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DDC number building for shelf arrangement

Julianne Beall Assistant Editor, DDC Library of Congress

July 4, 2006 Vienna

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Part 1. Elements of typical call numbers  Part 2. Class numbers  Part 3. Book numbers and other methods of subarrangement

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Part 1. Elements of typical call numbers 
Call number = class number + book number (or other method of alphabetic subarrangement)  Example:  641.5972  .B3433

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Call number 
A set of letters, numerals or other symbols (in combination or alone) used by a library to identify a specific copy of a work. A call number consists of the class number and book number (or Cutter number).  It may also contain other data such as date, volume number, copy number and location symbol.

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Class number 
Notation that designates the class to which a given item belongs.  Example: 641.5972 Cooking characteristic of Mexico  Used for Rick Bayless's Mexican kitchen : capturing the vibrant flavors of a worldclass cuisine

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Book number 
The part of a call number that distinguishes a specific item from other items within the same class number, also called a Cutter number. A book number is composed of letters from the author's name and numbers.  Example: .B3433 for Bayless, Rick 
From OCLC Cutter Four-Figure Table

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Other method of alphabetic subarrangement 
Instead of formal book numbers, many libraries prefer simple methods of alphabetic subarrangement  Example: Bay for Bayless, Rick

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Part 2. Class numbers 
Broad classification and logical abridgment  Building with tables (numbered auxiliary tables)  Building with add tables  Building with other add notes

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The classification of works in broad categories by logical abridgment, even when more specific numbers are available, e.g., the use of 641.5 Cooking instead of 641.5972 Mexican cooking for a cookbook of Mexican recipes.

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Logical abridgment 
The abridged number is the same as the full number, but shorter  The number is abridged at a logical place

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Abridged edition 
A shortened version of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system that is a logical truncation of the notational and structural hierarchy of the corresponding full edition on which it is based. The abridged edition is intended for general collections of 20,000 titles or less.

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Segmentation marks (/ or µ) 
Records from Library of Congress and Library and Archives Canada include segmentation marks in Dewey class numbers  These marks show end of abridged number  The slash (/) appears in MARC records  The prime mark (µ) appears in Cataloging in Publication printed in books

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Example of segmentation 
641.5/6314  The abridged number (641.5) means cooking  The full number (641.56314) means cooking for people with diabetes  Never include segmentation marks in call numbers

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Building with tables (numbered auxiliary tables) 
Numbers from auxiliary tables are never used alone for shelf arrangement  They may, however, be used alone in a database for resource discovery  Today we won¶t be able to cover all six auxiliary tables; we will cover the following tables:

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Tables to be covered today 
Table 2. Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Persons  Table 1. Standard Subdivisions  Table 3A. Subdivisions for Works by or about Individual Authors  Table 3B. Subdivisions for Works by or about More than One Author  Table 5. Ethnic and National Groups

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Table 2. Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Persons 
The following numbers are never used alone, but may be used as required (either directly when so noted or through the interposition of notation T1²09 from Table 1) with any number from the schedules, e.g., wages (331.29) in Japan (T2²52 in this table): 331.2952 ; railroad transportation (385) in Brazil (T2²81 in this table): 385.0981

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641.593-641.599 Cooking characteristic of specific continents, countries, localities
Add to base number 641.59 notation T2²3T2²9 from Table 2 , e.g., Southern cooking (United States) 641.5975 T2²75 Southeastern United States (South Atlantic states) Class here southern states 641.59+[T2²]75=641.5975

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641.59+[T2²]436=641.59436 (etc.) 
641.59436

Austrian cooking Cooking of Vienna 

641.5943613 

641.5944

French cooking Cooking of Normandy Cooking of Provence 

641.59442  641.59449

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641.59+[T2²]45=641.5945 (etc.) 
641.5945  641.59455  641.59458  641.595  641.5951  641.5952

Italian cooking Cooking of Tuscany Cooking of Sicily

Asian cooking Chinese cooking Japanese cooking

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Facet 
Any of the various categories into which a given class may be divided, e.g., division of the class "people" into the categories of ethnicity, age, education and language spoken. Each category contains terms based on a single characteristic of division, e.g., children, adolescents and adults are characteristics of division of the "ages" category.

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Facet indicator 
A digit used to introduce notation representing a characteristic of the subject. For example, "0" is often used as a facet indicator to introduce standard subdivision concepts.

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Rule for logical abridgment 
Never abridge a number so as to leave a ³0´ or other facet indicator at the end, in the part following the decimal point  Dewey numbers may end with ³0´ before the decimal point  Examples: 630 is O.K.  630.90 is not O.K.  630.9 is O.K.

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Table 1. Standard Subdivisions 
The following notation is never used alone, but may be used as required with any regular schedule number, e.g., workbooks (T1²076 in this table) in arithmetic (513): 513.076. When adding to a number from the schedules, always insert a decimal point between the third and fourth digits of the complete number

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T1²09 Historical, geographic, persons treatment 
T1²092

Persons

Biography, autobiography, description and critical appraisal of work, diaries . . . Class here treatment of individuals 

T1²093-T1²099 Treatment by specific continents, countries, localities; extraterrestrial worlds

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T1²09 Historical, geographic, persons treatment 
T1²093-T1²099 Treatment by specific continents, countries, localities; extraterrestrial worlds
Add to base number T1²09 notation T2²3-T2²9 from Table 2, e.g., the subject in North America T1²097, in Brazil T1²0981

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630 Agriculture and related technologies 
Standard subdivisions are added for agriculture and related technologies together, for agriculture alone 

630.9  630.92

Agriculture²history Agricultural workers, farmers

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63+[T1²]09+[T2²]4=630.94 (etc.) 
630.94 Agriculture²Europe  630.9436 Agriculture²Austria  630.94363

Agriculture²Salzburg province 

630.944 Agriculture²France  630.94438

Agriculture²Lorraine 

630.945 Agriculture²Italy

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634.9+[T1²]09=634.909 (etc.) 
634.9 Forestry  634.909 Forestry²history  634.9092 Foresters  634.9094 Forestry²Europe  634.909436

Forestry²Austria

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Table 5. Ethnic and National Groups
The following numbers are never used alone, but may be used as required (either directly when so noted or through the interposition of notation T1² 089 from Table 1) with any number from the schedules, e.g., civil and political rights ( 323.11 ) of Navajo Indians ( T5²9726 in this table): 323.119726 ; ceramic arts ( 738 ) of Jews ( T5² 924 in this table): 738.089924 . They may also be used when so noted with numbers from other tables, e.g., notation T2²174 from Table 2

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Table 5. Ethnic and National Groups (2)
Except where instructed otherwise, and unless it is redundant, add 0 to the number from this table and to the result add notation T2²1 or T2²3-T2²9 from Table 2 for area in which a group is or was located, e.g., Germans in Brazil T5² 31081 , but Germans in Germany T5²31 ; Jews in Germany or Jews from Germany T5²924043

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305.805-305.89 Specific ethnic and national groups
Add to base number 305.8 notation T5² 05-T5²9 from Table 5, e.g., comprehensive works on Jews 305.8924, Chinese 305.8951, Chinese Australians 305.8951094, Inuit 305.89712

305.8+[T5²]951+0+[T2²]94= 305.8951094

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305.8+[T5²]31 (etc.) 
305.831  305.835  305.836  305.841  305.851

Germans Swiss Austrians French Italians

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305.8+[T5²]41+0+[T2²]494= 305.8410494 
305.835  305.836  305.841  305.8410494  305.851  305.8510494 Italians Italian-speaking Swiss Swiss Austrians French French-speaking Swiss

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830.1-838 Subdivisions of German literature 
Add to base number 83 as instructed at beginning of Table 3, e.g., a collection of German literature 830.8  T3B²08 Collections of literary texts in more than one form  83+[T3B²]08=830.8

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Table 3B. Subdivisions for Works by or about More than One Author 
T3B²08 Collections of literary texts in more than one form  T3B²09 History, description, critical appraisal of works in more than one form  830.8 German literature²collections  830.9 German literature²history and criticism

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830.1-838 Subdivisions of German literature 
Add to base number 83 as instructed at beginning of Table 3, e.g., a collection of German literature 830.8  PERIOD TABLE .....  912  914  92 1900-1945 1945-1990 1990-

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Table 3A. Subdivisions for Works by or about Individual Authors 
T3A²1

Poetry Poetry of specific periods 

T3A²11-T3A²19

Add to T3A²1 notation from the period table for the specific literature in 810890, e.g., earliest period T3A²11; do not add standard subdivisions

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83+[T3A²]1+912=831.912 (etc.) 
Specific literature (German) + specific form (poetry) + literary period (19001945) (etc.)  831.912  831.914  831.92

German poetry²1900-1945 German poetry²1945-1990 German poetry²1990-

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598

*Aves (Birds)

Class here land birds, ornithology *Add as instructed under 592-599

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592-599 Specific taxonomic groups of animals
Except for modifications shown under specific entries, add to each subdivision identified by * as follows: 
1 General topics of natural history of animals
Add to base number 1 the numbers following 591 in 591.3-591.7, e.g., beneficial animals 163 

598+1+[591.]63=598.163

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³1´ as facet indicator 
In the add table at 592-599, ³1´ introduces the facet: General topics of natural history of animals  Never abridge a number built using this add table with the facet indicator ³1´ at the end of the number after the decimal point  ³1´ is also used as facet indicator elsewhere in life sciences (570-590) and in music (780)

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598+1+[591.]63=598.163 
591 Specific topics in natural history of animals  591.6  591.63

Miscellaneous nontaxonomic kinds of animals Beneficial animals

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598+1+[591.]38=598.138 (etc.) 
598.138 Birds²evolution  598.139 Baby birds  598.1468 Eggs²birds  598.15 Behavior²birds  598.156 Life cycle²birds  598.1564 Birds' nests  598.1568 Migratory birds  598.176 Aquatic birds

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338.4 Secondary industries and services 
338.47001-338.47999 products and services

Subdivisions for

Add to base number 338.47 notation 001-999, e.g., gasoline production industry 338.4766553827, tourist industry 338.4791 . . . .

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338.47+004=338.47004 (etc.) 
338.47004

Computer industry Internet industry 

338.47004678  338.470705

Publishing industry 

338.47374013 Adult vocational education and training services industry

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338.47+6151=338.476151 (etc.) 
338.476151  338.476205

Drugs (Pharmaceuticals) industry Nanotechnology industry Electronic equipment industry Shipbuilding industry 

338.47621381  338.4762382

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338.47+624=338.47624 (etc.) 
338.47624

Construction industry Hotel industry Food services industry 

338.4764794  338.4764795  338.4766

Chemical industries Fireworks industry 

338.476621

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338.47+664853=338.47664853 (etc.) 
338.47664853  338.476649  338.4766492  338.4766493

Frozen vegetables industry

Meat processing industry Beef processing industry Chicken (Meat) processing industry

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338.47+666=338.47666 (etc.) 
338.47666  338.476691

Ceramics industry Iron industry²metallurgy 

338.47669142 Steel industry²metallurgy  338.47674

Lumber industry Hardwood lumber industry Composite woods industry 

338.47674142  338.4767483

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Part 3. Book numbers and other methods of subarrangement 
All methods of subarrangement are optional and not part of DDC proper  Many different methods of subarrangement are used in Dewey libraries  In a very few places in the DDC there are instructions for subarrangement²but they are optional

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Arrange alphabetically 
Rare instruction in DDC  Always optional  006.74 Markup languages
Arrange alphabetically by name of language, e.g., XML 

006.74  .X6

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Arrange chronologically 
Rare instruction in DDC  Optional  796.98 Winter Olympic games
Arrange specific games chronologically 

796.98  2006

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Individual biographies 
Arrange alphabetically by name of biographee  Example: biography of forester Emile Grandjean  634.9092  .G764

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Double Cuttering 
If you use Cutter numbers to arrange alphabetically by topic (e.g., name of biographee), you may then add a second Cutter number for the author¶s name.  As with all forms of subarrangement, double Cuttering is not part of DDC proper

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Example of double Cuttering 
Biography of forester Emile Grandjean  Grandjean : man of the forests
By Gordon S. Bowen 

634.9092  .G764B6754

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Dewey Cutter Program 
Compatible with Cutter Three-Figure Author Table  Compatible with Cutter-Sanborn Three-Figure Author Table

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Dewey Cutter Program

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Cutter Four-Figure Table: examples 
Sa565  Sch721  Sch723

(Sanders, Margaret) (Schreiber, Albert) (Schreiber, John) 

Sch7243 (Schreiber, Nancy)  Sch7247 (Schreiber, Robert)  Sch725  St835

(Schreiber, William) (Streeter, Joan)

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Cutter-Sanborn Four-Figure Table: examples 
S2156 (Sanders, Margaret)  S3781 (Schreiber, Albert)  S3783 (Schreiber, John)  S37843 (Schreiber, Nancy)  S37845 (Schreiber, Robert)  S37847 (Schreiber, William)  S9154 (Streeter, Joan)

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Other methods of alphabetic subarrangement 
Many libraries use all or part of an author¶s name for alphabetic subarrangement

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Example of another method of alphabetic subarrangement 
Sanders  Schreiber, A  Schreiber, J  Schreiber, N  Schreiber, R  Schreiber, W  Streeter

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