Oracle Instance Architecture

CIS417

Oracle Architecture Overview

Oracle Architecture
The Oracle Server
O rac le s er ve r

Oracle Architecture Instance Architecture I ta ce SGA S hared pool L ib ra ry C a c he D a ta b a e B uffe r C a c he Redo Log B uffe r D a ta D ic tio a ry C a c he DBW R LG W R SMO N PMO N ARC RECO CKPT LCK SNP D S .

Oracle Architecture Instance  An Oracle instance: ± ± Is a means to access an Oracle database Always opens one and only one database Internal memory structures Processes  Consists of: ± ± .

Oracle Architecture Interaction with the Database ( Dedicated Server ) CKPT SM O N PM O N SGA D a ta b a e B u ffe r C a c h e R eq ue t Re po e D e d ic a te d Ser er D a ta b a e F ile R e d o L o g F ile          U er P ro c e ¡   S h a re d S Q L Pool R e d o lo g B u ffe r ¢    ¡     DBW R LGW R ARC .

r l r it t r Interaction with the Database ( Shared Server )   C K PT SM N PM N SG £ ©¨ Fil R q t R po Di p t r £ D t b R d o Log Fil ¥£ ¥£ £ ¥¨ ¨ ¨ U r U r Pro U r Pro U r Pro U r Pro Pro ¦ DBW R LG W R  ¥ ¥£ © © ¥£ £ ¥ ¥£ ¥£ ¥ © © ¥ £ ¥£ ¥ ¥ ¥£ £ © ¥¥ £¥ £ © ¨ ¥ § ¥ £ £ £ £ £ ¨ £ £ £ ¨ § £ © £ ¨© £ D di t d D di t d S r rr d S S r r S r r £ ¤ D t b B ff r C £ ¤ £ § £ ¥¨ ¨ ¨ £ ¥¦ ¥£ £ ¨ S § r d SQ L Pool R d o log B f f r ¥£ ¤ £ RC .

Oracle Architecture Internal Memory Structures SGA System or µshared¶ Global Area (SGA) ± ± ± ± Database buffer cache Redo log buffer Shared pool Request & response queues (shared server) .

Oracle Architecture Database buffer cache      Used to hold data blocks read from datafiles by server processes Contains µdirty¶ or modified blocks and µclean¶ or unused or unchanged bocks µDirty¶ and µclean¶ blocks are managed in lists called the dirty list and the LRU Free space is created by DBWR writing out µdirty¶ blocks or aging out blocks from the LRU Size is managed by the parameter DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS .

Oracle Architecture Least Recently Used (LRU)  LRU and the database buffer cache ± ± ± Every time a data block is read from disk it is placed in the database buffer cache at the head of the LRU list If a block is already in the cache and it is read again it is moved to the head of the list Data not used frequently is µaged¶ out of the cache while frequently used data remains .

Oracle Architecture Redo Log Buffer     A circular buffer that contains redo entries ± Redo entries reflect changes made to the database Redo entries take up contiguous. sequential space in the buffer Data stored in the redo log buffer is periodically written to the online redo log files Size is managed by the parameter LOG_BUFFER ± Default is 4 times the maximum data block size for the operating system .

Oracle Architecture Shared Pool  Consists of multiple smaller memory areas ± Library cache  Shared SQL area ± Contains parsed SQL and execution plans for statements already run against the database  Procedure and package storage Names of all tables and views in the database Names and datatypes of columns in the database tables Privileges of all users ± Dictionary cache      Managed via an LRU algorithm Size determined by the parameter SHARED_POOL_SIZE .

Oracle Architecture Least Recently Used (LRU)  LRU and the shared pool ± ± ± ± Every time a SQL statement is parsed it is placed in the shared pool for reuse If a SQL statement is already in the shared pool it will not re-parse but it is placed at the head of the LRU SQL statements not used frequently are µaged¶ out of the shared pool while frequently used statements remain A SQL statement may be artificially retained at the head of the LRU by µpinning¶ the statement .

Oracle Architecture Internal Memory Structures PGA Program or µprocess¶ Global Area (PGA) ± ± ± ± ± Used for a single process Not shareable with other processes Writable only by the server process Allocated when a process is created and deallocated when a process is terminated Contains:     Sort area ± Used for any sorts required by SQL processing Session information ± Includes user privileges Cursor state ± Indicates stage of SQL processing Stack space ± Contains session variables .

DBWR       Writes contents of database buffers to datafiles Primary job is to keep the database buffer µclean¶ Writes least recently used (LRU) µdirty¶ buffers to disk first Writes to datafiles in optimal batch writes Only process that writes directly to datafiles Mandatory process .Oracle Architecture Background Processes .

Oracle Architecture Background Processes .DBWR  DBWR writes to disk when: ± ± ± ± A server process cannot find a clean reusable buffer A timeout occurs (3 sec) A checkpoint occurs DBWR cannot write out µdirty¶ buffers before they have been written to the online redo log files .

This functionality is available for any A . r transaction.Oracle Architecture Commit Command The SQL command O I allows users to save transactions that have been made against a database. it is not available for changes to A database objects (such as A commands) .I .

Oracle Architecture Background Processes .LGWR      Writes contents of redo log buffers to online redo log files Primary job is to keep the redo log buffer µclean¶ Writes out redo log buffer blocks sequentially to the redo log files May write multiple redo entries per write during high utilization periods Mandatory process .

Oracle Architecture Background Processes .LGWR  LGWR writes to disk when: ± ± ± ± ± A transaction is COMMITED A timeout occurs (3 sec) The redo log buffer is 1/3 full There is more than 1 megabyte of redo entries Before DBWR writes out µdirty¶ blocks to datafiles .

SMON      Performs automatic instance recovery Reclaims space used by temporary segments no longer in use Merges contiguous areas of free space in the datafiles (if PCTINCREASE > 0) SMON µwakes up¶ regularly to check whether it is needed or it may be called directly Mandatory process .Oracle Architecture Background Processes .

Oracle Architecture Background Processes .SMON  SMON recovers transactions marked as DEAD within the instance during instance recovery ± ± All non committed work will be rolled back by SMON in the event of server failure SMON makes multiple passes through DEAD transactions and only applies a specified number of undo records per pass. this prevents short transactions having to wait for long transactions to recover  SMON primarily cleans up server-side failures .

Oracle Architecture Background Processes .PMON  Performs automatic process recovery ± ± ± Cleans up abnormally terminated connections Rolls back non committed transactions Releases resources held by abnormally terminated transactions    Restarts failed shared server and dispatcher processes PMON µwakes up¶ regularly to check whether it is needed or it may be called directly Mandatory process .

PMON   Detects both user and server aborted database processes Automatically resolves aborted processes ± ± ± PMON rolls back the current transaction of the aborted process Releases resources used by the process If the process is a background process the instance most likely cannot continue and will be shut down  PMON primarily cleans up client-side failures .Oracle Architecture Background Processes .

CKPT  Forces all modified data in the SGA to be written to datafile ± ± Occurs whether or not the data has been committed CKPT does not actually write out buffer data only DBWR can write to the datafiles This ensures all datafiles are synchronized    Updates the datafile headers ± Helps reduce the amount of time needed to perform instance recovery Frequency can be adjusted with parameters .Oracle Architecture Background Processes .

ARCH  Automatically copies online redo log files to designated storage once they have become full .Oracle Architecture Background Processes .

Oracle Architecture Server Processes      Services a single user process in the dedicated server configuration or many user processes in the shared server configuration Use an exclusive PGA Include the Oracle Program Interface (OPI) Process calls generated by the client Return results to the client in the dedicated server configuration or to the dispatcher in the shared server configuration .

Oracle Architecture User Processes   Run on the client machine Are spawned when a tool or an application is invoked ± ± SQL*Plus. Server Manager. Oracle Enterprise Manager. Developer/2000 Custom applications   Include the User Program Interface (UPI) Generate calls to the Oracle server .

Oracle Architecture Transaction Example .Update CKPT SMO N PMO N R o llb a c k Seg m e t SGA D a ta b a e B u ffe r C ache R ed o Log B u ffe r S h a re d P o o l 2 D e d ic a te d Ser er UPDAT table S T u er = µSHIP RT¶ WH R id = 12345 U er P ro c e 1 D a ta b a e F ile R e d o L o g F ile         DBWR LGWR .

Update CKPT SMO N PMO N R o llb a c k Seg m e t SGA D a ta b a e B u ffe r C ache R ed o Log B u ffe r S h a re d P o o l D e d ic a te d Ser er D a ta b a e F ile R e d o L o g F ile     U er P ro c e      DBWR LGWR .Oracle Architecture Transaction Example .

Oracle Architecture Transaction Example .Update CKPT SMO N PMO N R o llb a c k Seg m e t SGA D a ta b a e B u ffe r C ache R ed o Log B u ffe r S h a re d P o o l D e d ic a te d Ser er U er P ro c e # ! " DBWR LGWR D a ta b a e F ile R e d o L o g F ile .

Oracle Architecture Transaction Example .Update CKPT SMO N PMO N R o llb a c k Seg m e t SGA D a ta b a e B u ffe r C ache R ed o Log B u ffe r S h a re d P o o l D e d ic a te d Ser er D a ta b a e F ile R e d o L o g F ile $ $ $ $$ U er P ro c e ' $ % $ & DBWR LGWR .

Update CKPT SMON PMON Rollback Segme t Shared Pool 0 SGA Databa e Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer ( 6 Dedicated Ser er ) DBWR LGWR Databa e File Redo Log File ( ( ( (( U er Proce ( .Oracle Architecture Transaction Example .

Oracle Architecture Transaction Example .Update CKPT SMON PMON Rollback Segme t Shared Pool 3 SGA Databa e Buffer Cache 1 7 Redo Log Buffer Dedicated Ser er 2 DBWR LGWR Databa e File Redo Log File 1 1 1 11 U er Proce 1 .

Oracle Architecture Transaction Example .Update CKPT SMON PMON Rollback Segme t Shared Pool 6 SGA Databa e Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer 4 Dedicated Ser er DBWR LGWR ROW UPDAT D 44 U er Proce Databa e File Redo Log File 4 4 4 5 8 4 .

Oracle Architecture Transaction Example .Update CKPT SMON PMON Rollback Segme t Shared Pool 9 SGA Databa e Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer 7 Dedicated Ser er DBWR LGWR COMMIT 77 U er Proce Databa e File Redo Log File 7 7 7 8 9 7 10 .

Update CKPT SMON PMON Rollback Segme t Shared Pool B SGA Databa e Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer @ Dedicated Ser er DBWR LGWR COMMIT SUCC SSFUL @@ U er Proce Databa e File Redo Log File @ @ @ A 11 @ .Oracle Architecture Transaction Example .

Update CKPT SMON PMON Rollback Segme t Shared Pool D SGA Databa e Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer C 12 DBWR LGWR Databa e File Redo Log File C C C .Oracle Architecture Transaction Example .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful