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Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis

Covered in these slides, in the


Concepts & Connections book- Chapter 8 to page 143
In Raven and Johnson Book- Chapter 10 pages192-204
And in your packet on The Cell Cycle
The cell cycle multiplies cells

 The cell cycle is an ordered sequence of events


that extends
– from the time a cell is first formed from a dividing
parent cell
– until its own division.

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


Cell division is a continuum of dynamic
changes
 During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm is divided into separate
cells.
 The process of cytokinesis differs in animal and plant cells.
Cytokinesis
Cleavage
furrow Contracting ring of
microfilaments

Daughter
cells

Cleavage
furrow
Anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth
factors affect cell division
 The cells within an organism’s body divide and
develop at different rates.
 Cell division is influenced externally by
– the presence of essential nutrients,
– growth factors, proteins that stimulate division, there are
over 50 different growth factors which work for one or
more cell type
– density-dependent inhibition, in which crowded cells
stop dividing,
– anchorage dependence, the need for cells to be in
contact with a solid surface to divide.
Growth factors signal the cell cycle control
system
 The cell cycle control system is a cycling set of
molecules in the cell that
– triggers and
– coordinates key events in the cell cycle.

 Checkpoints in the cell cycle can


– stop an event or
– signal an event to proceed.
Growth factors signal the cell cycle control
system
 There are three major checkpoints in the cell cycle.

G1- commitment to divide, growth


factors present?, Size of cell ok?,

G2- check for proper DNA replication

M- all chromosomes attached to


spindle fibers
Cell Cycle progresses by action of Cdks

Cyclins
proteins produced by the cell during cell division

Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk)


cyclin is required to activate these enzymes
activates cell proteins by phosphorylating them
(proteins needed for S phase)
needed to go through G1 checkpoint

MPF
Maturation-promoting factor (mitosis promoting factor)
aka Mitosis- promoting factor is a cyclin-Cdk complex
phosphorylates proteins needed for mitosis
needed to go through G2 checkpoint
Rate of Cell Division
• Differs from one cell type to the next
– Examples:
• red bone marrow cells divide every 12 hours to replace RBCs that
wear out
• Cells at tip of root divide about every 19 hours.
• Neurons (nerve cells) normally never divide again once brain is fully
formed in utero

• Control of Division, lost = CANCER


– Cancer is different depending on the tissue affected
– Common theme is lack of control over cell division
– Abnormal, uncontrolled cell division
– Mutation in genes (including p53) that target and control
abnormal cells.
– Abnormal cells impede functioning of normal cells
p53 gene ( tumor suppressor gene)
• Key role in G1 checkpoint
• P53 protein monitors DNA
• Found absent or damaged in most cancer cells
Cancer is failure of
cell cycle control
• Tumor suppressor genes- prevents the
development of mutated cells, prevents
cancer/tumors

• Oncogenes- cancer causing genes

• Proto-oncogenes- normal genes that


become mutated
Meiosis
• Production/formation of __________

• Basis of sexual reproduction


• Only germ cells undergo meiosis
Haploid gametes (n  23)

Egg cell
n
Sperm cell
Meiosis Fertilization

Ovary Testis

Diploid
zygote 2n
(2n  46)

Key
Mitosis Haploid stage (n)
Multicellular diploid
adults (2n  46) Diploid stage (2n)
How meiosis halves chromosome number…

INTERPHASE MEIOSIS I MEIOSIS II

Sister
chromatids

1 2 3

A pair of A pair of
homologous duplicated
chromosomes homologous
in a diploid chromosomes
parent cell
MEIOSIS I: Homologous chromosomes separate
INTERPHASE:
Chromosomes duplicate Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I

Centrosomes Spindle microtubules Sister chromatids


(with centriole Sites of crossing over
attached to a kinetochore remain attached
pairs) Centrioles Spindle

Tetrad
Chromatin Sister Metaphase
Nuclear Centromere
envelope chromatids Fragments (with a plate Homologous
of the kinetochore) chromosomes
nuclear separate
envelope
MEIOSIS II: Sister chromatids separate
Telophase II
Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II and Cytokinesis

Sister chromatids Haploid daughter


separate cells forming
Meiosis Leads to Genetic Diversity
 Three ways genetic diversity is increased by
meiosis:
1. 2 parents contribute ½ of the genetic material to offspring
2. Crossing-over in Prophase I
3. Chromosome Alignment in Metaphase I

 Meiosis produces cells that are NOT identical,


unique gametes
C E
Tetrad
(pair of homologous
c e chromosomes in synapsis)

Crossing Over 1 Breakage of homologous chromatids

increases genetic C E

diversity by c e

producing “new” 2 Joining of homologous chromatids

chromosomes. C E
Chiasma
c e

3 Separation of homologous
chromosomes at anaphase I

C E

C e
c E
c e

Separation of chromatids at
4 anaphase II and
completion of meiosis

C E
Parental type of chromosome
C e
Recombinant chromosome

c E
Recombinant chromosome
c e Parental type of chromosome
Gametes of four genetic types
Independent orientation of chromosomes in
meiosis and random fertilization lead to
varied offspring
Independent orientation at metaphase I