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Chapter 5 Signal Encoding Techniques

Encoding Techniques

1. Digital data, digital signal

Two voltage pulses for binary 1 and 0

**2. Digital data, analog signal
**

Modulation techniques

(Amplitude, Frequency, Phase) Shift Keying Modulation

**3. Analog data, analog signal
**

Modulation techniques

(Amplitude, Frequency, Phase) Modulation

**4. Analog data, digital signal
**

Pulse Code modulation (PCM) Delta Modulation (DM)

**1. Digital Data, Digital Signal
**

Digital signal

Discrete, discontinuous voltage pulses Each pulse is a signal element Binary data encoded into signal elements

either +ve or ve) 2.e..e. Unipolar Unipolar signal where all signal elements have same sign (i.. Polar One logic state represented by +ve voltage level where the other represented by -ve voltage level 3. Data rate (if we represent by R) Rate of data transmission in bits per second 4. Duration of a bit Time required by the transmitter to transmit the bit Bit Duration = 1 / R 5. the signal elements per second and it is measured in baud) ... Modulation rate Is the Rate at which the signal level changes (i.Terms (1) 1.

Signal Processing Gain is given as: SNR processed signal Signal Processing Gain is the raio SNR Unprocessed signal Problem: Derive the Mathematical Relationship between the BER and the Signal Processing Gain using point 1 to 4. 3. Data Rate BER SNR 1/BER Bandwidth Date Rate. 2.Important Facts 1. 4. Provide complete justification of your answer. .

Encoding Schemes 1. 6. 2. Nonreturn to Zero-Level (NRZ-L) Nonreturn to Zero Inverted (NRZI) Multilevel (Bipolar AMI) Manchester Differential Manchester B8ZS HDB3 . 7. 3. 4. 5.

Nonreturn to Zero-Level (NRZ-L) Two different voltages for 0 and 1 bits Voltage constant during bit interval No transition to 0V For Example: Negative Voltage (-5V) use to represent binary 1 and Positive Voltage (+5v) use to represent binary 0 .1.

Nonreturn to Zero Inverted Nonreturn to zero and inverted on 1 Constant voltage pulse for duration of bit Transition denotes a binary 1 No transition denotes binary 0 An example of differential encoding .2.

NRZ +ve 0v -ve Invert on µ1¶ +ve 0v -ve NRZ-L .

2. If current bit is 1 . then encoding of the current bit uses same signal as used for the previous bit.Differential Encoding Follow a single rule of encoding: 1. If current bit is 0 . then encoding of the current bit uses opposite signal as used for the previous bit. Easy & reliable to detect a transition than comparing threshold .

NRZ pros and cons Pros Easy to engineer Make good use of bandwidth Cons String of 0 s or 1 s leads a constant voltage over a period of time Loss of synchronization between transmitter & receiver The final result will be No detection at receiver .

either +ve or ve) No loss of sync if a long string of ones (zeros still a problem) One Voltage Level Another Voltage Level .e.. 0 volts) Binary 1 represented by positive or negative voltages Pulses alternate in polarity (i.Multilevel Binary Use more than two levels Bipolar-AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion) Binary 0 represented by no line signal (i..e.

there will be a transition (start of a bit period) If there is a 1 . there will be no transition (start of a bit period) .Biphase 1. Manchester Transition in middle of each bit period Mid-Bit transition serves for clocking and data Rule Low to high represents binary 1 High to low represents binary 0 2. Differential Manchester Use differential encoding scheme Mid-Bit transition serves only for clocking Rule If there is a 0 .

Manchester Encoding For µO¶ Go ³High to Low´ For µ1¶ Go ³Low to High´ 1 bit period Must be a Transition High H L L H H L H L L H L H H L L H H L H L Low .

Differential Manchester Encoding 0. there will be a T (@ start of a bit period) 1. there will be NT (@ start of a bit period) T NT NT NT NT T T T T T .

Modulation Rate R = 1/Tb Tb = Bit duration NRZ-I 1 sample per duration of a bit Manchester 2 samples per duration of a bit .

Scrambling Use special pattern to replace sequences that would produce constant voltage B8ZS (bipolar 8 zeros substitution) Example of scrambling technique Encoding Rules If 8 zeros occur and the last voltage pulse preceding was positive encode as 000+-0-+ If 8 zeros occur and the last voltage pulse preceding was negative encode as 000-+0+- Solve the problem of bipolar AMI code where sequence of zero was problem. Used in North America .

B8ZS and HDB3 If 8 zeros occur and the last voltage pulse preceding was negative encode as 000-+0+.where V = -ve and B= +ve .

Phase shift keying (PK) Each technique uses one of the characteristic of signal components. . Digital Data Analog Signal Public telephone system Frequency range of 300Hz to 3400Hz for Telephone Network Modem produces signals in the desired range Modulation techniques are required to perform transformation such as 1. Amplitude shift keying (ASK) 2.2. Frequency shift keying (FSK) 3.

Modulation Techniques fc f1 0 f2 1 (f1 > f2) or (f2 > f1) or (f1 = f2) .

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Values represented by different amplitudes of modulated signal Usually.1. presence of carrier represent 1 and the absence of carrier represents 0 Provide On/Off keying mechanism Usually use with the fiber optics Problems Susceptible to sudden gain changes Inefficient .

2. Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Two binary values represented by two different frequencies (near carrier) Advantages Less susceptible to error than ASK Can be used with the higher frequency (3 to 30 MHz) Even higher frequency on LANs using co-ax .

0 and 1) 1. Phase Shift Keying (PSK) The Phase of modulated signal is shifted to represent data (i. Binary PSK (BPSK) Two phase angles represent two binary digits For example: phase = 0 degree transmit 1 phase = 180 degree transmit 0 Receiver has the knowledge of phase angles the transmitter is using 2.. Differential PSK (DPSK) We either Shift the phase or keep the same phase of the previous bit with respect to the current bit Rule: If current input bit is 1 .3. we keep the same phase . we shift the phase If current input bit is 0 ..e.

Differential PSK (DPSK) Change of phase for µ1¶ Bit period Keeping the same phase as used for the previous bit for µ0¶ .

Quadrature PSK (QPSK or 4PSK) More efficient use by each signal element representing more than one bit Features: Shifts of T/2 (90o) Each element represents two bits Can use 8 phase angles to send three bits Double the data rate compared to a BPSK system .

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) Combination of ASK and PSK Logical extension of QPSK Send two different signals simultaneously on same carrier frequency Use two copies of carrier. one shifted 90° Each carrier is ASK modulated Two independent signals over same medium Demodulate and combine for original binary output .

QAM Modulator ASK modulation is performed using the copy of fc Even Odd Separating even bits with odds (i. alternate bits Generating carrier frequency Phase shift by 90 2 signals are added & transmitted using the same fc ...e.

3. Digital Signal Digitization Conversion of analog data into digital data Pulse code modulation (PCM) PCM Does digitization PCM digitization includes: Sampling Sampling Theorem Quantization Quantization level . Analog Data.

then 2H samples are required Resulting samples are known as Analog samples (Pulse Amplitude Modulation.Stallings appendix 4A) If bandwidth is H. PAM) Example: If H = 4000 Hz. then 8000 samples/sec .Pulse Code Modulation(PCM) (1) PCM Sampling (Proof .

Pulse Code Modulation(PCM) (2) PCM Quantization Assign a binary code to each of 2H samples Need to determine quantization level Quantization level is determined on the use of bits/samples Bits/samples is a deign parameter unlike sampling rate Quantization Levels = (2) ^ (# of bits per samples) Data Rate = (samples per second) * (bits per sample) Example 8 bit per sample 256 quantization levels Problem: Higher computational complexity Quantization error due to linear spacing .

r. Compression Each segment is compared with the original signal Increase/decrease is determined to produce final output Output signal has 2 discrete levels that need 1 bit for representation .t quantization level 2.Delta Modulation Consists of 2 steps: Segmentation Compression 1. Segmentation Original Signal is approximated using the staircase function Approximated signal has one or more segments Staircase function goes up and down w.

Delta Modulation .example Segment of the approximated signal Relative amplitude is increasing 1 .

Analog Signals Digital data can t be sent without modulation Why modulate analog signals? Why not a baseband signal Frequency of base-band signal is quite low Attenuation is function of distance Need to uplift the frequency of modulating signal Types of modulation Amplitude Frequency Phase . Analog Data.4.

5.14. 5.9. 5.8.Required Reading Stallings chapter 5 Review examples 5.19 . 5. 5.1 to 5. OpNet Lab#2: (Due Date: Thursday October 05) You can work in group (at most 2 students) Need to submit one report per group HW#4 (Due Date: Tuesday October 10) Problems: 5.17.5 HW#3: (Due Date: Thursday October 05) Derive the Mathematical Relationship between the BER and the Signal Processing Gain.6.

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