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Dislocation model of high angle grain boundary

 The grain boundary structure contains grain boundary

dislocations. These are not mobile dislocations producing
extensive slip – their chief role is to group together to form a
step or grain boundary ledge

Grain boundary ledges

are effective source of

Dislocation model of a
grain boundary
Energy of high angle grain boundary

 High angle boundaries are of high surface energy of about

600 – 800 mJ/m2

 Energy of a twin boundary is only about 25 mJ/m2

High energy grain boundaries

serve as preferential site for
solid state reactions such as:
 Diffusion
 Phase Transformation
 Precipitation

Deformation Behaviour of polycrystalline materials

 Individual grains in polycrystalline materials are not

subjected to a single uni-axial stress system when the
specimen is deformed in tension

 In a polycrystal, continuity must be maintained so that the

boundaries between deforming crystals remain intact.

 the constraints imposed by continuity cause considerable

differences in the deformation between neighbouring grains
and within each grain

Deformation Behaviour of polycrystalline materials

 Due to difference in crystallo-

graphic orientations of the
numerous grain, the slip direction
varies from one grain to another

Because of the constrains

imposed by the grain
boundaries, slip occurs on
several slip-systems even
at low strain

Ashby’s model of deformation of a polycrystal

Polycrystal deform in
macroscopic uniform way,
produces overlap and
void at boundaries

These can be done by

introducing geometrically
necessary dislocations

Slip system requirements

 Five independent slip systems are required for a crystal to

undergo a shape change by slip

 Crystals which do not posses five independent slip systems

are never ductile in polycrystalline form

 Cubic metal satisfy this requirement

hence highly ductile

 HCP metal does not satisfy this

requirement at room temperature
hence have very poor ductility

Grain boundary sliding

 At T >0.5Tm, deformation can occur by sliding along grain


Increases tendency for
Strain rate Grain boundary sliding

Equicohesive Temperature

 Above equicohesive temperature – grain boundary region is

weaker than grain – grain boundary sliding is predominant

 Below equicohesive temperature – grain boundary region is

stronger than grain – strength increases with finer grain size
Strengthening from high angle grain boundaries

Dislocation piled-up at the

grain boundaries
Hall-Petch relation

i = Friction stress

k = Locking parameter

Dislocation pile-up at grain boundaries

Number of dislocation piled-up

When the source is located at center

Hall-Petch relation…..continues

Critical stress to slip past the barrier


Hall-Petch relation…..can we apply it to smallest
possible grain sized materials??

 If Hall-Petch relation is extrapolated to the smallest grain size

imaginable (~4 nm), it would predict strength levels close to
the theoretical shear strength

 Such an extrapolation is in error

 Hall-Petch relation is valid only for large pile-up containing

more than 50 dislocations

Low Angle Grain Boundaries

 A low angle boundary or sub-boundary can be represented

by an array of dislocations

 The simplest such boundary is the symmetrical tilt boundary

 The boundary consists of a wall of parallel edge dislocation

aligned perpendicular to the slip plane.

symmetrical tilt boundary

Low Angle Grain Boundaries

If the spacing of the dislocations of Burgers vector b in the

boundary is h, then the crystals on either side of the
boundary are misoriented by a small angle where

  b/d


 Subgrains are low-angle boundaries in which the difference

in orientation across the boundary is few degrees

 They etch less readily than grain boundaries


Single crystal is bent Followed by annealing

Schematic Movement of dislocations to produce polygonization

Strengthening from low angle boundaries

Effect of substructure of low angle boundaries on stress-strain

curve of SAE 1020 steel
Yield Point Phenomenon
Strain Ageing

Yield Point Phenomenon

0 – General yield stress

s – Stress to operate dislocation
i – Friction stress

Carbon or nitrogen atoms in iron readily diffuse to the position of

minimum energy just below the extra plane of atoms in a positive edge
Strain Ageing

 Strain ageing is a type of behavior, usually associated with

yield point phenomenon in which the strength of a metal is
increased and the ductility is decreased on heating at relatively
low temperature after cold working

Region A – Original
material strained through
yield point

Region B – Immediately
retested after reaching
point X

Region C – Reappearance
and increase in yield
point after ageing at 400K
Stress-strain curves for low-carbon
steel showing strain aging.
Strain Ageing

 The reappearance of the yield point is due to the diffusion of

carbon and nitrogen atoms to the dislocation during the ageing

 Nitrogen plays a more important role in strain ageing than

carbon because

 It has a higher solubility

 Higher diffusion coefficient
 produce less complete precipitation during slow cooling

Strain Ageing & “Stretcher strains”

 The reappearance of the yield point could lead to surfacing

markings or ‘stretcher strains’ due to localized heterogeneous
deformation during deep-drawing

How “Stretcher strains” can be controlled?

 This can be controlled by:

 Lowering carbon content
 Adding carbide forming elements (like Ti, V, Al etc)
 ‘Skin-pass’ rolling

“Skin pass rolling” to eliminate stretcher strains