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Cellular Mobile

Communication Concept &
GSM System

What is Mobile phone?  The mobile phone or cell phone is a long-range. portable electronic device used for mobile communication .

What is Mobile communication  A wireless form of communication in which voice and data information is emitted.  Example: cellular and digital cordless telephones. transmitted and received via microwaves. satellite based communication etc. . pagers.

Related Terms  MS-Mobile Station  BTS-Base Transceiver Station  BSC-(Base Station Controller)  MSC-Mobile Switching Center  PSTN-Public Switched Telephone Network .

What a mobile contains?  PCB(Printed Circuit Board)  Microphone  Speaker  Antenna  Battery  Flash/ROM .

How a mobile works? .

the phone identifies that the cell it is communicating is the part of its home system. If both SID match. The Control channel is a special frequency that the phone and base station use to talk to one another. . it compares the SID with the SID programmed in the phone.  If the Mobile phone gets the SID.What happens when we make a call?  When we switch on the mobile phone. If the Mobile phone finds difficulty to get link with the control channel. it tries for an SID on the Control channel. it displays a “no service” message.

 When a MS is close to a BS it needs a less transmission power and it needs a high transmission power when MS is far from BS. MS needs to control its transmission power.  Adapting Power Control is efficient for battery. This is known as Adapting Power Control.Adapting power control?  Generally a BS uses 10 to 100 Watt and a MS uses 0. .5 Watt.  Depending on its position from BS .

Mobile Phone has 3 special codes:  ESN – Electronic Serial Number(32 bit)  MIN – Mobile Identification Number(10 bit)  SID – System Identification Code(5 bit) ESN is a permanent part of the phone while MIN and SID codes are programmed in the phone when a service plan is selected and activated. .

The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user’s subscription information and phone book. SIM card Securely stores the service subscriber key having 15 digits. The digits of the key are :  Country code – 3 digit  Network – 2 digit  Subscriber number – around 10 digit . SIM card SIM – Subscriber Identification Module .

the term handover or handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another channel.Handover In cellular telecommunications. .

voice or text data is carried in bursts. These are Control channels and Traffic channels. . In the Traffic channel. Control channels Traffic channels Control channels: Control channel is used for call initiate. GSM Global System for Mobile Communications is the standard for mobile telephone systems in the world. Traffic channels: It is used to carry calls or other data from the mobile phone to the base station and vice versa. There are two types of channels used in GSM .

 GSM 1900MHZ GSM operates on the mobile communication bands 900 MHz and 1800 MHz in most parts of the world.Frequency in GSM Mainly 4 frequency used in  GSM 400. In GSM 900MHZ there are 2 part  UL(uplink)– 850-915 MHz  DL(Downlink)– 935-960MHz The difference between channel is 45MHz .  GSM 1800.  GSM 900.

Why ul(Uplink) frequency is lower than dl(Download) frequency? It is because a mobile is operated on a battery with low power and therefore it sends signals on low(uplink) frequencies whereas a base station is driven by high power and can easily send signals on high(downlink) frequencies. This can be verified by Friis equation which says Transmitted power and Transmitted frequency are directly proportional. .

 GSM is a circuit-switched system that divides each 200 kHz .  FDMA gives users an individual allocation of one or several frequency bands.FDMA  Frequency division multiple access or FDMA is a channel access method used in multiple-access protocols as a channelization protocol. or channels.

FDMA .

 It allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into different time slots. .TDMA  Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared medium networks.

TDMA .