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Community

Therapy
By: Mara Escasinas & Vien Caraan
History
Reform Focus of
Era Setting
movement reform
Humane, restorative
Moral Treatment 1800–1850 Asylum
treatment

Prevention,
Mental hospital or
Mental Hygiene 1890–1920 scientific
clinic
orientation
Deinstitutionalizati
Community Mental Community mental
1955–1970 on, social
Health health center
integration
Mental illness as a
social welfare
Community
1975–present Communities problem (e.g.
Support
treatment housing,
employment)
What does it offer?
- Enable patients to rehabilitate and find self-
management strategies in order to overcome the
physical, psychological and social problems
caused by ill health.

- It is done by helping patients


(and their carers) to adapt their
techniques, carry out exercise
programmes, use adaptive
equipment and learn more about
their condition.
Who is the service
It is mainly accessedfor?
by people who require
assistance in managing the effect of their long
term conditions, but can extend to any adult who
would be unable to attend an outpatient
appointment,
for example:
People who are having difficulty completing
their activities of daily living (such as washing
and dressing).
Where Does It Takes
Place and What Does
it Look
– Correctional facilitiesLike?
– Mental health centers
– Retirement communities
– Schools and other educational settings
– Business and corporate offices
– Human services agencies
Key Advantages
• Private practice allows for a smaller setting, which might be
more comfortable for those patients who don’t like large
waiting rooms, crowds, or other distractions.

• It is often located much closer to where patients actually


live. This makes it easy for those with reduced mobility to
attend their appointments without incident or delay.

• Services are often more specialized, allowing professionals


to help their patients with a more particular set of skills.
HOW TO
DEVELOP AN
INTERVENTION
?
Developing an
Step
Intervention
Identify the community problem/goal to be addressed and
what needs to be done.
1
a. Statement of the community problem/goal to be addressed
b. Specific behaviors of whom that need to change
c. Improvements in community-level outcomes that should result

Step Assess the level of the problem or goal. Some types of


assessment include:
2
a. Direct observation of the problem or goal
b. Conducting behavioral surveys
c. Interviewing key people in the community
d. Reviewing archival or existing records
Developing an
Step
Intervention
Describe the prioritized groups to benefit and those
implementing the intervention.
3
a.Targets of change or prioritized groups for whom behaviors
or outcomes should change
b.Agents of change or those implementing the intervention

Step Indicate how you will obtain clients' input, identifying


and analyzing problems and goals to be addressed by the
4 intervention.

a.Personal contacts
b.Interviews
c.Focus groups
d.Community forums
e.Concerns surveys
Developing an
Step
Intervention
Analyze the problem or goal to be addressed by the
intervention.
5
Use client input to specify:
a.Those for whom the current situation is a problem.
b.The negative (positive) consequences for those directly affected and the broader
community.
c.Personal and environmental factors to be influenced
d.The behavior or lack of behavior that causes or maintains the problem. What behaviors of
whom would need to change for the problem (or goal) to be eliminated (addressed).
e.Who benefits and how from the situation staying the same (economically, politically).
f.The conditions that need to change for the issue to be resolved (e.g., skills, opportunities,
financial resources, trusting relationships).
g.The appropriate level at which the problem or goal should be addressed (e.g., by
individuals, families, neighborhoods, city or county government), and whether the
organization has the capacity to influence such changes).
Developing an
Intervention
Step Set goals and objectives for what "success" would
look like.
6
a. A description of what success would look like. How will the
community or group be different if the intervention is successful?
b. Those goals the intervention is targeted to accomplish. How will you
know if your intervention is successful?
c. The specific objectives the intervention will achieve. What will change
by how much and by when?
Developing an
Step
Intervention
Identify and assess "best practices" or "evidence-based
interventions" that could help address the problem or goal.
7
a. Potential or promising “best practices” for your situation (consider various
available databases and lists of “best” or evidence-based practices)
b. How strong is the evidence that each potential “best practice” caused the
observed improvement? (Rather than other associated conditions or potential
influences)
c. Whether the “best practice” could achieve the desired results in your community
d. Whether the conditions (e.g., time, money, people, technical assistance) that
affect success for the “best practice” are present
e. (Based on the assessment) The “best practice” or evidence-based approach to be
tried in your situation (Note: If no “best practices” are known or appropriate to
your situation, follow the steps below to design or adapt another intervention.)
Developing an
Step
Intervention
Specify the core components and elements of the
intervention.
8
Be specific about elements to be included for each of these five intervention
components:
a. Providing information and enhancing skills
b. Modifying access, barriers, exposures, and opportunities.
c. Enhancing services and supports.
d. Changing the consequences.
e. Modifying policies and broader systems.

Step Identify the mode of delivery through which each component and
element of the intervention will be delivered in the community.
9
Developing an
Intervention
Step Indicate how you will adapt the intervention or "best
practice" to fit the needs and context of your community.
1
0
Step
Develop an action plan for the intervention.
1
a. What specific change or aspect of the intervention will occur?
1 b. Who will carry it out?
c. When the intervention will be implemented or how long it will be
maintained?
d. Resources (money and staff) needed/ available?
e. Who should know what about this?
Developing an
Step
Intervention
Pilot-test the intervention on a small scale.
1
a. Test the intervention and with whom
2 b.
c.
Assess the quality of implementation of the intervention
Assess results and consequences or side effects
d. Collect and use feedback to adapt and improve the intervention

Step Identify the mode of delivery through which each component and

1 element of the intervention will be delivered in the community.

3
Ten Elements of A
Community Support
System
1. Responsible team 6. Supervised (supported)
2. Residential care apartments
3. Emergency care 7. Outpatient therapy
8. Vocational training and
4. Medicare care
opportunities
5. Halfway house 9. Social and recreational
opportunities
10. Family and network
attention
What is Community Counseling? (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2018, from
https://www.bestcounselingdegrees.net/faq/what-is-community-counseling/

Developing an Intervention. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2018, from


https://ctb.ku.edu/en/developing-intervention

https://careersinpsychology.org/becoming-a-community-psychologist/

https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/therapeutic-
communities/what-therapeutic-communitys-approach

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_mental_health_service