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PREPARED BY: NIDHI SHAH

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Genetic Algorithm

A genetic algorithm (GA) is a search technique used in computing to find exact or approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. Searching is done from ´search spaceµ. "search space" refers to some collection of candidate solutions to a problem.

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Eg :Suppose you want use a computer to search for a protein. protein³a sequence of amino acids that folds up to a particular threedimensional shape so it can be used, say to fight a specific virus. Limiting length to less than100.

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GA has a number of features: Genetic algorithm is a population-based search method. GA uses recombination to mix information of candidate solutions into a new one (evolutionary). GA is stochastic.

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Diagrammatic Representation

Parent selection Parents Initialization Recombination /Cross over Population Mutation Termination Children Survivor selection

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ALGORITHM

Begin INITIALIZE population with random candidate solutions; EVALUATE each candidate; repeat SELECT parents; RECOMBINE pairs of parents; MUTATE the resulting children; EVALUATE children; SELECT individuals for the next generation until TERMINATION-CONDITION is satisfied End

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**COMPONENTS OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS
**

The most important components in a GA consist of: Representation (definition of individuals) Evaluation function (or fitness function) Population Variation operators (crossover and mutation) Parent selection mechanism Survivor selection mechanism (replacement)

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Representation

Objects forming possible solution within original problem context are called phenotypes, their encoding, the individuals within the GA, are called genotypes. The representation step specifies the mapping from the phenotypes onto a set of genotypes.

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Population

The role of the population is to hold possible solutions. A population is a multiset. In almost all GA applications, the population size is constant, not changing during the evolutional search.

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Variation Operators

The role of variation operators is to create new individuals from old ones. Variation operators form the implementation of the elementary steps with the search space. Crossover Operator Mutation Operator

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**Crossover Operator(Recombination)
**

The crossover operator is the most important in GA. Crossover is a process yielding recombination of bit strings. Binary Variable. The principle behind crossover is simpleSelecting two candidates with different but desirable features, we can produce an offspring which combines both of those features. There are many kinds of crossover

One-point Crossover Two-point Cross Over Uniform Crossover

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**One-point Crossover
**

The procedure of one-point crossover is to randomly generate a number (less than or equal to the string length) as the crossover position. Then, keep the bits before the number unchanged and swap the bits after the crossover position between the two candidates.

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Example: With the two candidates randomly generate a number (i.e. position: Candidate1 : 7 3 7 Candidate2 : 1 7 4 Then we get two children: Child 1 : 7 3| 4 Child 2 : 1 7| 7

selected above, we 2 )as the crossover 6 5 5 6 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 3

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**Two-point Cross Over
**

The procedure of two-point crossover is similar to that of one-point crossover except that we must select two positions and only the bits between the two positions are swapped. This crossover method can preserve the first and the last parts of a chromosome and just swap the middle part.

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Example: With the two candidates selected above, we randomly generate two numbers 2 and 4 as the crossover positions: Candidate1 : 7 3 7 6 1 3 Candidate1 : 1 7 4 5 2 2 Then we get two children: Child 1 : 7 3| 4 5| 1 3 7 6| 2 2 Child 2 : 1 7|

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Uniform Crossover

The procedure of uniform crossover : each gene of the first candidate has a 0.5 probability of swapping with the corresponding gene of the second candidate.

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Example: For each position, we randomly generate a number between 0 and 1, for example, 0.2, 0.7, 0.9, 0.4, 0.6, 0.1. If the number generated for a given position is less than 0.5, then child1 gets the gene from parent1, and child2 gets the gene from parent2. Otherwise, vice versa. 0.2 0.7 0.9 0.4 0.6 0.1 Candidate1: 7 * 3 * 7 6 *1 3 Candidate2: 1 *7 *4 5 * 2 2 Then we get two children: Child 1 : 7 7 4 6 2 3 Child 2 : 1 3 7 5 1 2

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Mutation Operator

A unary variation operator is called mutation. In general, mutation is supposed to cause a random unbiased change. In the bitstring approach mutation is simpy the flipping of one of the bits. Advantage: Mutation prevents the algorithm to be trapped in a local minimum.

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Example:

1 0 0 1 1 0 1

1 1 0 1 1 0 1

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**Parent Selection Mechanism
**

The role of parent selection is to distinguish among individuals based on their quality to allow the better individuals to become parents of the next generation. Parent selection is probabilistic. Thus, high quality individuals get a higher chance to become parents than those with low quality. Nevertheless, low quality individuals are often given a small, but positive chance, otherwise the whole search could become too greedy and get stuck in a local optimum.

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**The chance of each parent being selected is in some way related to its fitness.
**

Fitness-based selection Rank-based selection Tournament-based selection

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**Fitness-based selection
**

The standard, original method for parent selection is Roulette Wheel selection or fitness-based selection. In this kind of parent selection, each candidate has a chance of selection that is directly proportional to its fitness. The effect of this depends on the range of fitness values in the current population.

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Candidate4 Candidate3 Candidate2 Candidate1

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**Rank-based selection
**

In the rank-based selection method, selection probabilities are based on a Candidate·s relative rank or position in the population, rather than absolute fitness.

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**Tournament-based selection
**

Two individuals are chosen at random from the population. The fitter of the two individuals is selected to be a parent.

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**Survivor selection mechanism
**

The role of survivor selection is to distinguish among individuals based on their quality. In GA, the population size is (almost always) constant, thus a choice has to be made on which individuals will be allowed in the next generation. This decision is based on their fitness values, favoring those with higher quality. Selecting the top segment (fitness biased).

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Termination Condition

Notice that GA is stochastic and mostly there are no guarantees to reach an optimum. Commonly used conditions for terminations are the following: 1. the maximally allowed CPU times elapses 2. The total number of fitness evaluations reaches a given limit. 3. for a given period of time, the fitness improvement remains under a threshold value.

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4. The population diversity drops under a given threshold. Note: Premature convergence is the wellknown effect of loosing population diversity too quickly and getting trapped in a local optimum.

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ALGORITHM (Revisited)

Begin INITIALIZE population with random candidate solutions; EVALUATE each candidate; repeat SELECT parents; RECOMBINE pairs of parents; MUTATE the resulting children; EVALUATE children; SELECT individuals for the next generation until TERMINATION-CONDITION is satisfied End

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Thank you«.

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