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DDC number building for shelf arrangement

Julianne Beall Assistant Editor, DDC Library of Congress

July 4, 2006 Vienna

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Broad outline 
Part 1. Elements of typical call numbers  Part 2. Class numbers  Part 3. Book numbers and other methods of subarrangement

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Part 1. Elements of typical call numbers 
Call number = class number + book number (or other method of alphabetic subarrangement)  Example:  641.5972  .B3433

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Call number 
A set of letters, numerals or other symbols (in combination or alone) used by a library to identify a specific copy of a work. A call number consists of the class number and book number (or Cutter number).  It may also contain other data such as date, volume number, copy number and location symbol.

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Class number 
Notation that designates the class to which a given item belongs.  Example: 641.5972 Cooking characteristic of Mexico  Used for Rick Bayless's Mexican kitchen : capturing the vibrant flavors of a worldclass cuisine

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Book number 
The part of a call number that distinguishes a specific item from other items within the same class number, also called a Cutter number. A book number is composed of letters from the author's name and numbers.  Example: .B3433 for Bayless, Rick 
From OCLC Cutter Four-Figure Table

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Other method of alphabetic subarrangement 
Instead of formal book numbers, many libraries prefer simple methods of alphabetic subarrangement  Example: Bay for Bayless, Rick

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Part 2. Class numbers 
Broad classification and logical abridgment  Building with tables (numbered auxiliary tables)  Building with add tables  Building with other add notes

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Broad classification 
The classification of works in broad categories by logical abridgment, even when more specific numbers are available, e.g., the use of 641.5 Cooking instead of 641.5972 Mexican cooking for a cookbook of Mexican recipes.

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Logical abridgment 
The abridged number is the same as the full number, but shorter  The number is abridged at a logical place

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Abridged edition 
A shortened version of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system that is a logical truncation of the notational and structural hierarchy of the corresponding full edition on which it is based. The abridged edition is intended for general collections of 20,000 titles or less.

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Segmentation marks (/ or µ) 
Records from Library of Congress and Library and Archives Canada include segmentation marks in Dewey class numbers  These marks show end of abridged number  The slash (/) appears in MARC records  The prime mark (µ) appears in Cataloging in Publication printed in books

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Example of segmentation 
641.5/6314  The abridged number (641.5) means cooking  The full number (641.56314) means cooking for people with diabetes  Never include segmentation marks in call numbers

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Building with tables (numbered auxiliary tables) 
Numbers from auxiliary tables are never used alone for shelf arrangement  They may, however, be used alone in a database for resource discovery  Today we won¶t be able to cover all six auxiliary tables; we will cover the following tables:

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Tables to be covered today 
Table 2. Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Persons  Table 1. Standard Subdivisions  Table 3A. Subdivisions for Works by or about Individual Authors  Table 3B. Subdivisions for Works by or about More than One Author  Table 5. Ethnic and National Groups

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Table 2. Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Persons 
The following numbers are never used alone, but may be used as required (either directly when so noted or through the interposition of notation T1²09 from Table 1) with any number from the schedules, e.g., wages (331.29) in Japan (T2²52 in this table): 331.2952 ; railroad transportation (385) in Brazil (T2²81 in this table): 385.0981

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641.593-641.599 Cooking characteristic of specific continents, countries, localities
Add to base number 641.59 notation T2²3T2²9 from Table 2 , e.g., Southern cooking (United States) 641.5975 T2²75 Southeastern United States (South Atlantic states) Class here southern states 641.59+[T2²]75=641.5975

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641.59+[T2²]436=641.59436 (etc.) 
641.59436

Austrian cooking Cooking of Vienna 

641.5943613 

641.5944

French cooking Cooking of Normandy Cooking of Provence 

641.59442  641.59449

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641.59+[T2²]45=641.5945 (etc.) 
641.5945  641.59455  641.59458  641.595  641.5951  641.5952

Italian cooking Cooking of Tuscany Cooking of Sicily

Asian cooking Chinese cooking Japanese cooking

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Facet 
Any of the various categories into which a given class may be divided, e.g., division of the class "people" into the categories of ethnicity, age, education and language spoken. Each category contains terms based on a single characteristic of division, e.g., children, adolescents and adults are characteristics of division of the "ages" category.

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Facet indicator 
A digit used to introduce notation representing a characteristic of the subject. For example, "0" is often used as a facet indicator to introduce standard subdivision concepts.

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Rule for logical abridgment 
Never abridge a number so as to leave a ³0´ or other facet indicator at the end, in the part following the decimal point  Dewey numbers may end with ³0´ before the decimal point  Examples: 630 is O.K.  630.90 is not O.K.  630.9 is O.K.

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Table 1. Standard Subdivisions 
The following notation is never used alone, but may be used as required with any regular schedule number, e.g., workbooks (T1²076 in this table) in arithmetic (513): 513.076. When adding to a number from the schedules, always insert a decimal point between the third and fourth digits of the complete number

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T1²09 Historical, geographic, persons treatment 
T1²092

Persons

Biography, autobiography, description and critical appraisal of work, diaries . . . Class here treatment of individuals 

T1²093-T1²099 Treatment by specific continents, countries, localities; extraterrestrial worlds

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T1²09 Historical, geographic, persons treatment 
T1²093-T1²099 Treatment by specific continents, countries, localities; extraterrestrial worlds
Add to base number T1²09 notation T2²3-T2²9 from Table 2, e.g., the subject in North America T1²097, in Brazil T1²0981

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630 Agriculture and related technologies 
Standard subdivisions are added for agriculture and related technologies together, for agriculture alone 

630.9  630.92

Agriculture²history Agricultural workers, farmers

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63+[T1²]09+[T2²]4=630.94 (etc.) 
630.94 Agriculture²Europe  630.9436 Agriculture²Austria  630.94363

Agriculture²Salzburg province 

630.944 Agriculture²France  630.94438

Agriculture²Lorraine 

630.945 Agriculture²Italy

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634.9+[T1²]09=634.909 (etc.) 
634.9 Forestry  634.909 Forestry²history  634.9092 Foresters  634.9094 Forestry²Europe  634.909436

Forestry²Austria

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Table 5. Ethnic and National Groups
The following numbers are never used alone, but may be used as required (either directly when so noted or through the interposition of notation T1² 089 from Table 1) with any number from the schedules, e.g., civil and political rights ( 323.11 ) of Navajo Indians ( T5²9726 in this table): 323.119726 ; ceramic arts ( 738 ) of Jews ( T5² 924 in this table): 738.089924 . They may also be used when so noted with numbers from other tables, e.g., notation T2²174 from Table 2

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Table 5. Ethnic and National Groups (2)
Except where instructed otherwise, and unless it is redundant, add 0 to the number from this table and to the result add notation T2²1 or T2²3-T2²9 from Table 2 for area in which a group is or was located, e.g., Germans in Brazil T5² 31081 , but Germans in Germany T5²31 ; Jews in Germany or Jews from Germany T5²924043

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305.805-305.89 Specific ethnic and national groups
Add to base number 305.8 notation T5² 05-T5²9 from Table 5, e.g., comprehensive works on Jews 305.8924, Chinese 305.8951, Chinese Australians 305.8951094, Inuit 305.89712

305.8+[T5²]951+0+[T2²]94= 305.8951094

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305.8+[T5²]31 (etc.) 
305.831  305.835  305.836  305.841  305.851

Germans Swiss Austrians French Italians

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305.8+[T5²]41+0+[T2²]494= 305.8410494 
305.835  305.836  305.841  305.8410494  305.851  305.8510494 Italians Italian-speaking Swiss Swiss Austrians French French-speaking Swiss

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830.1-838 Subdivisions of German literature 
Add to base number 83 as instructed at beginning of Table 3, e.g., a collection of German literature 830.8  T3B²08 Collections of literary texts in more than one form  83+[T3B²]08=830.8

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Table 3B. Subdivisions for Works by or about More than One Author 
T3B²08 Collections of literary texts in more than one form  T3B²09 History, description, critical appraisal of works in more than one form  830.8 German literature²collections  830.9 German literature²history and criticism

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830.1-838 Subdivisions of German literature 
Add to base number 83 as instructed at beginning of Table 3, e.g., a collection of German literature 830.8  PERIOD TABLE .....  912  914  92 1900-1945 1945-1990 1990-

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Table 3A. Subdivisions for Works by or about Individual Authors 
T3A²1

Poetry Poetry of specific periods 

T3A²11-T3A²19

Add to T3A²1 notation from the period table for the specific literature in 810890, e.g., earliest period T3A²11; do not add standard subdivisions

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83+[T3A²]1+912=831.912 (etc.) 
Specific literature (German) + specific form (poetry) + literary period (19001945) (etc.)  831.912  831.914  831.92

German poetry²1900-1945 German poetry²1945-1990 German poetry²1990-

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598

*Aves (Birds)

Class here land birds, ornithology *Add as instructed under 592-599

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Add table at 592-599

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592-599 Specific taxonomic groups of animals
Except for modifications shown under specific entries, add to each subdivision identified by * as follows: 
1 General topics of natural history of animals
Add to base number 1 the numbers following 591 in 591.3-591.7, e.g., beneficial animals 163 

598+1+[591.]63=598.163

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³1´ as facet indicator 
In the add table at 592-599, ³1´ introduces the facet: General topics of natural history of animals  Never abridge a number built using this add table with the facet indicator ³1´ at the end of the number after the decimal point  ³1´ is also used as facet indicator elsewhere in life sciences (570-590) and in music (780)

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598+1+[591.]63=598.163 
591 Specific topics in natural history of animals  591.6  591.63

Miscellaneous nontaxonomic kinds of animals Beneficial animals

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598+1+[591.]38=598.138 (etc.) 
598.138 Birds²evolution  598.139 Baby birds  598.1468 Eggs²birds  598.15 Behavior²birds  598.156 Life cycle²birds  598.1564 Birds' nests  598.1568 Migratory birds  598.176 Aquatic birds

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338.4 Secondary industries and services 
338.47001-338.47999 products and services

Subdivisions for

Add to base number 338.47 notation 001-999, e.g., gasoline production industry 338.4766553827, tourist industry 338.4791 . . . .

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338.47+004=338.47004 (etc.) 
338.47004

Computer industry Internet industry 

338.47004678  338.470705

Publishing industry 

338.47374013 Adult vocational education and training services industry

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338.47+6151=338.476151 (etc.) 
338.476151  338.476205

Drugs (Pharmaceuticals) industry Nanotechnology industry Electronic equipment industry Shipbuilding industry 

338.47621381  338.4762382

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338.47+624=338.47624 (etc.) 
338.47624

Construction industry Hotel industry Food services industry 

338.4764794  338.4764795  338.4766

Chemical industries Fireworks industry 

338.476621

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338.47+664853=338.47664853 (etc.) 
338.47664853  338.476649  338.4766492  338.4766493

Frozen vegetables industry

Meat processing industry Beef processing industry Chicken (Meat) processing industry

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338.47+666=338.47666 (etc.) 
338.47666  338.476691

Ceramics industry Iron industry²metallurgy 

338.47669142 Steel industry²metallurgy  338.47674

Lumber industry Hardwood lumber industry Composite woods industry 

338.47674142  338.4767483

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Part 3. Book numbers and other methods of subarrangement 
All methods of subarrangement are optional and not part of DDC proper  Many different methods of subarrangement are used in Dewey libraries  In a very few places in the DDC there are instructions for subarrangement²but they are optional

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Arrange alphabetically 
Rare instruction in DDC  Always optional  006.74 Markup languages
Arrange alphabetically by name of language, e.g., XML 

006.74  .X6

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Arrange chronologically 
Rare instruction in DDC  Optional  796.98 Winter Olympic games
Arrange specific games chronologically 

796.98  2006

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Individual biographies 
Arrange alphabetically by name of biographee  Example: biography of forester Emile Grandjean  634.9092  .G764

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Double Cuttering 
If you use Cutter numbers to arrange alphabetically by topic (e.g., name of biographee), you may then add a second Cutter number for the author¶s name.  As with all forms of subarrangement, double Cuttering is not part of DDC proper

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Example of double Cuttering 
Biography of forester Emile Grandjean  Grandjean : man of the forests
By Gordon S. Bowen 

634.9092  .G764B6754

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Dewey Cutter Program 
http://www.oclc.org/dewey/support/pro gram/default.htm  Free download  OCLC Four-Figure Cutter Tables 
Compatible with Cutter Three-Figure Author Table  Compatible with Cutter-Sanborn Three-Figure Author Table

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Dewey Cutter Program

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Cutter Four-Figure Table: examples 
Sa565  Sch721  Sch723

(Sanders, Margaret) (Schreiber, Albert) (Schreiber, John) 

Sch7243 (Schreiber, Nancy)  Sch7247 (Schreiber, Robert)  Sch725  St835

(Schreiber, William) (Streeter, Joan)

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Cutter-Sanborn Four-Figure Table: examples 
S2156 (Sanders, Margaret)  S3781 (Schreiber, Albert)  S3783 (Schreiber, John)  S37843 (Schreiber, Nancy)  S37845 (Schreiber, Robert)  S37847 (Schreiber, William)  S9154 (Streeter, Joan)

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Other methods of alphabetic subarrangement 
Many libraries use all or part of an author¶s name for alphabetic subarrangement

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Example of another method of alphabetic subarrangement 
Sanders  Schreiber, A  Schreiber, J  Schreiber, N  Schreiber, R  Schreiber, W  Streeter

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Resources and links (1) 
ddc-deutsch:  http://www.ddc-deutsch.de/  Dewey Cutter Program:  http://www.oclc.org/dewey/support/pro gram/default.htm

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Resources and links (2) 
Comaromi, John P. Book numbers: a historical study and practical guide to their use. Littleton, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1981  Lehnus, Donald J. Book numbers: history, principles, and application. Chicago: American Library Association, 1980

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Resources and links (3) 
Online DDC Catalogs:  http://www.oclc.org/dewey/about/worl dwide/default.htm