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Momentum

Momentum is

conserved in this

rocket launch.

The velocity of

the rocket and its

payload is

determined by

the mass and

velocity of the

expelled gases.

Photo: NASA

NASA

Objectives: After completing this

module, you should be able to:

• State the law of conservation of momentum

and apply it to the solution of problems.

• Distinguish by definition and example

between elastic and inelastic collisions.

• Predict the velocities of two colliding bodies

when given the coefficients of restitution,

masses, and initial velocities.

A Collision of Two Masses

When two masses m1 and m2 collide, we will use

the symbol u to describe velocities before collision.

Before u1 u2

m1 m2

v1 After v2

m1 m2

A Collision of Two Blocks

Before u1 u2

m1 m2

Collision

“u”= Before “v” = After

m1 m2B

After v1

m1 m2 v2

Conservation of Energy

u1 u2

m1 m2

equal to the kinetic energy after colliding

plus the energy lost in the collision.

1

2 m u m u m v m v Loss

2

1 1

1

2

2

2 2

1

2

2

1 1

1

2

2

2 2

Example 1. A 2-kg mass moving at 4 m/s

collides with a 1-kg mass initially at rest. After

the collision, the 2-kg mass moves at 1 m/s

and the 1-kg mass moves at 3 m/s. What

energy was lost in the collision?

appropriate symbols and given information.

m1 m2 m1 m2

m1 = 2 kg m1 = 1 kg m1 = 2 kg m1 = 1 kg

BEFORE AFTER

Example 1 (Continued). What energy

was lost in the collision? Energy is

conserved.

u1 = 4 m/s u2 = 0 v1 = 1 m/s v2 = 2 m/s

m1 m2 m1 m2

m1 = 2 kg m1 = 1 kg m1 = 2 kg m1 = 1 kg

BEFORE:

1

2 m1u12 12 m2u22 12 (2 kg)(4 m/s)2 0 16 J

AFTER

1

m v

2 1 1

2

1

2 m v

2 2

2

1

2 (2 kg)(1 m/s) 2

1

2 (1 kg)(2 m/s) 2

3J

Impulse and Momentum

uA uB

A B Impulse = Dp

-FA Dt FB Dt FDt = mvf– mvo

B

Opposite but Equal F Dt

vA vB

A B FBDt = -FADt

Conservation of Momentum

The total momentum AFTER a collision is equal

to the total momentum BEFORE.

mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB

uA uB

A B Recall that the total energy

is also conserved:

-FADt FB Dt

B

Kinetic Energy: K = ½mv2

vA

A B

vB KA0 + KB0 = KAf + KBf + Loss

Example 2: A 2-kg block A and a 1-kg block

B are pushed together against a spring and

tied with a cord. When the cord breaks,

the 1-kg block moves to the right at 8 m/s.

What is the velocity of the 2 kg block?

The initial velocities are

A zero, so that the total

B momentum before release is

zero.

0 0

mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB

mBv B

mAvA = - mBvB vA = -

mA

Example 2 (Continued)

2 kg vA2 8 m/s

1 kg

A B A B

0

mAvA+ mBvB = mAuA + mBuB0

mB v B

mAvA = - mBvB vA = -

mA

(1 kg)(8 m/s)

vA = - vA = - 4 m/s

(2 kg)

Example 2 (Cont.): Ignoring friction, how

much energy was released by the spring?

2 kg 4 m/s 8 m/s

1 kg

A B A B

2

Cons. of E: ½kx2 = ½ mAvA + ½mBvB2

½kx2 = 16 J + 32 J = 48 J ½kx2 = 48 J

Elastic or Inelastic?

no energy. The deform- energy is lost and the

ation on collision is fully deformation may be

restored. permanent. (Click it.)

Completely Inelastic Collisions

Collisions where two objects stick together

and have a common velocity after impact.

Before After

Example 3: A 60-kg football player stands

on a frictionless lake of ice. He catches a

2-kg football and then moves at 40 cm/s.

What was the initial velocity of the football?

A

Given: uB= 0; mA= 2 kg; mB= 60 kg;

B vA= vB= vC vC = 0.4 m/s

0

Momentum: mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB

Inelastic collision: (mA + mB)vC = mAuA

Example 3 (Cont.): How much energy

was lost in catching the football?

0

1

2 m u m u (mA mB )v Loss

2

A A

1

2

2

B B

1

2

2

C

General: Completely Inelastic

Collisions where two objects stick together

and have a common velocity vC after impact.

Conservation of Momentum:

Conservation of Energy:

1

2 m u m u (mA mB )v Loss

2

A A

1

2

2

B B

1

2

2

c

Example 4. An 87-kg skater B collides with a 22-kg

skater A initially at rest on ice. They move together

after the collision at 2.4 m/s. Find the velocity of the

skater B before the collision.

Common speed after vB= vA = vC = 2.4 m/s

colliding: 2.4 m/s.

uA = 0 uB = ? mAu A mBuB (mA mB )vC

87 kg

(87 kg)uB = (87 kg + 22 kg)(2.4 m/s)

B

A

22 kg (87 kg)uB =262 kg m/s

uB = 3.01 m/s

Example 5: A 50 g bullet strikes a 1-kg

block, passes all the way through, then

lodges into the 2 kg block. Afterward,

the 1 kg block moves at 1 m/s and the 2

kg block moves at 2 m/s. What was the

entrance velocity of the bullet?

u A= ? 1 kg

2 kg

1 m/s 2 m/s

1 kg 2 kg

A C

B

Find entrance velocity of 50 g

1 kg 2 kg

bullet: mA= 0.05 kg; uA= ?

1 m/s 2 m/s

Momentum After = 1 kg 2 kg

Momentum Before

0 0

mAuA + mBuB + mCuC = mBvB + (mA+mC) vAC

Completely Elastic Collisions

Collisions where two objects collide in such a

way that zero energy is lost in the process.

APPROXIMATIONS!

Velocity in Elastic Collisions

uA uB

A B 1. Zero energy lost.

2. Masses do not change.

vA vB

A B

3. Momentum conserved.

Equal but opposite impulses (F Dt) means that:

Example 6: A 2-kg ball moving to the

right at 1 m/s strikes a 4-kg ball moving

left at 3 m/s. What are the velocities

after impact, assuming complete

elasticity?

1 m/s 3 m/s vA - vB = - (uA - uB)

A B

vA - vB = uB - uA

vA 1 kg 2 kg

vB

A B

vA - vB = (-3 m/s) - (1 m/s)

From conservation of energy (relative v):

vA - vB = - 4 m/s

Example 6 (Continued)

1 m/s 3 m/s

Energy: vA - vB = - 4 m/s

A B

Momentum also conserved: vA 1 kg 2 kg v

B

A B

mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB

equations to solve: vA - vB = - 4 m/s

Example 6 (Continued)

1 m/s 3 m/s

vA + 2vB = -5 m/s

A B

vA - vB = - 4 m/s 1 kg 2 kg v

vA B

A B

Subtract: 0 + 3vB2 = - 1 m/s

Substitution:

vA= -3.67 m/s

vA - vB = - 4 m/s

Example 7. A 0.150 kg bullet is fired at 715 m/s into a 2-

kg wooden block at rest. The velocity of block afterward is

40 m/s. The bullet passes through the block and emerges

with what velocity?

B

A

mAvA mB vB mAu A mBuB

uB = 0

(0.150 kg)vA+ (2 kg)(40 m/s) = (0.150 kg)(715 m/s)

27.2 m/s

0.150vA = 27.2 m/s) vA

0.150

vA = 181 m/s

Example 8a: Inelastic collision: Find vC.

2 m/s uB=0 After hit: vB= vA= vC

5 kg 7.5 kg mAu A mBuB (mA mB )vC

A B

(5 kg)(2 m/s) = (5 kg + 7.5 kg)vC

vC

Common

12.5 vC =10 m/s

vC after

vC = 0.800 m/s

A B

stick together and move as one after colliding.

Example 8. (b) Elastic collision: Find vA2 and vB2

2 m/s vB1=0 Conservation of Momentum:

5 kg 7.5 kg mAvA mAvA mB vB

A B

(5 kg)(2 m/s) = (5 kg)vA2 + (7.5 kg) vB

vA vB

5 vA + 7.5 vB = 10 m/s

vA vB (u A uB ) vA vB 2 m/s

Continued . . .

Example 8b (Cont). Elastic collision: Find vA & vB

Solve simultaneously: 2 m/s vB =0

x (-5) 5 kg 7.5 kg

vA vB 2 m/s

A B

5 vA + 7.5 v B = 10 m/s vB

vA

B

A

5 vA + 7.5 vB = 10 m/s

-5 vA + 5 vB = +10 m/s vA - 1.60 m/s = -2 m/s

12.5 vB = 20 m/s vA = -0.400 m/s

20 m/s

vB 1.60 m/s vB = 1.60 m/s

12.5

General: Completely Elastic

Collisions where zero energy is lost

during a collision (an ideal case).

Conservation of Momentum:

Conservation of Energy:

1

2 m u m u m v m v Loss

2

A A

1

2

2

B B

1

2

2

A A

1

2

2

B B

vA vB uB u A

Example 9: A 50 g bullet lodges into a 2-kg

block of clay hung by a string. The bullet and

clay rise together to a height of 12 cm. What

was the velocity of the 50-g mass just before

entering?

uA B

A 12 cm

B

A

The ballistic pendulum!

Example (Continued):

Collision and Momentum:

2.05 kg

mAuA+0= (mA+mB)vC

uA B

(0.05 kg)uA = (2.05 kg)vC A 12 cm

50 g 2 kg

To find vA we need vC .

After collision, energy is conserved for masses.

1

2 (mA mB )v (mA mB ) gh

2

C vC = 2gh

Example (Continued):

vC = 2gh = 2(9.8)(0.12)

2.05 kg

After Collision: vC = 1.53 m/s

uA B

Momentum Also

A 12 cm

Conserved:

50 g

mAuA+0= (mA+mB)vC 2 kg

uA = 62.9 m/s

Summary of Formulas:

Conservation of Momentum:

Conservation of Energy:

1

2 m u m u m v m v Loss

2

A A

1

2

2

B B

1

2

2

A A

1

2

2

B B

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