You are on page 1of 37

# Chapter 9B - Conservation of

Momentum
Momentum is
conserved in this
rocket launch.
The velocity of
the rocket and its
determined by
the mass and
velocity of the
expelled gases.
Photo: NASA
NASA
Objectives: After completing this
module, you should be able to:
• State the law of conservation of momentum
and apply it to the solution of problems.
• Distinguish by definition and example
between elastic and inelastic collisions.
• Predict the velocities of two colliding bodies
when given the coefficients of restitution,
masses, and initial velocities.
A Collision of Two Masses
When two masses m1 and m2 collide, we will use
the symbol u to describe velocities before collision.
Before u1 u2
m1 m2

## The symbol v will describe velocities after collision.

v1 After v2
m1 m2
A Collision of Two Blocks
Before u1 u2
m1 m2

Collision
“u”= Before “v” = After
m1 m2B

After v1
m1 m2 v2
Conservation of Energy
u1 u2
m1 m2

## The kinetic energy before colliding is

equal to the kinetic energy after colliding
plus the energy lost in the collision.

1
2 m u  m u  m v  m v  Loss
2
1 1
1
2
2
2 2
1
2
2
1 1
1
2
2
2 2
Example 1. A 2-kg mass moving at 4 m/s
collides with a 1-kg mass initially at rest. After
the collision, the 2-kg mass moves at 1 m/s
and the 1-kg mass moves at 3 m/s. What
energy was lost in the collision?

## It’s important to draw and label a sketch with

appropriate symbols and given information.

## u1 = 4 m/s u2 = 0 v1 = 1 m/s v2 = 2 m/s

m1 m2 m1 m2

m1 = 2 kg m1 = 1 kg m1 = 2 kg m1 = 1 kg

BEFORE AFTER
Example 1 (Continued). What energy
was lost in the collision? Energy is
conserved.
u1 = 4 m/s u2 = 0 v1 = 1 m/s v2 = 2 m/s
m1 m2 m1 m2

m1 = 2 kg m1 = 1 kg m1 = 2 kg m1 = 1 kg

BEFORE:
1
2 m1u12  12 m2u22  12 (2 kg)(4 m/s)2  0  16 J
AFTER
1
m v
2 1 1
2
 1
2 m v
2 2
2
 1
2 (2 kg)(1 m/s) 2
 1
2 (1 kg)(2 m/s) 2
 3J

## Loss = 16 J – 3 J Energy Loss = 15 J

Impulse and Momentum
uA uB
A B Impulse = Dp
-FA Dt FB Dt FDt = mvf– mvo
B
Opposite but Equal F Dt
vA vB
A B FBDt = -FADt

## Simplifying: mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB

Conservation of Momentum
The total momentum AFTER a collision is equal
to the total momentum BEFORE.
mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB

uA uB
A B Recall that the total energy
is also conserved:
B
Kinetic Energy: K = ½mv2
vA
A B
vB KA0 + KB0 = KAf + KBf + Loss
Example 2: A 2-kg block A and a 1-kg block
B are pushed together against a spring and
tied with a cord. When the cord breaks,
the 1-kg block moves to the right at 8 m/s.
What is the velocity of the 2 kg block?
The initial velocities are
A zero, so that the total
B momentum before release is
zero.
0 0
mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB
mBv B
mAvA = - mBvB vA = -
mA
Example 2 (Continued)
2 kg vA2 8 m/s
1 kg
A B A B
0
mAvA+ mBvB = mAuA + mBuB0
mB v B
mAvA = - mBvB vA = -
mA

(1 kg)(8 m/s)
vA = - vA = - 4 m/s
(2 kg)
Example 2 (Cont.): Ignoring friction, how
much energy was released by the spring?
2 kg 4 m/s 8 m/s
1 kg
A B A B

2
Cons. of E: ½kx2 = ½ mAvA + ½mBvB2

## ½kx2 = ½(2 kg)(4 m/s)2 + ½(1 kg)(8 m/s)2

½kx2 = 16 J + 32 J = 48 J ½kx2 = 48 J
Elastic or Inelastic?

## An elastic collision loses In an inelastic collision,

no energy. The deform- energy is lost and the
ation on collision is fully deformation may be
restored. permanent. (Click it.)
Completely Inelastic Collisions
Collisions where two objects stick together
and have a common velocity after impact.

Before After
Example 3: A 60-kg football player stands
on a frictionless lake of ice. He catches a
2-kg football and then moves at 40 cm/s.
What was the initial velocity of the football?
A
Given: uB= 0; mA= 2 kg; mB= 60 kg;
B vA= vB= vC vC = 0.4 m/s
0
Momentum: mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB
Inelastic collision: (mA + mB)vC = mAuA

## uA= 12.4 m/s

Example 3 (Cont.): How much energy
was lost in catching the football?
0
1
2 m u  m u  (mA  mB )v  Loss
2
A A
1
2
2
B B
1
2
2
C

## 97% of the energy is lost in the collision!!

General: Completely Inelastic
Collisions where two objects stick together
and have a common velocity vC after impact.

Conservation of Momentum:

## (mA  mB )vc  mAu A  mBuB

Conservation of Energy:
1
2 m u  m u  (mA  mB )v  Loss
2
A A
1
2
2
B B
1
2
2
c
Example 4. An 87-kg skater B collides with a 22-kg
skater A initially at rest on ice. They move together
after the collision at 2.4 m/s. Find the velocity of the
skater B before the collision.
Common speed after vB= vA = vC = 2.4 m/s
colliding: 2.4 m/s.
uA = 0 uB = ? mAu A  mBuB  (mA  mB )vC
87 kg
(87 kg)uB = (87 kg + 22 kg)(2.4 m/s)
B
A
22 kg (87 kg)uB =262 kg m/s

uB = 3.01 m/s
Example 5: A 50 g bullet strikes a 1-kg
block, passes all the way through, then
lodges into the 2 kg block. Afterward,
the 1 kg block moves at 1 m/s and the 2
kg block moves at 2 m/s. What was the
entrance velocity of the bullet?

u A= ? 1 kg
2 kg

1 m/s 2 m/s
1 kg 2 kg
A C
B
Find entrance velocity of 50 g
1 kg 2 kg
bullet: mA= 0.05 kg; uA= ?
1 m/s 2 m/s
Momentum After = 1 kg 2 kg
Momentum Before
0 0
mAuA + mBuB + mCuC = mBvB + (mA+mC) vAC

## uA= 102 m/s

Completely Elastic Collisions
Collisions where two objects collide in such a
way that zero energy is lost in the process.

APPROXIMATIONS!
Velocity in Elastic Collisions
uA uB
A B 1. Zero energy lost.
2. Masses do not change.
vA vB
A B
3. Momentum conserved.
Equal but opposite impulses (F Dt) means that:

## For elastic collisions: vA - vB = - (uA - uB)

Example 6: A 2-kg ball moving to the
right at 1 m/s strikes a 4-kg ball moving
left at 3 m/s. What are the velocities
after impact, assuming complete
elasticity?
1 m/s 3 m/s vA - vB = - (uA - uB)
A B
vA - vB = uB - uA
vA 1 kg 2 kg
vB
A B
vA - vB = (-3 m/s) - (1 m/s)
From conservation of energy (relative v):

vA - vB = - 4 m/s
Example 6 (Continued)
1 m/s 3 m/s
Energy: vA - vB = - 4 m/s
A B
Momentum also conserved: vA 1 kg 2 kg v
B
A B
mAvA + mBvB = mAuA + mBuB

## Two independent vA + 2vB = -5 m/s

equations to solve: vA - vB = - 4 m/s
Example 6 (Continued)
1 m/s 3 m/s
vA + 2vB = -5 m/s
A B
vA - vB = - 4 m/s 1 kg 2 kg v
vA B
A B
Subtract: 0 + 3vB2 = - 1 m/s

## vB = - 0.333 m/s vA2 - (-0.333 m/s) = - 4 m/s

Substitution:
vA= -3.67 m/s
vA - vB = - 4 m/s
Example 7. A 0.150 kg bullet is fired at 715 m/s into a 2-
kg wooden block at rest. The velocity of block afterward is
40 m/s. The bullet passes through the block and emerges
with what velocity?
B
A
mAvA  mB vB  mAu A  mBuB
uB = 0
(0.150 kg)vA+ (2 kg)(40 m/s) = (0.150 kg)(715 m/s)

## 0.150vA+ (80 m/s) = (107 m/s)

27.2 m/s
0.150vA = 27.2 m/s) vA 
0.150

vA = 181 m/s
Example 8a: Inelastic collision: Find vC.
2 m/s uB=0 After hit: vB= vA= vC
5 kg 7.5 kg mAu A  mBuB  (mA  mB )vC
A B
(5 kg)(2 m/s) = (5 kg + 7.5 kg)vC
vC
Common
12.5 vC =10 m/s
vC after
vC = 0.800 m/s
A B

## In an completely inelastic collision, the two balls

stick together and move as one after colliding.
Example 8. (b) Elastic collision: Find vA2 and vB2
2 m/s vB1=0 Conservation of Momentum:
5 kg 7.5 kg mAvA  mAvA  mB vB
A B
(5 kg)(2 m/s) = (5 kg)vA2 + (7.5 kg) vB
vA vB
5 vA + 7.5 vB = 10 m/s

## A B For Elastic Collisions:

vA  vB  (u A  uB ) vA  vB  2 m/s
Continued . . .
Example 8b (Cont). Elastic collision: Find vA & vB
Solve simultaneously: 2 m/s vB =0
x (-5) 5 kg 7.5 kg
vA  vB  2 m/s
A B
5 vA + 7.5 v B = 10 m/s vB
vA
B
A
5 vA + 7.5 vB = 10 m/s
-5 vA + 5 vB = +10 m/s vA - 1.60 m/s = -2 m/s
12.5 vB = 20 m/s vA = -0.400 m/s
20 m/s
vB   1.60 m/s vB = 1.60 m/s
12.5
General: Completely Elastic
Collisions where zero energy is lost
during a collision (an ideal case).

Conservation of Momentum:

## mAvA  mB vB  mAu A  mBuB

Conservation of Energy:
1
2 m u  m u  m v  m v  Loss
2
A A
1
2
2
B B
1
2
2
A A
1
2
2
B B

vA  vB  uB  u A
Example 9: A 50 g bullet lodges into a 2-kg
block of clay hung by a string. The bullet and
clay rise together to a height of 12 cm. What
was the velocity of the 50-g mass just before
entering?

uA B
A 12 cm
B
A
The ballistic pendulum!
Example (Continued):
Collision and Momentum:
2.05 kg
mAuA+0= (mA+mB)vC
uA B
(0.05 kg)uA = (2.05 kg)vC A 12 cm

50 g 2 kg
To find vA we need vC .
After collision, energy is conserved for masses.

1
2 (mA  mB )v  (mA  mB ) gh
2
C vC = 2gh
Example (Continued):
vC = 2gh = 2(9.8)(0.12)
2.05 kg
After Collision: vC = 1.53 m/s
uA B
Momentum Also
A 12 cm
Conserved:
50 g
mAuA+0= (mA+mB)vC 2 kg

## (0.05 kg)uA = (2.05 kg)(1.53 m/s)

uA = 62.9 m/s
Summary of Formulas:
Conservation of Momentum:

## mAvA  mB vB  mAu A  mBuB

Conservation of Energy:

1
2 m u  m u  m v  m v  Loss
2
A A
1
2
2
B B
1
2
2
A A
1
2
2
B B