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email: nazarsinaga@yahoo.com

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Contents

• Types of Heat Exchangers

• The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

• Analysis of Heat Exchangers

• The Log Mean Temperature Difference

Method

• The Effectiveness–NTU Method

Objectives

exchanger

• Identify key variables affecting heat transfer

and quantify the nature of any significant

effects

• Develop appropriate models to describe heat

transfer characteristics

Introduction to Heat Exchangers

What Are Heat Exchangers?

Heat exchangers are units designed to transfer heat from a hot flowing

stream to a cold flowing stream.

Heat exchangers and heat recovery is often used to improve process

efficiency.

Types of Heat Exchangers

There are three broad categories:

• The recuperator, or through-the-wall non

storing exchanger

• The direct contact non storing exchanger

• The regenerator, accumulator, or heat storage

exchanger

Recuperators

Direct Contact

Regenerators

Heat Transfer Within a Heat Exchanger

Heat transfer within a heat exchanger typically involves a

combination of conduction and convection

The overall heat transfer coefficient U accounts for the overall

resistance to heat transfer from convection and conduction

1 1 1 x

UA h1 A1 h2 A2 kAmean

The schematic of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger (one-shell

pass and one-tube pass).

A plate-and-frame liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger

Thermal resistance network associated with

heat transfer in a double-pipe heat

exchanger.

The two heat transfer surface areas associated with a double-pipe heat

exchanger (for thin tubes, Di ≈ Do and thus Ai ≈ Ao).

The thermal resistance of the tube wall :

The rate of heat transfer between the two fluids as :

When the wall thickness of the tube is small and the thermal

conductivity of the tube material is high, as is usually the case, the

thermal resistance of the tube is negligible (Rwall ≈ 0) and the inner and

outer surfaces of the tube are almost identical (Ai ≈ Ao ≈ As).

coefficient, since the inverse of a large number is small.

When one of the convection coefficients is much smaller than the

other (say, hi << ho), we have 1/hi >>1/ho, and thus U ≈ hi.

Therefore, the smaller heat transfer coefficient creates a

bottleneck on the path of heat flow and seriously impedes heat

transfer.

This situation arises frequently when one of the fluids is a gas

and the other is a liquid.

In such cases, fins are commonly used on the gas side to enhance

the product UAs and thus the heat transfer on that side.

Type of heat exchanger U, W/m2..°C

Gas-to-gas 10–40

Water-to-air in finned tubes (water in tubes) 30–60†

Water-to-air in finned tubes (water in tubes) 300–850‡

Steam-to-air in finned tubes (steam in tubes) 30–300†

Steam-to-air in finned tubes (steam in tubes) 400–4000‡

Steam-to-heavy fuel oil 50–200

Water-to-oil 100–350

Steam-to-light fuel oil 200–400

Alcohol condensers (water cooled) 250–700

Freon condenser (water cooled) 300–1000

Water-to-gasoline or kerosene 300–1000

Ammonia condenser (water cooled) 800–1400

Water-to-water 850–1700

Feedwater heaters 1000–8500

Steam condenser 1000–6000

*Multiply the listed values by 0.176 to convert them to Btu/h ·ft2 ·°F.

†Based on air-side surface area.

‡Based on water- or steam-side surface area.

When the tube is finned on one side to enhance heat transfer, the total

heat transfer surface area on the finned side becomes

For short fins of high thermal conductivity, we can use this total area in the

convection resistance relation Rconv =1/hAs since the fins in this case will

be very nearly isothermal.

Fouling Factor

• The performance of heat exchangers usually deteriorates with

time as a result of accumulation of deposits on heat transfer

surfaces.

transfer and causes the rate of heat transfer in a heat

exchanger to decrease.

represented by a fouling factor Rf , which is a measure of the

thermal resistance introduced by fouling.

• The most common type of fouling is the

precipitation of solid deposits in a fluid on the

heat transfer surfaces.

chemical process industry, is corrosion and other

chemical fouling.

of algae in warm fluids (biological fouling)

Precipitation fouling of ash particles on

superheater tubes

• The fouling factor depends on the operating temperature and

the velocity of the fluids, as well as the length of service.

decreasing velocity.

Representative fouling factors (thermal resistance due to fouling for a unit surface area)

(Source: Tubular Exchange Manufacturers Association.)

EXAMPLE : Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient of a

Heat Exchanger

Hot oil is to be cooled in a double-tube counter-flow heat exchanger.

The copper inner tubes have a diameter of 2 cm and negligible

thickness. The inner diameter of the outer tube (the shell) is 3 cm.

Water flows through the tube at a rate of 0.5 kg/s, and the oil

through the shell at a rate of 0.8 kg/s. Taking the average

temperatures of the water and the oil to be 45°C and 80°C,

respectively, determine the overall heat transfer coefficient of this

heat exchanger.

SOLUTION

Hot oil is cooled by water in a double-tube counter-flow heat

exchanger. The overall heat transfer coefficient is to be

determined.

Assumptions

1. The thermal resistance of the inner tube is negligible since

the tube material is highly conductive and its thickness is

negligible.

2. Both the oil and water flow are fully developed.

3. Properties of the oil and water are constant.

• The properties of water at 45°C are

• The hydraulic diameter for a circular tube is the diameter of the tube

itself, Dh = D= 0.02 m.

• The mean velocity of water in the tube and the Reynolds number are

• Therefore, the flow of water is turbulent.

• Assuming the flow to be fully developed, the Nusselt

number can be determined from

• Now we repeat the analysis above for oil.

• The properties of oil at 80°C are :

The mean velocity and the Reynolds number in this case are

Therefore, the flow of oil is laminar.

Nusselt number for fully developed laminar flow in a circular annulus with

one surface insulated and the other isothermal (Kays and Perkins, Ref. 8.)

• Assuming fully developed flow, the Nusselt number on the tube

side of the annular space Nui corresponding to Di /Do =

0.02/0.03 = 0.667 can be determined from the table by

interpolation, we find :

Nu = 5.45

• and

• Then the overall heat transfer coefficient for this heat exchanger becomes

Discussion

• Note that U ≈ ho in this case, since hi >> ho.

• This confirms our earlier statement that the overall heat transfer coefficient in a

heat exchanger is dominated by the smaller heat transfer coefficient when the

difference between the two values is large.

• To improve the overall heat transfer coefficient and thus the heat transfer in

this heat exchanger, we must use some enhancement techniques on the oil side,

such as a finned surface.

DIMENSIONLESS ANALYSIS TO

CHARACTERIZE A HEAT EXCHANGER

Nu f(Re, Pr, L/D, μ /μ )

b o

h.D v.D.

C p .

k k

D

•Further Simplification: Nu a.Re b .Pr c Nu

Can be obtained from 2 set of experiments

h

One set, run for constant Pr k

q A(Tw T )

And second set, run for constant Re

•Empirical Correlation

Nu = 1.62 (Re*Pr*L/D)

0.14

b

Nu 0.026. Re 0.8

. Pr 1/ 3

.

o

Conditions: L/D > 10

0.6 < Pr < 16,700

Re > 20,000

Compact Heat Exchangers

• Analysis based on NTU method

• Convection (and friction) coefficients have been determined for selected

HX cores by Kays and London. Proprietary data have been obtained by

manufacturers of many other core configurations.

• Results for a circular tube-continuous fin HX core:

jh St Pr 2 / 3

St h / Gc p

G Vmax

Results for a circular tube-continuous fin HX core

jh St Pr 2 / 3

St h / Gc p

G Vmax

General Considerations

• Computational Features/Limitations of the LMTD Method:

The LMTD method may be applied to design problems for which the fluid

flow rates and inlet temperatures, as well as a desired outlet temperature,

are prescribed.

For a specified HX type, the required size (surface area), as well as the

other outlet temperature, are readily determined.

If the LMTD method is used in performance calculations for which both

outlet temperatures must be determined from knowledge of the inlet

temperatures, the solution procedure is iterative.

For both design and performance calculations, the effectiveness-NTU

method may be used without iteration.

LMTD Method

Q = U As Tlm

The procedure to be followed by the selection process is:

2. Determine any unknown inlet or outlet temperature and the heat transfer rate

using an energy balance.

3. Calculate the log mean temperature difference Tlm and the correction factor F, if

necessary.

4. Obtain (select or calculate) the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient U.

CONCURRENT FLOW

1 2

∆T1

∆T2

∆A

A

T10

T1 T4 T2

T5

T3 T6

T8 T9

T7

P ara llel Fl ow

Calculating U using Log Mean Temperature

Hot Stream : dqh m

h .C ph .dTh d (T ) dTh dTc dq h dqc

d (T )

d (T ) d (Th Tc ) m .C h m .C c

Cold Stream: dqc m

c .C pc .dTc h p c p

T Th Tc

dq dqhot dqcold 1

d (T ) U .T .dA.

1

m .C h m .C c

dq U .T .dA h p c p

T2 d ( T ) 1 1 A2

.

T1 T

U .

m .C h

m .C c A1

dA

h p c p

T2

ln

U . A.

Th Tc U . A Thin Thout Tcin Tcout

T1 q q

qm

h.C ph.Th T T

q U .A 2 1

T

ln 2

Log Mean Temperature

T

Difference 1

Calculating U using Log Mean Temperature

T2

ln

U . A.

Th Tc

U .A

Th

in

Th

out

Tc

in

Tc

out

T1 q q

T2

ln

U .A

Thin Tcin Thout Tcout

T1 q

T2

ln

U .A

T1 T2 U . A T2 T1

T1 q q

T T

q U .A 2 1 Log Mean

T Temperature

ln 2 Difference

T

1

Log Mean Temperature Evaluation

CONCURRENT FLOW

T1 Thin Tcin T3 T7

1 2

T2 Thout Tcout T6 T10

∆ T1

∆ T2 T2 T1

TLn

T2

ln

∆A T1

A

h .C ph .T3 T6

m c .C pc .T7 T10

m

U

T 10

T1 T2

T4 T5

T3 T6

A.TLn A.TLn

T8 T9

T7

P ara ll el Fl ow

Log Mean Temperature Evaluation

1 2

T3 T4 T6

T1 T1

T6

Wall

T7 T2 T1 Thin Tcout T3 T7

T8 T2

T9 T2 Thout Tcin T6 T10

T10

A

T 10

T2

T1 T4 T5

T3 T6

T7 T8 T9

Co un t er - C u r re n t F low

q hh Ai Tlm 1 2

T3 T4 T6

(T T1 ) (T6 T2 ) T6

Tlm 3 T1

(T T1 ) Wall

ln 3

(T6 T2 ) T2

T7 T8

T9

T10

A

q hc Ao Tlm

(T1 T7 ) (T2 T10 )

Tlm

(T1 T7 )

ln

(T2 T10 )

The Effectiveness

– NTU Method

The Effectiveness – NTU Method

problems, Kays and London came up with a method in 1955

called the effectiveness–NTU method, which greatly simplified

heat exchanger analysis.

heat transfer effectiveness, defined as

The actual heat transfer rate in a heat exchanger can be determined

from an energy balance on the hot or cold fluids and can be

expressed as

Definitions

• Heat exchanger effectiveness :

q

qmax

0 1

qmax Cmin Th,i Tc ,i

Ch if Ch Cc

Cmin or

Cc if Cc Ch

possible temperature change in transit through the HX?

Why is Cmin and not Cmax used in the definition of qmax?

For a parallel-flow heat exchanger can be rearranged as

Effectiveness relations of the heat exchangers typically involve the

dimensionless group UAs /Cmin.

This quantity is called the number of transfer units NTU and is

expressed as

dimensionless quantity called the capacity ratio c as

Example

A counter-flow double-pipe heat exchanger is to heat water from 20°C

to 80°C at a rate of 1.2 kg/s. The heating is to be accomplished by

geothermal water available at 160°C at a mass flow rate of 2 kg/s. The

inner tube is thin-walled and has a diameter of 1.5 cm. If the overall

heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger is 640 W/m2 .°C,

determine the length of the heat exchanger required to achieve the

desired heating.

Assumptions

1. Steady operating conditions exist.

2. The heat exchanger is well insulated so that heat loss to the

surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is

equal to the heat transfer to the cold fluid.

3. Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are

negligible.

4. There is no fouling.

5. Fluid properties are constant.

Problem 11.28: Use of twin-tube (brazed) heat exchanger to heat air

by extracting energy from a hot water supply.

KNOWN: Counterflow heat exchanger formed by two brazed tubes with prescribed hot and

cold fluid inlet temperatures and flow rates.

SCHEMATIC:

Problem: Twin-Tube Heat Exchanger (cont.)

changes in kinetic and potential energy, (3) Flow in tubes is fully developed since L/D h = 40

m/0.030m = 1333.

PROPERTIES: Table A-6, Water ( Th = 335 K): ch = cp,h = 4186 J/kgK, = 453 10-6

Ns/m2, k = 0.656 W/mK, Pr = 2.88; Table A-4, Air (300 K): cc = cp,c = 1007 J/kgK, =

184.6 10-7 Ns/m2, k = 0.0263 W/mK, Pr = 0.707; Table A-1, Nickel ( T = (23 + 85)C/2 =

327 K): k = 88 W/mK.

1 exp NTU 1 C r

NTU UA / C min Cr Cmin / Cmax . (1,2,3)

1 Cr exp NTU 1 C r

Cc Tc,o Tc,i / Cmin Th,i Tc,i . (4)

1 1 1 1

(5)

UA o hA h Kt L o hA c

Since circumferential conduction may be significant in the tube walls, o needs to be evaluated for each of the tubes.

Problem: Twin-Tube Heat Exchanger (cont.)

4m h 4 0.04 kg / s

Water-side: Re D 11, 243.

D 0.010m 453 106 N s / m 2

The flow is turbulent, and since fully developed, the Dittus-Boelter correlation may be used,

Nu h h h D / k 0.023Re0.8

D Pr

0.3 0.023 11, 243

0.8

2.880.3 54.99

h h 54.99 0.656 W / m K / 0.01m 3, 607 W / m2 K.

4mc 4 0.120 kg / s

Air-side: ReD 275,890.

D 0.030m 184.6 107 N s / m 2

The flow is turbulent and, since fully developed,

Nu c h c D / K 0.023Re0.8

D Pr

0.4 0.023 275,890

0.8

0.707 0.4 450.9

h c 450.9 0.0263 W / m K / 0.030m 395.3 W / m 2 K.

m h h P / kA

1/ 2

o,h f ,h tanh mLh / mLh h h / kt

1/ 2

1/ 2

m 3607 W / m2 K / 88 W / m K 0.002m 143.2 m1

Problem: Twin-Tube Heat Exchanger (cont.)

With Lh = 0.5 Dh, o,h = tanh(143.2 m-1 0.5 0.010m)/143.2 m-1 0.5 0.010 m =

0.435.

1/ 2

o,c f ,c tanh mLc / mLc m 395.3 W / m2 K / 88 W / m K 0.002m 47.39 m1

With Lc = 0.5Dc, o,c = tanh(47.39 m-1 0.5 0.030m)/47.39 m-1 0.5 0.030m =

0.438.

Hence, from Eq. (5) the UA product is

1 1 1 1

UA 2

0.435 3607 W / m K 1.257 m

2 100 W / m K 40m 2

0.438 395.3 W / m K 3.770 m

2

1

UA 5.070 104 2.50 104 1.533 103 W / K 437 W / K.

With

Ch mh ch 0.040 kg / s 4186 J / kg K 167.4 W / K Cmax

Cc mccc 0.120 kg / s 1007 J / kg K 120.8 W / K Cmin

Cr Cmin / Cmax 0.722

UA 437 W / K

NTU 3.62

Cmin 120.8 W / K

Problem: Twin-Tube Heat Exchanger (cont.)

0.862

1 0.722 exp 3.62 1 0.722

0.862

Cc Tc,o 23C Tc,o 76.4C <

Cc 85 23 C

COMMENTS: (1) Using the overall energy balance, the water outlet temperature is

Th,o Th,i Cc / Ch Tc,o Tc,i 85C 0.722 76.4 23 C 46.4C.

(2) To initially evaluate the properties, we assumed that Th 335 K and Tc 300 K. From

the calculated values of Th,o and Tc,o, more appropriate estimates of Th and Tc are 338 K and

322 K, respectively. We conclude that proper thermophysical properties were used for water

but that the estimates could be improved for air.

Problem: Heat Transfer Enhancement

Problem 11.65: Use of fluted spheres and solid spheres to enhance the performance

of a concentric tube, water/glycol heat exchanger.

KNOWN: Flow rates and inlet temperatures of water and glycol in counterflow heat

exchanger. Desired glycol outlet temperature. Heat exchanger diameter and overall heat

transfer coefficient without and with spherical inserts.

FIND: (a) Required length without spheres, (b) Required length with spheres, (c)

Explanation for reduction in fouling and pump power associated with using spheres.

SCHEMATIC:

Th,i = 100oC

Th,o = 40oC

.

mh = 0.5 kg/s

L

Tc,i = 15oC

.

mc = 0.5 kg/s Di = 0.075 m

Problem: Heat Transfer Enhancement (cont.)

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Negligible kinetic energy, potential energy and flow work changes,

(2) Negligible heat loss to surroundings, (3) Constant properties, (4) Negligible tube wall

thickness.

PROPERTIES: Table A-5, Ethylene glycol Th 70C : cp,h = 2606 J/kgK; Table A-6,

Water Tc 35C : cp,c = 4178 J/kgK.

ANALYSIS: (a) With Ch = Cmin = 1303 W/K and Cc = Cmax = 2089 W/K, Cr = 0.624. With

actual and maximum possible heat rates of

q Ch Th,i Th,o 1303 W / K 100 40 C 78,180 W

qmax Cmin Th,i Tc,i 1303 W / K 100 15 C 110, 755 W

1 1 0.294

NTU ln 2.66 ln 1.71

Cr 1 C r 1 0.559

Cmin NTU 1303 W / K 1.71

L 9.46m

Di U 0.075m 1000 W / m K

2

(b) Since mc, m h, Th,i, Th,o and Tc,i are unchanged, Cr, and NTU are unchanged. Hence,

with U = 2000 W/m2K,

L 4.73m <

Problem: Heat Transfer Enhancement (cont.)

(c) Because the spheres induce mixing of the flows, the potential for contaminant build-up on

the surfaces, and hence fouling, is reduced. Although the obstruction to flow imposed by the

spheres acts to increase the pressure drop, the reduction in the heat exchanger length reduces

the pressure drop. The second effect may exceed that of the first, thereby reducing pump

power requirements.

COMMENTS: The water outlet temperature is Tc,o = T c,i + q/Cc = 15C + 78,180 W/2089

W/K = 52.4C. The mean temperature Tc 33.7C is close to that used to evaluate the

specific heat of water.

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