RELIABILTY

RELIABILTY
DEFINITION
RELIABILITY IS THE PROBABILITY OF AN DEVICE PERFOMING ITS INTENDED FUNCTION OVER A GIVEN PERIOD OF TIME UNDER A GIVEN OPERATING CONDITION. RELIABILITY IS THE PROBABILITY THAT A SYSTEM WILL OPERATE WITHOUT FAILURE FOR A GIVEN PERIOD OF TIME UNDER A GIVEN OPERATING CONDITION.

HUMIDITY. VIBRATION. CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENTS. TEMPERATURE.DETERMINANTS OF RELIABILITY PROBABILITY IT IS PROBABLE THAT A GROUP OF ITEMS IN A SYSTEM WILL HAVE AVERAGE LIFE WHICH CAN BE PREDICTED IF WE KNOW THE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE SPAN OF ALL ITEMS. ACOUSTICS. . PRESSURE. INTENDED FUNCTION : PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS.VOLTAGE ETC. SHOCK. OPERATING CONDITIONS CONDITIONS OF STRESS.

ADMIN TIME etc].THE STATED PERIOD CAN SECONDS. [ OPR TIME. HOURS OR EVEN YEARS. REPAIR TIME. MINUTES. . OPERATIONAL READINESS PROBABILITY THAT AT ANY POINT OF TIME IT EITHER OPERATES SATISFACTORILY OR READY FOR OPERATION.TIME FUNCTIONING OF THE ITEM SHOULD BE IDENTIFIED FOR A STATED PERIOD OF TIME. AVAILABILITY PROBABILITY THAT AN EQPT OPERATE SATISFACTORILY AT ANY POINT OF TIME OUT OF THE TOTAL TIME AVAILABLE.

SUBSYSTEMS OR COMPONENTS. MEASURES: RELIABILITY MEASURED IN TERMS OF MEAN TIME BETWEEN FAILURE (MTBF). . SYSTEMS.DEVICE: STANDS FOR EQPT .

WHY RELIABILITY STUDY SOME FACTS OF WW II ‡ FOR EVERY VACCUM TUBE IN USE THERE WAS ONE SPARE AND SEVEN IN TRANSIT. THIS ROSE TO 80 MAINTENANCE MANHOURS IN 1965 DUE TO INCREASE IN ELECTRONICS EQPT FROM ABOUT 120 IN 1949 TO ABOUT 3300 IN 1965. . ‡ IN 1949 24 MAINTENANCE MANHOURS WERE REQUIRED PER FLIGHT HOUR IN NAVY. ‡ AIR FORCE STUDY REVEALS THAT REPAIR AND MAINTAINENCE COST WAS TEN TIMES THE ORIGINAL COST. ‡ AN ARMY STUDY REVEALS THAT BETWEEN TWO THIRD AND THREE FOURTH OF EQPT UNDER REPAIR OR U/S AT ANY MOMENT.

environmental and usage conditions. Purchase Quality and reliability requirements. systems design. . anticipated level of user. operating. redundancy. accelerated tests. deterioration tests. human engg and safety factors. fail safe. economy. tolerances. considerations. reliable procurement Planning. incentives.AREAS OF RELIABILITY Design Establishment of performance and specification. fool proofing. reliability planning. life tests and life predictions. derating. replaceability. test production.

Storage environment conditions. investigation of process. material testing. ageing. effectiveness. service network. debugging. worker education and training. intermediate inspection. replacement policies. preventive maint. instruction manuals. . Storage and Transportation Packing. warranty inspection.Manufacture Process planning. transportation and handling. Management Training of servicing personnel. maintenance of mfg stds. reliability check.

User inspection Plant inspection. process checks. operator training. method of detecting failure and disposition. replacement of standards.Usage Use and procedures. preventive maint. periodic inspection and maint. acceptance sampling plans. reliability demos. maint contract. procurement and storage of spares. Environmental control. .

‡ IS NOT QUALITY AS QUALITY RELATES TO DEGREE OF CONFORMANCE TO SPECIFICATIONS AND NOT TO AVAILABILITY/EFFECTIVENESS IN OPERATION.BUT REPEATABILITYOF PERFORMANCE.FEATURES OF RELIABILITY ‡ IT IS A DESIGN /PRODUCTION FEATURE. . ‡ IS NOT PERFORMANCE.

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS LIKE STORAGE HANDELING. INFO CONCERNING SYSTEM. DESCRIPTION OF OPERATING & MAINT. 4. 2. DEFINATION OF THE SYSTEM. DEFINATION OF MALFUNCTION 5. CONDITION.RELIABILITY SPECIFICATIONS 1. PRODUCTION & MODIFICATION STATUS.QUALITY CONTROL WORKMANSHIP. . 3.

.CAUSES OF UNRELIABILITY :  POOR DESIGN AND OR DEVELOPMENT SUB STANDARD WORKMANSHIP. HUMAN ERROR. MISMATCH IN ENVIRONMENT CONDITIONS SPECIFIED AND OPERATED IN. INCREASED COMPLEXITY OF PRODUCT/ENGG DESIGN. INADEQUATE TESTING. LACK OF LIASION BETWEEN DESIGN AND/OR DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES AND USERS. ATTEMPTING FALSE COMPETITIVE GAIN BY STRETCHING PERFORMANCE / REDUCTION IN WEIGHT ETC.

IMPROVING RELIABILITY ‡ SIMPLIFY DESIGN & THEREBY REDUCETHE NO OF COMPONENTS IN ASYSTEM. ‡ FIND MORE RELIABLE COMPONENTS . MATERIALM & TECHNOLOGY. ‡ ESTABLISH REALISTIC ECONOMIC LIFE & OPERATING CONDITIONS. ‡ ADOPT COMPONENT DERATING TECHNIQUE TO REDUCE FAILURE RATES WHICH ARE BELOW AVERAGE. ‡ USE REDUNANCIES TO INCREASE RELIBILITY. .

‡ Maintenance Cost per Flying Hour. ‡ Consumption Data of Spares. ‡ Occurrence of Repetitive Snags. ‡ Maintenance Man Hours per Flying Hour.AVIATION RELIABILITY INDICIES ‡ No of Premature Withdrawals. . ‡ No of Defect Reports Raised. ‡ Pilot¶s & Engineers Report on Technical Defects. ‡ Average Time for Rectification of Defects.

‡ Ability to Perform for a Stated Time period is Central to Reliability while Ability of the Item to Perform a Required Function Under Stated Condition is Common for Both.RELIABILITY & QUALITY ‡ Quality means Conformations to Specifications while Reliability is Particularly Concerned with Time. .

RELIABILITY FUNCTION .

F(t) =1-m/N Differentiating w.r. or R(t)= exp[ . LET N BE THE TOTAL NO OF COMPONENTS TO BE TESTED AFTER TIME t.t time we have dR(t)/dt = -1/N* dm/dt. Then we have R(t) + F(t) =1 or PROBABILITY OF SURVIVAL. Let Probability of Survival be R(t) & Prob of Failure be F(t). N= m+n. P( t)= -1/ R(t) *dR(t)/dt ´P( t)* dt = -´ dR(t)/dt or .´ P( t)* dt = In R(t) Therefore R(t) = exp[.´ P( t)* dt ] is the general formula for Reliability Function.DERIVATION OF RELIABILITY FUNCTION.P( t)] = exp [ -t/m ] = exp[ -t/ MTBF] . or dm/dt = -N* dR(t)/dt or 1/n*dm/dt = -N/n* dR(t)/dt which is the component failure rate. FAILED COMPONENTS = m COMPONENT SURVIVED = n. RATE OF FAILURE (P) = m / ( m+n) = m/N. R(t) = 1.

has the following properties  0 <R(t) < 1  R(0) = 1 & R( ’ ) = 0  R(t) in general is a decreasing function of time.PROPERTIES OF RELIABILITY The Probability of Survival or Reliability R(t) at time t. .

WEIBULL ANALYSIS A Graphical technique based on past Data for  Identifying Failure Distributions  Risk Predictions  Forecast Analysis for R&M Studies .

Where F(t) is the Failure Rate Function or Fraction Failure a time t.e F is very useful in analyzing the failure Mechanisms. line function of Y = Bx + A and thus solve Weibull Curve. & exp the exponential. The slope of this function i.exp-{( t. By taking a double log we can deduce the above function in form a st.R(t) = 1. F>0.tc) F} tu0 .WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION F(t) = 1. F the Shape or Slope Parameter. . the Scale Parameter or characteristic life . tc the starting Point or Origin.

= 5.5 = 1.44 F(t) = 2.0 t Failure Distribution Characteristics .5 = 3.0 = 0.

Insufficient Redundancies. F=1: FAILURE RATE IS CONSTANT. Failure Rate Higher at Initial Periods or Infant Mortality Failure Mode for Quality Control or Assembly Problems. Between 1.0 more scatter in failure Data & failure Predictions cover long Time Spans Reflecting uncertainty. F =4: WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION BECOMES NORMAL DISTN. Represents Wear Out Modes. F>1: FAILURE RATE INCREASING WITH TIME. Unexpected Failures or even Product Misuse.ANALYSIS OF WEIBULL CURVES F= SHAPE PARAMETER. This Reflects Original Design Deficiencies. F<1: FAILURE RATE DECREASING FUNCTION OF TIME. Effect is that reliability increases as unit ages. .8 & 3.

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