 7.24 6.46 5.38 6.55 8.78 8.52 6.24 5.96 6.35 7.54 6.92 107.28 Height of Instrument 105.42 R.L. 100 98.18 98.96 100.04 98.87 98.50 98.76 101.04 101.32 100.93 99.74 Change Pt Remarks B.M.

A

46°15'

B

75°45'

250 300 350 400 450 500

Sum

Check : Sum of Back Reading ~Sum of Fore Reading = Last R.L. ~ First R.L.

Height of Instrument Method
Station Bearing Distance 00 50 100 150 200 Staff Reading Back Inter Fore 5.42 7.24 6.46 5.38 6.55 8.78 8.52 6.24 5.96 6.35 7.54 14.20 14.46 6.92 107.28 Height of Instrument 105.42 R.L. 100 98.18 98.96 100.04 98.87 98.50 98.76 101.04 101.32 100.93 99.74 Change Pt Remarks B.M.

A

46°15'

B

75°45'

250 300 350 400 450 500

Sum

Check : Sum of Back Reading ~Sum of Fore Reading= Last R.L. ~ First R.L. 14.20 ~ 14.46=0.26 99.74 ~100=0.26

????????
Any Question about Height of Instrument Method ?

Drawing of Profile on a Graph Paper
‡ Approx profile of Leveling
100 ft

100

98.18

98.96

100.04

98.87

98.50

0

50

100

150

200

250

EFFECT OF CURVATURE & REFRACTION ON LEVELING

STAFF LEVEL

l A

C h B

OAC : (OC)2 = (AC)2 (OA)2 Or, (R+h)2 = l2 + R2

R R

Or, R2+ 2Rh+h2 = l2 +R2 So, h = l2/(2R+h)

O

Since R >>> h So, h = l2/(2R) R= 6370 km

The Earth

Problem on Effect of Curvature
‡ A student of MIST standing on a deck of a ship just sees a light house ( 42 meter above MSL). Height of student eye is 6 meter from sea level. Find the distance of MIST student from the light house.

Two Peg Test
A y A B y B

x

x

2y y

x

x

Problem on Two Peg Test
‡ Point A and B have known RL of 100 and 101 meter respectively. During leveling the H.I. was 102 meter and Staff Reading was 4.0 meter at B. What will be Staff Reading of point A ?
100 meter 100 meter

C

A 100

B 101

Special Methods of Leveling
Differential / Fly Leveling Profile Leveling Cross-Sectioning Reciprocal Leveling Precise Leveling

Errors in Leveling
Instrumental
Imperfect Adjustment Sluggish Bubble Incorrect Marking on Staff Defective joint of Staff Wear at Staff bottom Misalignment of Telescope Accumulation of Dirt at base of Staff

Errors in Leveling
Natural
Curvature of the Earth Refraction Temperature Wind vibration on Level & Staff Soft Ground

Errors in Leveling
Personal
Handling of Instrument Verticality of Staff Mistakes in taking Staff Reading Mistakes in Recording

Any Doubt on Leveling as a whole

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