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Chapter 9B - Conservation of

Momentum
Momentum is
conserved in this
rocket launch.
The velocity of
the rocket and its
payload is
determined by
the mass and
velocity of the
expelled gases.
Photo: NASA
NASA
Objectives: After completing this
module, you should be able to:
• State the law of conservation of momentum
and apply it to the solution of problems.
• Distinguish by definition and example
between elastic and inelastic collisions.
• Predict the velocities of two colliding bodies
when given the coefficients of restitution,
masses, and initial velocities.
A Collision of Two Masses
When two masses m1 and m2 collide, we will use
the symbol u to describe velocities before collision.
Before u1 u2
m1 m2

The symbol v will describe velocities after collision.

v1 After v2
m1 m2
A Collision of Two Blocks
Before u1 u2
m1 m2

Collision
“u”= Before “v” = After
m1 m2B

After v1
m1 m2 v2
Conservation of Energy
u1 u2
m1 m2

The kinetic energy before colliding is


equal to the kinetic energy after colliding
plus the energy lost in the collision.

1
2 m u  m u  m v  m v  Loss
2
1 1
1
2
2
2 2
1
2
2
1 1
1
2
2
2 2
Example 1. A 2-kg mass moving at 4 m/s
collides with a 1-kg mass initially at rest. After
the collision, the 2-kg mass moves at 1 m/s
and the 1-kg mass moves at 3 m/s. What
energy was lost in the collision?

It’s important to draw and label a sketch with


appropriate symbols and given information.

u1 = 4 m/s u2 = 0 v1 = 1 m/s v2 = 2 m/s


m1 m2 m1 m2

m1 = 2 kg m1 = 1 kg m1 = 2 kg m1 = 1 kg

BEFORE AFTER
Example 1 (Continued). What energy
was lost in the collision? Energy is
conserved.
u1 = 4 m/s u2 = 0 v1 = 1 m/s v2 = 2 m/s
m1 m2 m1 m2

m1 = 2 kg m1 = 1 kg m1 = 2 kg m1 = 1 kg

BEFORE:
1
2 m1u12  12 m2u22  12 (2 kg)(4 m/s)2  0  16 J
AFTER
1
m v
2 1 1
2
 1
2 m v
2 2
2
 1
2 (2 kg)(1 m/s) 2
 1
2 (1 kg)(2 m/s) 2
 3J

Energy Conservation: K(Before) = K(After) + Loss

Loss = 16 J – 3 J Energy Loss = 15 J


Impulse and Momentum
uA uB
A B Impulse = Dp
-FA Dt FB Dt FDt = mvf– mvo
B
Opposite but Equal F Dt
vA vB
A B FBDt = -FADt

mBvB - mBuB = -(mAvA - mAuA)

Simplifying: mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB


Conservation of Momentum
The total momentum AFTER a collision is equal
to the total momentum BEFORE.
mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB

uA uB
A B Recall that the total energy
is also conserved:
-FADt FB Dt
B
Kinetic Energy: K = ½mv2
vA
A B
vB KA0 + KB0 = KAf + KBf + Loss
Example 2: A 2-kg block A and a 1-kg block
B are pushed together against a spring and
tied with a cord. When the cord breaks,
the 1-kg block moves to the right at 8 m/s.
What is the velocity of the 2 kg block?
The initial velocities are
A zero, so that the total
B momentum before release is
zero.
0 0
mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB
mBv B
mAvA = - mBvB vA = -
mA
Example 2 (Continued)
2 kg vA2 8 m/s
1 kg
A B A B
0
mAvA+ mBvB = mAuA + mBuB0
mB v B
mAvA = - mBvB vA = -
mA

(1 kg)(8 m/s)
vA = - vA = - 4 m/s
(2 kg)
Example 2 (Cont.): Ignoring friction, how
much energy was released by the spring?
2 kg 4 m/s 8 m/s
1 kg
A B A B

2
Cons. of E: ½kx2 = ½ mAvA + ½mBvB2

½kx2 = ½(2 kg)(4 m/s)2 + ½(1 kg)(8 m/s)2

½kx2 = 16 J + 32 J = 48 J ½kx2 = 48 J
Elastic or Inelastic?

An elastic collision loses In an inelastic collision,


no energy. The deform- energy is lost and the
ation on collision is fully deformation may be
restored. permanent. (Click it.)
Completely Inelastic Collisions
Collisions where two objects stick together
and have a common velocity after impact.

Before After
Example 3: A 60-kg football player stands
on a frictionless lake of ice. He catches a
2-kg football and then moves at 40 cm/s.
What was the initial velocity of the football?
A
Given: uB= 0; mA= 2 kg; mB= 60 kg;
B vA= vB= vC vC = 0.4 m/s
0
Momentum: mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB
Inelastic collision: (mA + mB)vC = mAuA

(2 kg + 60 kg)(0.4 m/s) = (2 kg)uA

uA= 12.4 m/s


Example 3 (Cont.): How much energy
was lost in catching the football?
0
1
2 m u  m u  (mA  mB )v  Loss
2
A A
1
2
2
B B
1
2
2
C

½(2 kg)(12.4 m/s)2 = ½(62 kg)(0.4 m/s)2 + Loss

154 J = 4.96 J + Loss Loss = 149 J

97% of the energy is lost in the collision!!


General: Completely Inelastic
Collisions where two objects stick together
and have a common velocity vC after impact.

Conservation of Momentum:

(mA  mB )vc  mAu A  mBuB

Conservation of Energy:
1
2 m u  m u  (mA  mB )v  Loss
2
A A
1
2
2
B B
1
2
2
c
Example 4. An 87-kg skater B collides with a 22-kg
skater A initially at rest on ice. They move together
after the collision at 2.4 m/s. Find the velocity of the
skater B before the collision.
Common speed after vB= vA = vC = 2.4 m/s
colliding: 2.4 m/s.
uA = 0 uB = ? mAu A  mBuB  (mA  mB )vC
87 kg
(87 kg)uB = (87 kg + 22 kg)(2.4 m/s)
B
A
22 kg (87 kg)uB =262 kg m/s

uB = 3.01 m/s
Example 5: A 50 g bullet strikes a 1-kg
block, passes all the way through, then
lodges into the 2 kg block. Afterward,
the 1 kg block moves at 1 m/s and the 2
kg block moves at 2 m/s. What was the
entrance velocity of the bullet?

u A= ? 1 kg
2 kg

1 m/s 2 m/s
1 kg 2 kg
A C
B
Find entrance velocity of 50 g
1 kg 2 kg
bullet: mA= 0.05 kg; uA= ?
1 m/s 2 m/s
Momentum After = 1 kg 2 kg
Momentum Before
0 0
mAuA + mBuB + mCuC = mBvB + (mA+mC) vAC

(0.05 kg)uA =(1 kg)(1 m/s)+(2.05 kg)(2 m/s)

(0.05 kg) uA =(5.1 kg m/s)

uA= 102 m/s


Completely Elastic Collisions
Collisions where two objects collide in such a
way that zero energy is lost in the process.

APPROXIMATIONS!
Velocity in Elastic Collisions
uA uB
A B 1. Zero energy lost.
2. Masses do not change.
vA vB
A B
3. Momentum conserved.
Equal but opposite impulses (F Dt) means that:

(Relative Dv After) = - (Relative Dv Before)

For elastic collisions: vA - vB = - (uA - uB)


Example 6: A 2-kg ball moving to the
right at 1 m/s strikes a 4-kg ball moving
left at 3 m/s. What are the velocities
after impact, assuming complete
elasticity?
1 m/s 3 m/s vA - vB = - (uA - uB)
A B
vA - vB = uB - uA
vA 1 kg 2 kg
vB
A B
vA - vB = (-3 m/s) - (1 m/s)
From conservation of energy (relative v):

vA - vB = - 4 m/s
Example 6 (Continued)
1 m/s 3 m/s
Energy: vA - vB = - 4 m/s
A B
Momentum also conserved: vA 1 kg 2 kg v
B
A B
mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB

(1 kg)vA+(2 kg)vB=(1 kg)(1 m/s)+(2 kg)(-3 m/s)

Two independent vA + 2vB = -5 m/s


equations to solve: vA - vB = - 4 m/s
Example 6 (Continued)
1 m/s 3 m/s
vA + 2vB = -5 m/s
A B
vA - vB = - 4 m/s 1 kg 2 kg v
vA B
A B
Subtract: 0 + 3vB2 = - 1 m/s

vB = - 0.333 m/s vA2 - (-0.333 m/s) = - 4 m/s


Substitution:
vA= -3.67 m/s
vA - vB = - 4 m/s
Example 7. A 0.150 kg bullet is fired at 715 m/s into a 2-
kg wooden block at rest. The velocity of block afterward is
40 m/s. The bullet passes through the block and emerges
with what velocity?
B
A
mAvA  mB vB  mAu A  mBuB
uB = 0
(0.150 kg)vA+ (2 kg)(40 m/s) = (0.150 kg)(715 m/s)

0.150vA+ (80 m/s) = (107 m/s)


27.2 m/s
0.150vA = 27.2 m/s) vA 
0.150

vA = 181 m/s
Example 8a: Inelastic collision: Find vC.
2 m/s uB=0 After hit: vB= vA= vC
5 kg 7.5 kg mAu A  mBuB  (mA  mB )vC
A B
(5 kg)(2 m/s) = (5 kg + 7.5 kg)vC
vC
Common
12.5 vC =10 m/s
vC after
vC = 0.800 m/s
A B

In an completely inelastic collision, the two balls


stick together and move as one after colliding.
Example 8. (b) Elastic collision: Find vA2 and vB2
2 m/s vB1=0 Conservation of Momentum:
5 kg 7.5 kg mAvA  mAvA  mB vB
A B
(5 kg)(2 m/s) = (5 kg)vA2 + (7.5 kg) vB
vA vB
5 vA + 7.5 vB = 10 m/s

A B For Elastic Collisions:

vA  vB  (u A  uB ) vA  vB  2 m/s
Continued . . .
Example 8b (Cont). Elastic collision: Find vA & vB
Solve simultaneously: 2 m/s vB =0
x (-5) 5 kg 7.5 kg
vA  vB  2 m/s
A B
5 vA + 7.5 v B = 10 m/s vB
vA
B
A
5 vA + 7.5 vB = 10 m/s
-5 vA + 5 vB = +10 m/s vA - 1.60 m/s = -2 m/s
12.5 vB = 20 m/s vA = -0.400 m/s
20 m/s
vB   1.60 m/s vB = 1.60 m/s
12.5
General: Completely Elastic
Collisions where zero energy is lost
during a collision (an ideal case).

Conservation of Momentum:

mAvA  mB vB  mAu A  mBuB


Conservation of Energy:
1
2 m u  m u  m v  m v  Loss
2
A A
1
2
2
B B
1
2
2
A A
1
2
2
B B

vA  vB  uB  u A
Example 9: A 50 g bullet lodges into a 2-kg
block of clay hung by a string. The bullet and
clay rise together to a height of 12 cm. What
was the velocity of the 50-g mass just before
entering?

uA B
A 12 cm
B
A
The ballistic pendulum!
Example (Continued):
Collision and Momentum:
2.05 kg
mAuA+0= (mA+mB)vC
uA B
(0.05 kg)uA = (2.05 kg)vC A 12 cm

50 g 2 kg
To find vA we need vC .
After collision, energy is conserved for masses.

1
2 (mA  mB )v  (mA  mB ) gh
2
C vC = 2gh
Example (Continued):
vC = 2gh = 2(9.8)(0.12)
2.05 kg
After Collision: vC = 1.53 m/s
uA B
Momentum Also
A 12 cm
Conserved:
50 g
mAuA+0= (mA+mB)vC 2 kg

(0.05 kg)uA = (2.05 kg)(1.53 m/s)

uA = 62.9 m/s
Summary of Formulas:
Conservation of Momentum:

mAvA  mB vB  mAu A  mBuB


Conservation of Energy:

1
2 m u  m u  m v  m v  Loss
2
A A
1
2
2
B B
1
2
2
A A
1
2
2
B B

For elastic only: vA  vB  uB  u A