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Engr. Dr.

Jehangir Arshad Meo

Chapter 1
Introduction

1-1 DATA COMMUNICATIONS

 The term telecommunication means communication at a distance.
 The word data refers to information presented in whatever form is
agreed upon by the parties creating and using the data.
 Data communications are the exchange of data between two
devices via some form of transmission medium such as a wire
cable.
 Effectiveness of Data Communications depends upon:
 Delivery (Data Delivery at Exact Destination)
 Accuracy (Data Delivered as it was sent without alteration)
 Timelines (Data must be received on time late delivery is useless or delivery order should be as sent)
 Jitter (Packet arrival time difference)

Topics discussed in this section:
 Components of a data communications system
 Data Flow

Figure 1.1 Components of a data communication system

 Message: Data of Information to be transmitted (Text, Pics, Videos, Audios)
 Sender: The device that sends the Message (PC, Telephone, Video Cam etc)
 Receiver: The device that receives the data (PC, Telephone, Video Cam etc)
 Transmission Medium: The Physical medium used to transmit data from sender to
receiver (Twisted-Pair Wire, Coaxial Cable, Fiber Optic, Radio Waves)
 Protocol: Set of rules that govern data communication (Sort of agreement among two
devices)

and full-duplex) Uni-directional. Both Devices can send and receive simultaneously.2 Data flow (simplex. 1 device at a time can send or receive at a time. half-duplex. full band Bi-directional. shared band . full band Bi-directional.Figure 1. 1 device can send and others can only receive.

) connected by communication links. or any other device capable of sending and/or receiving data generated by other nodes on the network.  A node can be a computer. Topics discussed in this section:  Network Criteria  Physical Structures  Categories of Networks . optical fiber. Printer etc. air. printer. 1-2 NETWORKS  A network is a set of devices (often referred to as nodes e. or any medium which can transport a signal carrying information.g. PC.  A link can be a cable.

 Security  Data protection against unauthorized access.  Depends upon No.Network Criteria  Performance  Depends on Network Elements (quality of hardware)  Transmit and Response Time (Time b/w Query to Response )  Performance Measured in terms of Delay (Less) and Throughput (more). corruption/loss of data due to:  Errors / Recovery  Malicious users . type of transmission medium. of Users.  Reliability  Failure rate of network components and time needs for failure recovery.  Measured in terms of availability of hardware and quality of hardware.

multiple recipients of single transmission shared same link {either Spatially (simultaneous) shared or timeshared (turn by turn) connection} .single transmitter and receiver at dedicated link (Using remote of Television is example for P-to-P)  Multipoint . Physical Structures: Type of Connection  Type of Connection – Linking two devices  Point to Point .

multi-cast. broadcast .unicast. Physical Structures: Physical Topology  Physical Topology – A physical layout of network  Connection of devices  Type of transmission .

Figure 1.5 A Mesh topology connecting five stations .

Figure 1. each node must be connected with (n – 1) nodes.  Easy fault identification. traffic can be easily routed to avoid links with suspected problems Disadvantages  Number of I/O ports. cabling. it also assures privacy and security. installation and reconnection is hard.  If one node fails it doesn't impact whole network.  If we have n nodes.  Hardware in bulk needed for connection of I/Os .  All communication is carried out with this link.5: A fully connected mesh topology (five devices)  Every device has dedicated P-to-P link with all other devices. Advantages  Number of dedicated links assure guaranteed each connection to carry respective load.  For (n – 1) links each device must have similar number of ports.

Figure 1.6 A star topology connecting four stations .

 Far less cabling needed.Figure 1. if any device wants to connect other it involve Hub  Used in LANs Advantages  Less Expensive then mesh. . if one node fails no impact on others.  Easy fault identification.  Hub acts like an exchange.6: A fully connected Star topology (four devices)  Every device has dedicated P-to-P link only to the central controller (Hub). traffic can be easily routed to avoid links with suspected problems Disadvantages  Dependency of whole topology on one central hub  If hub fails whole network fails  Cabling expense needed for connection of nodes with hub. each device need one link so one I/O port to connect.  No direct link among devices so no direct traffic among devices.

Figure 1.7 A bus topology connecting three stations .

four network devices in the same room require four lengths of cable reaching  Disadvantages  Difficult reconnection and fault isolation. a bus uses less cabling than mesh or star topologies.  In a star.  A tap is a connector that either splices into the main cable or punctures the sheathing of a cable to create a contact with the metallic core. for example.  The damaged area reflects signals back in the direction of origin.  In addition.  In this way. then connected to the nodes by drop lines of various lengths.  Advantages  Ease of installation. creating noise in both directions .7 A bus topology connecting three stations  Nodes are connected to bus cable by drop lines and taps. Backbone cable can be laid along the most efficient path. even between devices on the same side of the problem.Figure 1.  A drop line is a connection running between the device and the main cable. a fault or break in the bus cable stops all transmission.

8 A ring topology connecting six stations .Figure 1.

fault isolation is simplified.  This weakness can be solved by using a dual ring or a switch capable of closing off the break .8 A ring topology connecting six stations  Each device has a dedicated point-to-point connection with only the two devices on either side of it. from device to device.  Each device in the ring incorporates a repeater. When a device receives a signal intended for another device. Each device is linked to only its immediate neighbors (either physically or logically).  To add or delete a device requires changing only two connections.Figure 1. until it reaches its destination. a break in the ring (such as a disabled station) can disable the entire network.  Disadvantages  Unidirectional traffic can be a disadvantage. The only constraints are media and traffic considerations (maximum ring length and number of devices). its repeater regenerates the bits and passes them along  Advantages  Relatively easy to install and reconfigure.  In a simple ring.  A signal is passed along the ring in one direction. In addition.

we can have a main star topology with each branch connecting several stations in a bus topology .Figure 1.9 Hybrid topology: star backbone with 3-bus networks  A network can be hybrid. For example.

Categories of Networks  Local Area Networks (LANs)  Privately used. Short distances (offices. homes etc)  Can be formed between two PC’s  Designed to provide local interconnectivity  Only few Kilo meters size  Wide Area Networks (WANs)  Long distances  Provide connectivity over large areas  Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs)  Provide connectivity over areas such as a city. a campus .

10 Isolated LAN connecting 12 computers to a hub in a closet .Figure 1.

20 .  Depending on the needs of an organization and the type of technology used.10). LAN size is limited to a few kilometers. a LAN can be as simple as two PCs and a printer in someone's home office. or campus (see Figure 1. Local Area Networks  A local area network (LAN) is usually privately owned and links the devices in a single office. building. or it can extend throughout a company and include audio and video peripherals.  Currently. 1.

Figure 1.11 WANs: a switched WAN and a point-to-point WAN .

or campus (see Figure 1. 1. software (e. ring.  In general.g. The most common LAN topologies are bus.g..22 . LANs are distinguished from other types of networks by their transmission media and topology. building. and star.. or data.  Early LANs had data rates in the 4 to 16 megabits per second (Mbps) range.  Designed to allow resources to be shared between personal computers or workstations. a given LAN will use only one type of transmission medium. Local Area Networks  LAN is usually privately owned and links devices in a single office. an application program). a printer).  The resources to be shared can include hardware (e.10). speeds are normally 100 or 1000 Mbps. however.  In addition to size.  Today.

12 Heterogeneous network made of 4-WANs & two LANs .Figure 1.

.  This type of WAN is often used to provide Internet access. Wide Area Networks  It provides long-distance transmission of data.  The point-to-point WAN is normally a line leased from a telephone or cable TV provider that connects a home computer or a small LAN to an Internet service provider (lSP).  The switched WAN connects the end systems. or even the whole world. and video information over large geographic areas that may comprise a country. audio.  We normally refer to the first as a switched WAN and to the second as a point-to-point WAN (Figure 1.  WAN can be as complex as the backbones that connect the Internet or as simple as a dial-up line that connects a home computer to the Internet. which usually comprise a router (internetworking connecting device) that connects to another LAN or WAN. a continent.11). image.

. Metropolitan Area Networks  A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network with a size between a LAN and a WAN. normally to the Internet.  It normally covers the area inside a town or a city.  A good example of a MAN is the part of the telephone company network that can provide a high-speed DSL line to the customer. but today can also be used for high-speed data connection to the Internet. Another example is the cable TV network that originally was designed for cable TV. It is designed for customers who need a high-speed connectivity. and have endpoints spread over a city or part of city.

Topics discussed in this section: Organization of the Internet Internet Service Providers (ISPs) . 1-3 THE INTERNET The Internet has revolutionized many aspects of our daily lives. It has affected the way we do business as well as the way we spend our leisure time. The Internet is a communication system that has brought a wealth of information to our fingertips and organized it for our use.

Figure 1.13 Hierarchical organization of the Internet .

There are many national ISPs operating in North America. and internet Mel. AGIS.  These normally operate at a high data rate (up to 600 Mbps). UUNet Technology.  To provide connectivity b/w end users. Internet  At the top of the hierarchy are the international service providers that connect nations together.  Some national ISP networks are also connected to one another by private switching stations called peering points. these backbone networks are connected by complex switching stations (normally run by a third party) called network access points (NAPs). . some of the most well known are SprintLink. PSINet.  National Internet service providers are backbone networks created and maintained by specialized companies.

a local ISP can be a company that just provides Internet services. Internet  A good example of a MAN is the part of the telephone company network that can provide a high-speed DSL line to the customer.  Regional internet service providers or regional ISPs are smaller ISPs that are connected to one or more national ISPs. Most end users are connected to the local ISPs. such as a college or a university. a corporation with a network that supplies services to its own employees. or a nonprofit organization. that runs its own network. They are at the third level of the hierarchy with a smaller data rate. . The local ISPs can be connected to regional ISPs or directly to national ISPs.  Local Internet service providers provide direct service to the end users. Another example is the cable TV network that originally was designed for cable TV. but today can also be used for high-speed data connection to the Internet.  Note that in this sense.  Each of these local ISPs can be connected to a regional or national service provider.

1-4 PROTOCOLS A protocol is synonymous with rule. semantics and timing Topics discussed in this section:  Syntax  Semantics  Timing . It determines what is communicated. The key elements of a protocol are syntax. how it is communicated and when it is communicated. It consists of a set of rules that govern data communications.

Elements of a Protocol  Syntax  Structure or format of the data  Indicates how to read the bits . .field delineation  Semantics  Interprets the meaning of the bits  Knows which fields define what action  Timing  When data should be sent and what  Speed at which data should be sent or speed at which it is being received.