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ConcepTest Clicker Questions

Chapter 19
Physics: for Scientists & Engineers
with Modern Physics, 4th edition
Giancoli

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ConcepTest 19.1a Thermal Contact I
Two objects are made of
the same material, but have 1) the one with the higher initial temperature
different masses and 2) the one with the lower initial temperature
temperatures. If the
3) the one with the greater mass
objects are brought into
thermal contact, which one 4) the one with the smaller mass
will have the greater 5) the one with the higher specific heat
temperature change?

ConcepTest 19.1a Thermal Contact I
Two objects are made of
the same material, but have 1) the one with the higher initial temperature
different masses and 2) the one with the lower initial temperature
temperatures. If the
3) the one with the greater mass
objects are brought into
thermal contact, which one 4) the one with the smaller mass
will have the greater 5) the one with the higher specific heat
temperature change?

Since the objects are made of the same material, the only difference
between them is their mass. Clearly, the object with less mass will
change temperature more easily since not much material is there
(compared to the more massive object).

Which of the 1) they have different initial temperatures following choices is NOT 2) they have different masses a reason why the objects 3) they have different specific heats may have different temperature changes? .1b Thermal Contact II Two different objects receive the same amount of heat. ConcepTest 19.

it does not have any effect on the temperature change DT. While the initial temperature is certainly relevant for finding the final temperature. Which of the 1) they have different initial temperatures following choices is NOT 2) they have different masses a reason why the objects 3) they have different specific heats may have different temperature changes? Since Q = m c DT and the objects received the same amount of heat.1b Thermal Contact II Two different objects receive the same amount of heat. ConcepTest 19. . the only other factors are the masses and the specific heats.

You measure 2) the hotter one the temperatures and find that one liquid 3) both the same has a higher temperature than the other. ConcepTest 19. are heated for the same 1) the cooler one time over the same stove. Which liquid has a higher specific heat? .2 Two Liquids Two equal-mass liquids. initially at the same temperature.

initially at the same temperature. because the same heat was added. Which liquid has a higher specific heat? Both liquids had the same increase in internal energy. You measure 2) the hotter one the temperatures and find that one liquid 3) both the same has a higher temperature than the other. then c (specific heat) must be bigger.2 Two Liquids Two equal-mass liquids. if Q and m are both the same and DT is smaller. are heated for the same 1) the cooler one time over the same stove. Since Q = mcDT. ConcepTest 19. But the cooler liquid had a lower temperature change. .

3a Night on the Field The specific heat of concrete is greater than that of soil. ConcepTest 19. Which would 3) both cool off equally fast you expect to cool off faster in the evening when the sun goes down? . A baseball field (with real soil) and the 1) the concrete parking lot surrounding parking lot are warmed 2) the baseball field up during a sunny day.

3a Night on the Field The specific heat of concrete is greater than that of soil. Which would 3) both cool off equally fast you expect to cool off faster in the evening when the sun goes down? The baseball field. The high specific heat of concrete allows it to “retain heat” better and so it will not cool off so quickly – it has a higher “thermal inertia. A baseball field (with real soil) and the 1) the concrete parking lot surrounding parking lot are warmed 2) the baseball field up during a sunny day.” . will change temperature more readily. with the lower specific heat. so it will cool off faster. ConcepTest 19.

3b Night on the Beach Water has a higher specific (1) from the ocean to the beach heat than sand. (3) either way. (2) from the beach to the ocean on the beach at night. ConcepTest 19. makes no difference breezes would blow: . Therefore.

ConcepTest 19. makes no difference breezes would blow:  Daytime  sun heats both the beach and the water csand < cwater » beach heats up faster » warmer air above beach rises » cooler air from ocean moves in underneath » breeze blows ocean  land  Nighttime  sun has gone to sleep » beach cools down faster » warmer air is now above the ocean » cooler air from beach moves out to the ocean » breeze blows land  ocean . Therefore.3b Night on the Beach Water has a higher specific (1) from the ocean to the beach heat than sand. (2) from the beach to the ocean on the beach at night. (3) either way.

4 Calorimetry (1) 0 oC 1 kg of water at 100 oC is poured into a (2) 20 oC bucket that contains 4 kg of water at 0 (3) 50 oC oC. (5) 100 oC . Find the equilibrium temperature (4) 80 oC (neglect the influence of the bucket). ConcepTest 19.

Find the equilibrium temperature (4) 80 oC (neglect the influence of the bucket).4 Calorimetry (1) 0 oC 1 kg of water at 100 oC is poured into a (2) 20 oC bucket that contains 4 kg of water at 0 (3) 50 oC oC. (5) 100 oC Since the cold water mass is greater. so the temperature change must have a DT1 / DT2 = m2 / m1 ratio of 1:4 (cold/hot). . it will Q1 = Q2 have a smaller temperature change! m1cDT1 = m2cDT2 The masses of cold/hot have a ratio of 4:1. ConcepTest 19.

ConcepTest 19. What is the 4) between 50oC and 100oC final equilibrium temperature? 5) 100oC . then 2) between 0oC and 50oC dunked in a tub of 1 kg of water (c 3) 50oC = 4186 J/kg 0C ) at 0 0C.5 More Calorimetry 1) 0oC A 1 kg block of silver (c = 234 J/kg 0C ) is heated to 100 0C.

ConcepTest 19. What is the 4) between 50oC and 100oC final equilibrium temperature? 5) 100oC Since cwater >> csilver it takes more heat to Q1 = Q2 change the temperature of the water than it does to change the temperature of the silver. then 2) between 0oC and 50oC dunked in a tub of 1 kg of water (c 3) 50oC = 4186 J/kg 0C ) at 0 0C. . it is much “harder” to heat the DT1 / DT2 = c2 / c1 water!! Thus. the final temperature has to be closer to the initial temperature of the water. mc1DT1 = mc2DT2 In other words.5 More Calorimetry 1) 0oC A 1 kg block of silver (c = 234 J/kg 0C ) is heated to 100 0C.

is it possible for the temperature of 1) yes the substance to remain unchanged? 2) no . ConcepTest 19.6 Adding Heat If you add some heat to a substance.

then the temperature of the substance will rise with more added heat. Follow-up: Does that depend on the substance? . it is indeed possible for the temperature to stay the same. This is precisely what occurs during a phase change – the added heat goes into changing the state of the substance (from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas) and does not go into changing the temperature! Once the phase change has been accomplished. ConcepTest 19.6 Adding Heat If you add some heat to a substance. is it possible for the temperature of 1) yes the substance to remain unchanged? 2) no Yes.

7 Hot Potato Will potatoes cook faster if the water is boiling faster? 1) yes 2) no . ConcepTest 19.

regardless of how fast it is boiling. Since the water stays at the same temperature. Only then will the steam increase in temperature. Follow-up: How can you cook the potatoes faster? .7 Hot Potato Will potatoes cook faster if the water is boiling faster? 1) yes 2) no The water boils at 100 °C and remains at that temperature until all of the water has been changed into steam. ConcepTest 19. the potatoes will not cook any faster.

What is the final 3) 50oC temperature? LF = 80 cal/g 4) greater than 50oC cwater = 1 cal/g oC . ConcepTest 19.8 Water and Ice You put 1 kg of ice at 0oC 1) 0oC together with 1 kg of water at 2) between 0oC and 50oC 50oC.

What is the final 3) 50oC temperature? LF = 80 cal/g 4) greater than 50oC cwater = 1 cal/g oC How much heat is needed to melt the ice? Q = m Lf = (1000g)  (80 cal/g) = 80.8 Water and Ice You put 1 kg of ice at 0oC 1) 0oC together with 1 kg of water at 2) between 0oC and 50oC 50oC.000 cal How much heat can the water deliver by cooling from 50oC to 0oC? Q = cwater m DT = (1 cal/g oC)  (1000g)  (50oC) = 50. there is not enough heat available to melt all the ice!! Follow-up: How much more water at 50oC would you need? . ConcepTest 19.000 cal Thus.

Lv = 540 cal/g 4) 100oC cwater = 1 cal/g oC 5) greater than 100oC . ConcepTest 19.9 Ice and Steam You put 1 kg of ice at 0oC 1) between 0oC and 50oC together with 1 kg of steam at 100oC. What is the final 2) 50oC temperature? 3) between 50oC and 100oC LF = 80 cal/g.

000 cal. Follow-up: How much more ice would you need? .9 Ice and Steam You put 1 kg of ice at 0oC 1) between 0oC and 50oC together with 1 kg of steam at 100oC. and the whole mixture stays at 100oC. that would release 540. Thus. some steam is left over. Lv = 540 cal/g 4) 100oC cwater = 1 cal/g oC 5) greater than 100oC How much heat is needed to melt the ice? Q = m Lf = (1000g)  (80 cal/g) = 80. What is the final 2) 50oC temperature? 3) between 50oC and 100oC LF = 80 cal/g.000 cal How much heat is needed to raise the water temperature to 100oC? Q = cwater m DT = (1 cal/g oC)(1000g)(100oC) = 100. ConcepTest 19.000 cal But if all of the steam turns into water.

.. ConcepTest 19.10 You’re in Hot Water! 1) water Which will cause more severe burns 2) steam to your skin: 100 °C water or 100 °C steam? 3) both the same 4) it depends. .

first has to undergo a phase change into water and that process releases 540 cal/g. . While the water is indeed hot.10 You’re in Hot Water! 1) water Which will cause more severe burns 2) steam to your skin: 100 °C water or 100 °C steam? 3) both the same 4) it depends. That immense release of heat is what makes steam burns so dangerous. however.. it releases only 1 cal/g of heat as it cools. ConcepTest 19. The steam. which is a very large amount of heat..

in Phoenix 3) Phoenix (dry) or in Philadelphia (humid)? . ConcepTest 19. Where 2) Philadelphia will you feel cooler.11 Spring Break You step out of a swimming 1) equally cool in both places pool on a hot day. where the air temperature is 90° F.

That is why you feel cool as the water evaporates. ConcepTest 19. . more of the water will evaporate from your skin. in Phoenix 3) Phoenix (dry) or in Philadelphia (humid)? In Phoenix. Where 2) Philadelphia will you feel cooler.11 Spring Break You step out of a swimming 1) equally cool in both places pool on a hot day. where the air is dry. which it takes from your skin. where the water must absorb the heat of vaporization. where the air temperature is 90° F. This is a phase change.

In such an expansion 3) stay the same the temperature of the gas will: .12 Free Expansion A free expansion occurs when a 1) increase valve is opened allowing a gas 2) decrease to expand into a bigger container. ConcepTest 19.

In such an expansion 3) stay the same the temperature of the gas will: In such a process: W = 0 there is no object to move. Thus. there is no change in the temperature. ConcepTest 19.the gas molecules have virtually no chance of returning to the original state.12 Free Expansion A free expansion occurs when a 1) increase valve is opened allowing a gas 2) decrease to expand into a bigger container. even though DT and Q are zero. Free expansion is an irreversible process --. Q = 0 there is no heat exchange. Free expansion is neither adiabatic nor isothermal expansion. . therefore DU = 0 by the First Law of Thermodynamics.

13 Work 1) positive In the closed thermodynamic cycle shown in the P-V diagram. 2) zero the work done by the gas is: 3) negative P V . ConcepTest 19.

13 Work 1) positive In the closed thermodynamic cycle shown in the P-V diagram. ConcepTest 19. P counter-clockwise = negative work. 2) zero the work done by the gas is: 3) negative The gas expands at a higher pressure and compresses at a lower pressure. clockwise = positive work. In general. V .

ConcepTest 19. which of the 3) a concrete floor surfaces would have the 4) has nothing to do with highest thermal conductivity? thermal conductivity .14 Heat Conduction Given your experience of 1) a rug what feels colder when you 2) a steel surface walk on it.

m. Human tissue=0.04.84.14 Heat Conduction Given your experience of 1) a rug what feels colder when you 2) a steel surface walk on it. which of the 3) a concrete floor surfaces would have the 4) has nothing to do with highest thermal conductivity? thermal conductivity The heat flow rate is k A (T1-T2)/l. Wool=0. . bigger k leads to bigger heat loss. From the book: Steel=40.C0). Concrete=0. All things being equal. in units of J/(s.2. ConcepTest 19.

ConcepTest 19. 3) it will remain the same by what factor will the 4) decrease by factor of 4 radiant energy reaching the Earth change? 5) decrease by factor of 16 .15 Radiation If the Sun’s surface 1) increase by factor of 16 temperature falls to half the 2) increase by factor of 4 current surface temperature.

15 Radiation If the Sun’s surface 1) increase by factor of 16 temperature falls to half the 2) increase by factor of 4 current surface temperature. So if temperature is halved. 3) it will remain the same by what factor will the 4) decrease by factor of 4 radiant energy reaching the Earth change? 5) decrease by factor of 16 Radiation energy is proportional to T4. ConcepTest 19. radiation energy will decrease by a factor of 16. .