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Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis

Covered in these slides, in the

Concepts & Connections book- Chapter 8 to page 143
In Raven and Johnson Book- Chapter 10 pages192-204
And in your packet on The Cell Cycle
The cell cycle multiplies cells

 The cell cycle is an ordered sequence of events

that extends
– from the time a cell is first formed from a dividing
parent cell
– until its own division.

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Cell division is a continuum of dynamic
 During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm is divided into separate
 The process of cytokinesis differs in animal and plant cells.
furrow Contracting ring of


Anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth
factors affect cell division
 The cells within an organism’s body divide and
develop at different rates.
 Cell division is influenced externally by
– the presence of essential nutrients,
– growth factors, proteins that stimulate division, there are
over 50 different growth factors which work for one or
more cell type
– density-dependent inhibition, in which crowded cells
stop dividing,
– anchorage dependence, the need for cells to be in
contact with a solid surface to divide.
Growth factors signal the cell cycle control
 The cell cycle control system is a cycling set of
molecules in the cell that
– triggers and
– coordinates key events in the cell cycle.

 Checkpoints in the cell cycle can

– stop an event or
– signal an event to proceed.
Growth factors signal the cell cycle control
 There are three major checkpoints in the cell cycle.

G1- commitment to divide, growth

factors present?, Size of cell ok?,

G2- check for proper DNA replication

M- all chromosomes attached to

spindle fibers
Cell Cycle progresses by action of Cdks

proteins produced by the cell during cell division

Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk)

cyclin is required to activate these enzymes
activates cell proteins by phosphorylating them
(proteins needed for S phase)
needed to go through G1 checkpoint

Maturation-promoting factor (mitosis promoting factor)
aka Mitosis- promoting factor is a cyclin-Cdk complex
phosphorylates proteins needed for mitosis
needed to go through G2 checkpoint
Rate of Cell Division
• Differs from one cell type to the next
– Examples:
• red bone marrow cells divide every 12 hours to replace RBCs that
wear out
• Cells at tip of root divide about every 19 hours.
• Neurons (nerve cells) normally never divide again once brain is fully
formed in utero

• Control of Division, lost = CANCER

– Cancer is different depending on the tissue affected
– Common theme is lack of control over cell division
– Abnormal, uncontrolled cell division
– Mutation in genes (including p53) that target and control
abnormal cells.
– Abnormal cells impede functioning of normal cells
p53 gene ( tumor suppressor gene)
• Key role in G1 checkpoint
• P53 protein monitors DNA
• Found absent or damaged in most cancer cells
Cancer is failure of
cell cycle control
• Tumor suppressor genes- prevents the
development of mutated cells, prevents

• Oncogenes- cancer causing genes

• Proto-oncogenes- normal genes that

become mutated
• Production/formation of __________

• Basis of sexual reproduction

• Only germ cells undergo meiosis
Haploid gametes (n  23)

Egg cell
Sperm cell
Meiosis Fertilization

Ovary Testis

zygote 2n
(2n  46)

Mitosis Haploid stage (n)
Multicellular diploid
adults (2n  46) Diploid stage (2n)
How meiosis halves chromosome number…



1 2 3

A pair of A pair of
homologous duplicated
chromosomes homologous
in a diploid chromosomes
parent cell
MEIOSIS I: Homologous chromosomes separate
Chromosomes duplicate Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I

Centrosomes Spindle microtubules Sister chromatids

(with centriole Sites of crossing over
attached to a kinetochore remain attached
pairs) Centrioles Spindle

Chromatin Sister Metaphase
Nuclear Centromere
envelope chromatids Fragments (with a plate Homologous
of the kinetochore) chromosomes
nuclear separate
MEIOSIS II: Sister chromatids separate
Telophase II
Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II and Cytokinesis

Sister chromatids Haploid daughter

separate cells forming
Meiosis Leads to Genetic Diversity
 Three ways genetic diversity is increased by
1. 2 parents contribute ½ of the genetic material to offspring
2. Crossing-over in Prophase I
3. Chromosome Alignment in Metaphase I

 Meiosis produces cells that are NOT identical,

unique gametes
(pair of homologous
c e chromosomes in synapsis)

Crossing Over 1 Breakage of homologous chromatids

increases genetic C E

diversity by c e

producing “new” 2 Joining of homologous chromatids

chromosomes. C E
c e

3 Separation of homologous
chromosomes at anaphase I


C e
c E
c e

Separation of chromatids at
4 anaphase II and
completion of meiosis

Parental type of chromosome
C e
Recombinant chromosome

c E
Recombinant chromosome
c e Parental type of chromosome
Gametes of four genetic types
Independent orientation of chromosomes in
meiosis and random fertilization lead to
varied offspring
Independent orientation at metaphase I