Importance of Control Function on Management

Dr. Bagus Nurcahyo Program Studi Manajemen Pemasaran Direktorat Program D3 Bisnis & Kewirausahaan



Importance of Control
Critical link back to planning No control often sidetracks a good plan Facilitates goal achievement Are objectives being met? If not, WHY not? Makes delegation easier/better Provides feedback on performance of delegated authority Opportunity for delegation over-ride Trust, but verify portion of management BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 2

Correct before they become too costly Often built into new technology Feedback Control Control after action has occurred Good feedback on effectiveness of planning Most popular Easiest??? BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 3 .Three Basic Types of Control Feedforward Control Prevents anticipated problems Built in at the start (or before) Concurrent Control Occurs while activity in progress Ensures standards being met.

Manajemen-Chap-10 4 .Personality Traits Developed from inborn tendencies and our environment Nature AND Nurture Six traits impact interpersonal relations and job performance: Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability (Neuroticism) Openness to Experience Self Monitoring of Behavior.How we are seen BnR-Peng.

Background Everyone has a preferred mode of operation within the four categories: Where we get our energy for life Extroverted or Introverted How we see reality (Take in information) Sensing or iNtuition How we judge that reality (Make decisions) Thinking or Feeling Our orientation with world on day-to-day basis Judging or Perceiving BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 5 .Personality Types .

energy from external sources People and things Think out loud Empowered by others. not how much BnR-Peng.Extraversion vs. Sense of connectedness Introverts (I) . Introversion Extroverts (E) .energy from internal world Ideas and concepts Wait to speak until ideas fully formulated Spatiality What is said.Manajemen-Chap-10 6 .

Manajemen-Chap-10 7 .Gathering Information Sensation (S) type individuals Prefer routine and order Search for concrete details (Specific and exact) Prefer to work with established facts Intuitive (N) type individuals Overall perspective Big Picture Generalities and approximations Rely on intuition Dislike routine Look for abstract possibilities from info gathered BnR-Peng.

Evaluating Information Feeling (F) type individuals: Based on personal.Manajemen-Chap-10 8 . impartial BnR-Peng. rational. subjective value systems Act on what they believe to be right May adapt to others wishes (Approval) or avoid issues that may cause disagreement Thinking (T) type individuals: Rely on logic and objective considerations Downplay emotion in problem solving and decision-making Logical.

casual environment Flexible and diverse Adaptability Play it by ear BnR-Peng.Judging vs. and settled Organized and purposeful Perceiving (P) More comfortable with open. orderly. Perceiving Judging (J) More comfortable with scheduled. structured environment Neat.Manajemen-Chap-10 9 .

The Paul Principle Gradual obsolescence of leaders as they lose touch w/organization they lead Become too conservative (Risk-averse) Resist innovation and change (Stagnation) Fail to take advantage of technological breakthroughs (Comfortable) Find answers for problems from their youth Can t teach an old dog new tricks Antidotes? BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 10 .

Manajemen-Chap-10 11 .Perception Webster s: A mental image Physical sensation interpreted in the light of experience Process people use to make sense of their environment XO says: A bias that can affect the way in which we process information Frequently leads to an incorrect deduction BnR-Peng.

peers. and subordinates You will be judged and often judge others on the perception of intentions and effectiveness Normally based on: Limited observation Incomplete information BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 12 .Why Important? Plays a powerful role in relationships with superiors.

Manajemen-Chap-10 13 .Aspects of Perception Fundamental Attribution Error: Tendency to overestimate the dispositional causes of behavior and downplay the environmental factors in others behavior Self-Serving Bias: Blame external attributions for failure (environment/situation) Internal attributions (Intelligence/charisma) responsible for success BnR-Peng.

Aspects of Perception Actor/Observer Difference: People observing an action are much more likely than the actor to make the fundamental attribution error Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Expectations or predictions play a causal role in bringing about the events we predict (Forced Eventuality/Scenario Fulfillment) BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 14 .

Non-Verbal Communication Messages sent through actions and behaviors rather than words Not what you say. disconnected.Manajemen-Chap-10 . relaxed 15 ProxemicsBnR-Peng. but how you say it 75-90% of our info is from non-verbal communication Message behind the message? (Emotion) Physical appearance Facial expressions/Eye contact Body language Aggressive. defensive.

Non-Verbal Communication How important is it? 93% of emotional impact Message breakdown Verbal (Spoken words) Vocal (Pitch.Manajemen-Chap-10 16 . tone. timbre) Body Language 10% 30% 60% What happens when words and actions contradict? BnR-Peng.

Manajemen-Chap-10 17 .Using Non-verbal Advantageously Become aware Don t contradict words w/body language Know facial expressions Benefits of smile/head nod Direct your eye contact Gesturing with purpose Note personal/cultural differences BnR-Peng.

Thinking Rate Ailment loss of hearing/flu BnR-Peng.Listening Barriers Environmental External noise/other stimuli Internal stress/exhaustion/personal issues Physiological Speaking vs.Manajemen-Chap-10 18 .

Manajemen-Chap-10 19 .Listening Barriers (CONT) Psychological Selective Listening Negative Listening Attitudes Personal Reactions Words have meanings Buzz words Poor Motivation Lack of preparation Goals help you focus BnR-Peng.

How are we doing? BnR-Peng.Communication & the Four Management Functions Planning: Gather information Write memos. letters.Manajemen-Chap-10 20 . reports Meet to formulate plans Organizing: Gather info about state of organization Communicate new structure Directing: Communicate plan and strategy (How and Why) Motivate employees Controlling: Feedback.

Differs from two other means of dealing with conflict: Acquiescence Back down easily when challenged Aggression Achieve aims by attacking or hurting others.Manajemen-Chap-10 21 . BnR-Peng. fair and positive manner. Assertiveness achieves aims by direct communication in an open.Assertiveness Stand up for your rights in a way that recognizes the rights of others to do the same.

Manajemen-Chap-10 22 . Be persistent. Speak up for what you need. BnR-Peng. Exhibit positive inner dialogue. Learn to say no. Be clear about what you want.Assertiveness Take responsibility for what you say and do.

(Positive or negative) Be specific. Be descriptive. Stick to the facts. BnR-Peng. Give both positive and negative feedback. May have to wait for a better time to give the feedback. Avoid blame and embarrassment.Manajemen-Chap-10 23 . Focus on behaviors. Be timely. Be flexible.Constructive Feedback Feedback should be helpful.

Moral Leadership What is moral leadership? Distinguishing right from wrong AND doing what s right Having the courage to take an unpopular stand Placing others/organization ahead of oneself Why important? People want honest and trustworthy leaders All leaders face ethical dilemmas BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 24 .

Aimed at personal advancement people will be honest  If dishonesty is the rule. and values of the group are followed  If honesty is the rule.Manajemen-Chap-10 more important that others· expectations 25 . people will be dishonest BnR-Peng. norms. Principled Level Leaders guided by internalized set of principles (Universal right or wrong) Leaders may disobey rules/laws that violate universal principles  Internalized values avoid consequences Motivated solely by self interest Take what you can get Leadership tends to be autocratic toward others.Levels of Moral Development PrePre-conventional Level Individuals seek external rewards  Obey authority to Conventional Level People conform to behavioral expectations of group Rules.

and privilege reside with top management Emphasizes tight top-down control. standardization.Manajemen-Chap-10 26 . and specialization Followers given a routine and controlled along with machines and materials Management by impersonal measurement and analysis BnR-Peng. purpose.Authoritarian Management Direct and control subordinates Efficiency and Stability paramount Power.

make final decisions.Manajemen-Chap-10 27 . but mindset remains paternalistic: Top leaders determine purpose/goals. and decide rewards Leaders still responsible for outcome No real distribution of power and authority BnR-Peng.Participative Management Encourages participation and suggestions Uses teamwork.

Guide without dominating.Manajemen-Chap-10 28 . Recognize and reward the value of labor rewards tied to success of the organization BnR-Peng.Stewardship Employees empowered to make decisions Control over how they do their jobs Localize decisions/power to those closest to work Tap into energy and commitment of followers Leaders accountable to others as well as to the organization Partnership assumption Joint responsibility/accountability Facilitate vice control followers.

Manajemen-Chap-10 29 .Servant Leadership Transcend self-interest to: Serve the needs of others Help others grow and develop Provide opportunities for others to gain Belief making others better makes the whole organization/group better BnR-Peng.

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