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Composite Floor

and Roof Slab Systems


Professor Thomas A. Sabol
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Almost all steel framed floors and topped roofs (i.e.


those with concrete vs. those with only metal deck) are
composite systems

Welding shear Headed shear stud Metal deck


connectors (headed prior to welding spanning
studs) perpendicular to
beam
Deck flutes – the deck
Headed shear stud welded spans parallel to the flutes
through deck to the steel
beam
Metal deck spanning
perpendicular to beam

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Thickness of concrete slab a function of:


•Structural requirements (often not a governing requirement)
•Fire-resistive requirements (often governs)
•Type of concrete (lightweight vs. normal weight)
•Vibration requirements (benefit of added mass)
•Seismic and foundation demands (need to reduce weight)

Concrete
topping
thickness
Deck
thickness

Metal deck thickness and typical


spans
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Thickness of metal deck a function of:


•Structural requirements (spans between beams)
•Vibration requirements
•Fire rating

Flute

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Fire rating of a metal deck and concrete fill:


• Hourly fire ratings are used as a measure of the
ability of the composite deck and slab to contain
a fire and keep it from spreading from floor to
floor.
• The “fire” is defined in ASTM E119 – it is a
laboratory standard, not a fire in a real building

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Fire rating of a metal deck and concrete fill:


• For the duration of the fire test, the floor must
carry the design load, not allow a 250o
temperature rise through the slab, and not permit
flames or hot gasses to penetrate the assembly.
• The building code controls the number of hours
required (see IBC Table 601)
• Concrete cover is often controlled by fire rating
required rather than structural requirements.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Fire rating of a metal deck and concrete fill:


110 to 115 145 to 150 pcf
pcf

Very common system for Often, deck fireproofing


Type I-A or I-B construction isn’t considered
(the most fire-resistive economical
construction)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
Section I.3 of the AISC Specification addresses
composite flexural members

Advantages of Composite Construction:


 Uses material efficiently: concrete in compression
& steel in tension (web & flange)
 Reduces weight and increases stiffness
compared to non-composite: deflection only 20-
30% of non-composite for the same size beam

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
Advantages of Composite Construction:
 Reduces structural depth
 Efficiently supports high live loads or high “post-
composite” dead loads because these are applied
after the steel beam has become composite with
the concrete
 Provides greater reliability because stability limit
states are usually not critical

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


SHORED CONSTRUCTION

Prior to development of composite action, total


weight of uncured (i.e. wet) concrete must be
carried by steel beam
Sometimes, the beam is not strong enough and it
must be shored so it does not fail
Metal deck and
concrete fill

Beam

Shoring – exact
placement varies

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


SHORED CONSTRUCTION

 Shoring supports the steel beam (i.e. beam carries


“no” load) because shoring supports weight of
wet concrete until composite action is available.
This usually results in a smaller beam.

Beam being
shored

Shoring
post

Lower beam must be strong


enough to support weight of
upper beam
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
UNSHORED CONSTRUCTION

 If unshored, steel beam alone must have adequate


strength (i.e. Mn) to resist all pre-composite loads
(i.e. Mu) applied prior to concrete reaching 75% of
its design strength, f’c

Metal deck and


concrete fill

Beam

Beam must carry uncured


concrete as a non-composite
steel member until concrete
reaches 75% of f’c

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


UNSHORED CONSTRUCTION

Reasons not to shore:


High expense and difficult construction
logistics make shoring almost always more
expensive than potential savings from reduced
beam weight in shored construction
Creep - Concrete slab always in compression
which can lead to greater long-term
deflections
 Therefore, shored steel frame construction is
almost never used. Unshored construction is
usually preferred.
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
Usually, the size of beam is based on the “pre-
composite” condition, but it may not be stiff enough
(i.e. too much deflection).

The composite section usually possesses more than


enough strength to support the superimposed
composite loads.

So, we “camber” the beam (pre-deflect the beam


upwards)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


CAMBER
Camber allows us to use a more efficient section
Recommended that beams be cambered if 80% of pre-
composite deflection > 1/2" to 3/4" or more
Camber in 0.25 in. increments and limit to about 2.5 in.
max. for 30 to 40 ft. long beams
Camber – deform beam in opposite
direction of anticipated dead load
deflection
Beam

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


CAMBER
Camber allows use of more efficient sections
Recommended that beams be cambered if 80% of pre-
composite deflection > 1/2" to 3/4" or more
Camber in 0.25 in. increments and limit to about 2.5 in.
max. for 30 to 40 ft. long beams

Camber in pre-composite
beam

Level slab after the concrete has been


placed
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
Level beams run the risk of excessive concrete due to
“ponding” of concrete

Level pre-composite beam


Camber in pre-composite
beam

Composite Level
beam slab
with after the concrete
excessive has
concrete to been
maintain
level slab placed
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
Do not over-camber
Sometimes the camber “doesn’t come out” because of
fixity and over-estimation of pre-composite loads

Camber in pre-composite
beam

In most situations, highly restrained Pinned connections allow the


connections should not be cambered rotation required to flatten-out a
Level slab after the concrete has been
cambered beam
placed
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
Problem locations: interior columns adjacent to
longer spans, roof beams with large camber
 Area around interior column won’t deflect. If
camber in adjacent beam doesn’t come out, an
unintended low spot at the column may result
 If camber doesn’t come out of roof beams, roof
drainage can be impacted unfavorably.

Roof beam with Long-span beam with


excessive excessive camber
camber (potential high spot)
(potential high Area around column
spot that (potential low spot)
interferes with
roof drainage) Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
If camber doesn’t come out:
 Shear connector can protrude above slab
 Concrete cover may be unequal or insufficient

Over-cambered beam with protruding shear


connectors Camber in pre-composite
beam

Over-cambered beam
Level slab afterwith
the uneven concrete
concrete thickness
has been
placed
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
General recommendations:
 Camber ≤ 0.8Δpre-composite (considers restraint)
 Δpre-composite should only include those loads
likely to be present before composite condition
(e.g., beam self-weight, concrete slab)
 When evaluating camber for cantilevered beams
with and without backspan, consider actual
conditions Relative length of cantilever and
backspan will change apparent
deformed shape

Cantilever is unlikely to exhibit


Does this beam rotate?
significant composite action
Is this a column with significant stiffness?
(concrete is in tension)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
Cambering uses hydraulic rams or heat. Operator has
to be careful not to buckle the beam. Cambering is a
trial and error process
Beam is pushed beyond elastic limit to
achieve a permanent set. When hydraulic
rams are released, the beam springs back
by the elastic deformation. The residual set
is the camber.
Beam Reference
line (a
string)
Hydraulic Hydraulic
ram ram

Cambering
with hydraulic
rams Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER

Heat is applied to create


camber on the opposite site of
the desired crown (i.e., upward
camber).

Heat marks go on bottom side


(beam’s crown (camber) is to the
top)

Cambering with
heat Professor Thomas A. Sabol
UNBRACED LENGTH OF BEAM

Pre-Composite Condition (Positive Moment)


If decking is perpendicular to the beam, it is
usually assumed that the unbraced length is 0 ft.
If decking is parallel to the beam (often applies to
girders) the deck isn’t oriented in its strongest
direction. The unbraced length is then based on
conventional bracing considerations (e.g.,
location of perpendicular beams).
Composite Condition (Positive Moment)
Concrete slab braces beam, therefore, unbraced
length is 0 ft.
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
UNBRACED LENGTH OF BEAM

Pre-Composite Condition (Negative Moment)


Bottom flange is in compression (often applies to
cantilevers). The unbraced length is then based
on conventional bracing considerations (e.g.,
location of perpendicular beams).
Composite Condition (Negative Moment)
Concrete is in tension and bottom flange is in
compression (often applies to cantilevers). The
unbraced length is then based on conventional
bracing considerations (e.g., location of
perpendicular beams).
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH

How much slab acts as part of the composite


beam? (See Section I3.1a)
Concrete stress decreases with distance from beam.
Concrete over the beam flange is under greatest
stress. Nevertheless, AISC Specification assumes
constant stress over assumed (effective) width with
reasonable accuracy.
Concept of effective width is similar to that used for
“t-beams” by ACI 318.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH

How much slab acts as part of the composite


beam?
be is taken on each side of the beam center line.
Effective width is sum of the be values.

Slab edge t
(where occurs)
Bottom of metal
deck
be be
1
Effective 2
Flange Width

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH
Slab edge t
(where occurs)

Bottom of metal
deck
be be
1
Effective 2
Flange Width

1 
 span of beam 
8

1
be  distance from centerline of beam to beam Use smallest value
2 

 Centerline of beam to slab edge 


Effective flange width = be1 + be2

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


SHEAR TRANSFER
For the metal deck/concrete and the steel beam to
work together effectively, adequate shear transfer
must be provided
Shear connectors – studs, headed (“Nelson”) studs –
most common
3/4"  most common diameter
Length > 4 stud 
Stud
Shear
demand Beam flange
Q

Headed shear stud


prior to welding

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


SHEAR TRANSFER
Although not directly related to composite strength
calculations, the deck must also be attached to the
steel framing
Decking usually attached to steel using puddle welds
or power-actuated fasteners

Powder-actuated
fasteners fired through
deck into steel attach
Puddle welds used to decking
attach decking to steel
framing Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR TRANSFER
Most failures occur with slab crushing so we usually
assume plastic behavior in both steel and concrete
(i.e., we can fully develop Mp in the beam)
Required strength of shear connectors (V’), between
point of M+max and M = 0, is the least of the following
(Section I3.2d):

V’ = 0.85 f'cAc Compressive strength of concrete


V’ = AsFy Tensile strength of steel
V’ =  Qn Total nominal strength of shear studs
where Ac = area of concrete within effective slab width (in2)
As = area of steel cross section (in2)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR TRANSFER
Uniform
load
M0
Beam
n* = required
number of
shear studs
from M+max to
M+ma
M0
x
*For most beams (e.g.
those with symmetric
uniform loads), total If two or more studs
number of studs required per flute are required,
for a beam is 2n and they the additional studs
are evenly distributed are added starting at
along the length of the the supports and
beam. working toward the
middle
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR TRANSFER
Symmetric
point
loads
M0 Beam
n = required
number of
shear studs
from M+max to M+ma
x
M0

Shear diagram

Note that the shear diagram shows no


shear in this region (theoretically, no
shear connectors are required), but
minimum spacing of shear connectors
governs in this region Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH (Qn)

No -factor for strength of studs.


Nominal strength of shear connector is:
Qn  0.5 Asa f ' c E c  Rg Rp Asa Fu (Eq. I8-1)

where
Asa = Area of shear connector shank in.2
Ec = Young's modulus of concrete (ksi)
Fu = Specified minimum tensile strength (ksi)
Rg = Varies between 1.0 and 0.75 depending on number of
studs and direction of deck flutes
Rp = Varies between 1.0 to 0.6 depending on how many
studs are welded in a given flute
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
“Parallel”
SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH (Qn)
usually refer to
girders
Condition Rg RP
No decking 1.0 0.75
Decking oriented parallel to the steel shape
wr/hr ≥ 1.5 1.0 0.75 “Perpendicula
wr/hr < 1.5 0.85 0.75 r” usually
Decking oriented perpendicular to the steel shape refers to
Number of studs occupying the same decking rib beams
1 1.0 0.6
2 0.85 0.6
3 or more 0.7 0.6

(See User Note on page 16.1-98 of the Steel Manual for common values of Rg and Rp)

hr = nominal rib height, in.


wr = average width of concrete rib or haunch
(as defined in Section I3.2c), in.

Decking oriented
perpendicular to steel shape
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH (Qn)

SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH (Qn) for one


stud per rib in the “weak” position (see next slide)
f'c  Qn
(ksi) (pcf) (kips)
3.0 110 17.2 3/4" A36 studs
145 17.2
Most common stud
4.0 110 17.2 diameter and
concrete strength
145 17.2

Table I3-21 of the


Specification gives
values for other
conditions

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


Weak and Strong Stud Positions

Deck flutes usually have a stiffening rib that requires


stud be located to one side or the other
Stud strength can be a function of position
“Weak” position typically assumed unless otherwise
indicated (since specific placement not usually specified)
Stiffening rib
in deck flute

Direction of Direction of
shear shear

Stud in the Stud in the


“strong” “weak”
“More” position position
concrete to
support stud
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
Concrete Cover and Thickness

0.5” min
1.5” min 2” min
3” max

Ignore concrete in the flute (rib)


unless the rib is parallel to beam
(e.g. a girder condition -- typically
about 50% of the concrete is
available in this case)
Metal deck flutes (ribs)
perpendicular to beams

Metal deck flutes (ribs)


Metal deck flutes (ribs) parallel to beam (girder)
perpendicular to beams Partial Framing Plan
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

For uniform loads, a uniform spacing of studs shows


similar performance compared with a spacing that
follows the statical shear distribution (i.e. VQ ÷ Ib)
…therefore we use uniform spacing for uniform loads

For Point Loads - Number of connectors between load


and nearest point of zero moment must be sufficient to
develop M+max at point load.
Provide at required number
of connectors over this
distance
P Key
M=0
concept for
girder
Moment Diagram M+max design
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

In areas of zero shear, the maximum spacing of studs


would usually govern
Provide at required number
of connectors over this
distance
P P
M=0

Provide shear connectors no


Moment Diagram further apart than 8 x slab
M+max
thickness

Shear Diagram Key


concept for
girder
design
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

Minimum center to center spacing along beam is 6


(where  is stud diameter) and minimum center to
center transverse spacing along beam is 4. If
Formed Deck: 4 either direction.
Studs require min. 1" lateral concrete cover (except
where deck is used)
 of stud < 2.5 tf if not over webs

4 min

May stagger studs if beam 6 min Studs


is too narrow – this can Top of beam flange
squeeze in a few more
studs over a given distance.
Multiple Studs in a Row (or
Flute) Professor Thomas A. Sabol
NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

4 min

6 (min) -
Studs
8 x toal Top of beam flange
slab
thickness
When composite action is small or a beam has a point
(max)

of “zero” shear (e.g., the middle segment of a girder


loaded at its third points), provide shear connectors
spacing governed by maximum spacing
Maximum spacing < 8 x total slab thickness (36 in.
max.) to prevent vertical separation between slab and
beam flange when slab goes into compression
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

When decking runs perpendicular to the beam, studs


are installed based on the flute spacing in the deck,
typically 12 in. on center
When decking runs parallel to the beam (e.g., a girder),
the stud spacing is independent of the deck flute
spacing and 6 x stud diameter would govern
If flutes are
perpendicular to
beam, flute spacing
establishes stud
spacing

If flutes are parallel to


beam, stud spacing is
independent of flute
spacing Professor Thomas A. Sabol
PARTIALLY COMPOSITE BEAMS

If fully composite section has moment strength Mn*,


but you only need Mn* where  < 1.0, you can
provide enough studs just to reach  Mn*
A partially composite beam will have fewer than the
maximum number of studs required to develop the
full composite strength of the beam and slab
system: same beam and slab but fewer studs =
lower moment strength
Partially composite beams are the most common in
actual building design
It is recommended that  > 25%
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
PARTIALLY COMPOSITE BEAMS

Many designers will provide studs at 12 in. on center in


metal deck, even if design requires fewer, because:
• Reduces construction errors by keeping things
consistent
• Provides added flexural strength at a nominal
cost (i.e. studs are less expensive than
strengthening the beam later)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


FLEXURAL CAPACITY Key
concep
t
Flexural capacity of composite section may be governed by:
• Tensile strength of beam,
• Compressive strength of concrete slab or
• Strength of shear connectors.

The least of these values establishes the limit state that


governs the design

Composite section cannot transfer more shear than can be


developed by the shear connectors – if the shear
connectors have less strength than the concrete slab or
the beam, then this will establish the limit on the flexural
state of the composite section.
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
If web is slender and in compression, it may buckle.

Use plastic stress distribution in the composite section if:


hc
 3.76 E
Wide flange sections

tw Fyf with Fy ≤ 50 ksi


satisfy this, so you
may assume entire
section yields
hc = distance between toes of fillet d-2k

k
The flange and the web do
not meet at a right angle

hc
d
due to the rolling process
that creates the wide flange
shape. There is a small
radius at the intersection
k

called a “fillet.”
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY Not a common
condition -- you
must calculate
strees distribution
based on level of
Use elastic stress distribution if: strain

hc
 3.76 E ; where   0.9
tw Fyf

Superimpose elastic stresses and effect of shoring must


be considered.

The elastic stress distribution requirement applies most


frequently when built-up members are used (e.g. plate
girders) and relatively thin plates are used.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


FLEXURAL CAPACITY
Calculating the moment capacity of a composite section is
a function of plastic neutral axis (PNA) location.
Steel beam
Possible plastic neutral axis locations: weaker than
•Neutral axis in the concrete slab concrete
slab
•Neutral axis in top flange of beam
•Neutral axis in web of steel beam
b = effective PNA
Concrete in
tension width 0.85f’c
C (from
(doesn’t concrete)
contribute to
flexural
strength) T (from steel
t = total slab beam)
thickness Stress
Fy
PNA in Distribution
slab Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY

Plastic Neutral Axis in Concrete Slab:


Concrete in b = effective width
tension 0.85f’c
(doesn’t a/2 C = 0.85f’ ab
t a c
contribute to
flexural
PN
strength) A d/2 + t - a/2

T = AsFy
d
d/2
Fy

d a T must
 Mn   M p   As Fy   t   equal C to
2 2 satisfy
equilibrium
  0.9
(Note: If a > t, then PNA is not in slab and you need to revise
your assumptions and recalculate the flexural capacity.)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
If deck is used, the methodology to calculate the flexural
capacity is the same except the slab is elevated above the
beam flange by the height of the deck (hr). Adjust geometry.
Concrete in
compressio
n
Concrete in
tension (below 0.85f’c
PNA) a a/2 C = 0.85f’ ab
hr h c

c
PN
t

A
d/2 + t - a/2
Dec
k
T = AsFy
d

d/2
Fy

(Note: If a > hc, then PNA is not in slab and you need to limit
the compression strength to C = 0.85f’cbhc. If PNA is no lower
than t, you can assume PNA is “in the slab” to calculate Mn.)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
Ccon
Neutral Axis in Top Flange of Beam: c
b Cstee
y is depth
0.85f’c
of steel in 0.85f’cbt l
compressio
n
t C
Fy
y N.A. bf Fybfy

d-y T
Fy(As - bfy)
Fy
Tsteel

As a first guess, we assume neutral axis is at base of flange:


C  0.85 f ' c b t  Af Fy
T   As  Af  Fy
Not all of
the steel
is in
tension
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
Neutral Axis in Top Flange of Beam: Ccon
c
Cstee
l
b
0.85f’c
0.85f’cbt
t C
Fy
y N.A. bf Fybfy

d-y T
Fy(As - bfy)
Fy Tsteel

C = Cconc + Csteel = Tsteel = T Note: T = C to


satisfy
equilibrium
But if C > T with assumed PNA at base of flange, then our
assumption is wrong and PNA is not at base of flange.
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
Ccon
FLEXURAL CAPACITY c

Neutral Axis in Top Flange of Beam: Cstee


l
b
0.85f’c
0.85f’cbt
t C
Fy
y N.A. bf Fybfy

d-y T
Fy(As - bfy)
Fy Tsteel

Setting C = T and solving for Mn:


0.85 f ' c b t  Fy bf y  Fy As  Fy bf y T
Fy As  0.85 f ' c bt
C y
2 Fy bf
 t  y  d 
 Mn   M p  0.9 0.85 f ' c bt   y   2 Fy bf y  Fy As   y  
 2  2  2 
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
Neutral Axis in Web of Steel Beam
b
0.85f’c

t 0.85f’cbt
Fybftf
C
x bf
tf
Fytw(d-2tf-x) Fy
d
Fy(As -Cs)
tw T
Fy

Where Cs = Fy[(bftf) + tw(d-2tf-x)]

Using equilibrium and summing moments about the


PNA, one can solve for Mn (derivation not shown).

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


“Inadequate slab” means
FLEXURAL CAPACITY that strength of concrete
slab is less than tensile
strength of steel
Limit States of Composite Beams Based on Relative Strength of Components

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


FLEXURAL CAPACITY
(Assuming Beams Without Shoring)
The bare steel section must have enough strength to
resist weight of uncured concrete and other pre-
composite loads (i.e., pre-composite dead and live
loads).
If uncured composite section will support incidental
construction loads, it is recommended that an
allowance for 10 – 20 psf be included as a “pre-
composite” live load.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


FLEXURAL CAPACITY
If the decking is judged not provide bracing for the
compression flange, Lb must be considered in
designing the beam. Otherwise, Lb = 0.
To avoid yielding the beam, it is recommended that
for “pre-composite” condition:
This is Z for the
Mu < FyZ steel beam alone

where:
Mu = Factored moment due to loads from
concrete + weight of other pre-
composite loads
 = 0.9
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
DEFLECTION ESTIMATE
Lower Bound Moment Of Inertia
Moment of inertia will vary with the applied moment
and location of the neutral axis because of the
amount of uncracked concrete
Use of a transformed moment of inertia (Itr)using
elastic theory will underestimate deflections by 15%
to 30%
Lower bound moment of inertia (ILB) is moment of
inertia at required strength level (i.e., it uses only the
provided shear transfer (Qn) and enough of the
slab to balance Qn)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
DEFLECTION ESTIMATE
Moment of inertia will vary with the applied moment
and location of the neutral axis because of the
amount of uncracked concrete
Use of a transformed moment of inertia (Itr)using
elastic theory will underestimate deflections by 15%
to 30%
AISC recommends that effective moment of inertia
(Ieff) be about 0.75Itr

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


DEFLECTION ESTIMATE
Transformed Moment Of Inertia
beff
Effective width of concrete is
transformed (reduced) to
equivalent width of steel based on
ratio of n = Es/Ec (i.e., beff/n)

If some of the concrete in the


decking is in compression, an
effective width of 50% may be
used when doing the
transformation (only applies
when flutes are parallel to the
beam (e.g., girders)
Transformed moment of inertia (Itr) of the
composite section can be calculated using
parallel axis theorem using the transformed
properties
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
DEFLECTION ESTIMATE
Lower Bound Moment Of Inertia
Full elastic analysis involves many assumptions,
so, as an alternative, AISC offers the use of
Lower Bound Moment of Inertia
Q n
ILB  I s  As YENA  d 3   d3  d1  YENA  2
2

Fy
Equivalent concrete area =Qn/Fy
a/2 C
d1 Location of effective
Concrete flange force
T d3 Qn
d
Distance from
ENA resultant tension
YENA
force (for full tension
yield) to top of steel
(usually, d/2)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
DEFLECTION ESTIMATE

YENA = distance from bottom of beam to elastic neutral axis (ENA)

  Q n  
 As d 3     2d 3  d1  
 F
 y  
=
  Q n  
 As   
  Fy  

Equivalent concrete area =Qn/Fy


a/2 C
d1
Location of effective
d3 Concrete flange force
T Qn
d
ENA
YENA

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 1

Design a composite beam to satisfy the following requirements.


Assume beams at 10' center to center, L = 36’, 4" lightweight
concrete + 3" deck (t = 7”). Steel is ASTM A992 (i.e. Fy = 50 ksi)
DL = 0.78klf, LL = 1.2klf , Fy = 50 ksi, f'c = 3 ksi

Factored Loads: w u  1.2 (0.78)  1.6 (1.2)  2.86 klf


2.86 klf (36) 2
Moment: Mu   462.7ft k
8
Effective Flange Width: L = 36’

2( 36  12 )
b  108" Governs
8 Center of beam
b  2( 5  12 )  120" spacing is 10’/2 = 5’
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1
Try a W18 x 35 As = 10.3 in2
Where is plastic neutral axis? Assume that PNA is in slab.
As Fy
a Note:
0.85 f 'c b really it is
because a
10.3 in.2 (50 ksi)
 < t-3”
0.85 (3 ksi) (108 in.) Since a < t, the PNA
Concrete in  1.87 in. is in concrete slab
compression
b = effective
Concrete in width
tension
a/2 C = 0.85f’ ba

a
hr hc

t c

d/2 + t - a/2
Dec
k N. T = AsFy
d A. d/2
fy
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1

What is available strength assuming full composite action?


d a
Mn   M p   As Fy   t  
2 2 
 17.7 1.87  1
 ( 0.9 ) 10.3 ( 50 )  7 
 2 2  12
 576.1ft k  462.7ft k O.K .
Composite section may be oversized because Mn is much
greater than Mu. We may be able to reduce the steel section, but
we still have to check its ability to support the pre-composite
loads (i.e. the loads prior to development of composite action).

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 1
Design of Studs
Use Qn = 17.2k for f'c = 3 ksi (weak position) lightweight
concrete and =3/4"
What is magnitude of force used to establish the number of
studs for shear transfer? Select minimum of:
(a) 0.85 f'cab = 0.85 (3) (1.87) (108) = 515k
or
(b) AsFy = 10.3 (50) = 515k Mu
(c) or d
t 
a
2 2
462.7ft k x 12 in / ft
Q n   372.3k Governs (assuming
 17.7 in
1.87  in
you use only the
 7  minimum number of
 2 2  studs – no longer
assuming full
Professor
composite Thomas A. Sabol
action)
EXAMPLE 1

This beam is an example of a partially composite section. A


fully composite section would require sufficient studs to
transfer at least 515k but only 372k is required to transfer
shear due to design loads. Amount of composite action is
about 72% (i.e. 372/515 = 0.72)
Minimum number of required studs on each side of beam
centerline is:
372.3k Say, 22 studs each side of beam
nmin   21.65 centerline or a total of 44 studs
17.2k

Note that actual Qn is 22(17.2k) = 378.4k


This value is used later in the deflection calculations.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 1
Compare strength of W18x35 against loads present before
composite section is developed (i.e. pre-composite condition) :
Weight of concrete
slab
w conc  52  10'   0.52klf
psf
Assumed
DL'  0.78  0.52  0.26klf construction live
Superimposed load
 20 psf
x 10' 
dead load (not w u  1.2( 0.52klf )  1.6  
used in this  1000 
check because  0.94 klf
it is applied
0.94 klf ( 36') 2
when the Mu   152ft k
composite 8
strength is  M p  249 ft  k
 152 ft  k
OK
available)
A W18x35 is OK for non-composite loads
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1 Camber is
based on DL
only in this
case

Service load deflection before composite section forms:


w  0.52klf
5(0.52)(36) 4 1728
  1.29" 
384(29000)(510)
36' x 12 L
 325  240 OK
1.29 325
A W18x35 has significant pre-composite dead load deflection,
but we can camber out most of this (or we could upsize the
beam).
Typically, anything
below L/240 for DL
only is considered
too flexible
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1

How much camber is required?


Normally, we camber a section if the pre-composite deflection is
greater than about 0.5 to 0.75 in. And we camber in 0.25in. increments.
Therefore, camber in this case is at most 1.25 in. (Δpre-composite =1.29 in.
initial deflection).
AISC recommends camber be based on 0.8 Δpre-composite = 1.03”, so use
1 in. of camber

Camber 1.0”

Beam

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 1

Service Live Load Deflection After Composite Section


Lower Bound I: Q n
ILB  I s  As YENA  d 3    2d 3  d1  YENA 
2 2

Equivalent Fy
concrete
 Q n 
 F   3 1 
d3 = d/2

area =Qn/Fy As d 3   2d  d
tslab

a/2
d1 YENA   y 
a  Q 
As   n 

YENA
 F 
ENA  y 
( 17.7 ) 378.4   1.87  
10.3  17. 7  7  
As = 10.3 in2 2 50   2  

Is = 510 in4 378.4
10.3 
50
d = 17.7 in.
 15.17"
ΣQn = 378.4 k
d1 = tslab – a/2
tslab = 7 in.
a = 1.87 in.
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1
Substitute YENA into equation for Lower Bound Moment of Intertia:
2 2
 17.7  378.4   1.87  
ILB  510  10.3  15.17     17.7   7  2   15.17 
 2  50    
 1481in.4

5 ( 1.2 )( 36 ) 4 1728
 LL 
384 ( 29000 )( 1481)
L 36 x 12
 1.06" Max.Deflection   1.2"
360 360
36 x 12
 408  360 O.K .
1.06
AISC Building code
recommends typically limits
limiting deflection LL deflection to
to less than 1” for
L/360
typical spans
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1

Final design recommendations are:


W18x35 with 44 - 3/4”diameter studs. Camber beam
1.0”

Note: For a complete design, you must list


the beam size, the total number of studs, and
the amount of camber.
This is
important!

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2
Design composite beam for the following loads using AISC Manual

L = 45' Beams spaced 10’o.c.


Fy = 50 ksi f'c = 4.0 ksi
3" deck + 4.5" hardrock ( = 145 pcf)

DL slab= 0.075ksf
DL beam weight = 0.008ksf (assumed)
DL all other = 0.010ksf (ceiling, floor, MEP, etc.)

LL = 0.1ksf (unreduced)

Line loads on beam


Total dead load = 0.093ksf (10 ft) = 0.93klf
Total live load = 0.10ksf (10 ft) = 1.0klf
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
Concrete
EXAMPLE 2 slab plus
beam weight
Construction loads
Construction dead load = 0.083ksf (10 ft) = 0.83klf
Construction live load = 0.020ksf (10 ft) = 0.20klf

Determine required flexural strength


wu  1.2(0.93klf )  1.6(1.0klf )  2.72klf
2.72klf (45ft )2
Mu   688ft  k
8
Determine beff
The effective width of the concrete slab is the sum of the
effective widths for each side of the beam centerline

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


Note use of “2” to
EXAMPLE 2 account for beff on
both sides of
Determine beff beam
(1) One-eighth of the beam span
45ft
(2)  11.3ft
8
(2) One-half the distance to centerline of adjacent beam
10ft
(2)  10.0ft controls
2

(3) One-half the distance to edge of slab (N.A.)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2
Using the figures on pages 3-30 and 3-31 and the tables
starting on page 3-156 of the AISC Steel Manual, we can
significantly simplify the effort required to design the beam.

Y2 = tslab –
a/2

Different locations for


PNA in beam web

Different locations for


PNA in beam top flange

TFL assumes
compression
force is in
concrete only

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2
Using the figures on pages 3-14 and 3-15 and the tables
starting on page 3-158 of the AISC Steel Manual, we can
significantly simplify the effort required to design the beam.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2
Calculate moment arm for concrete force measured from top
of steel shape (Y2):
Assume a = 1” (this is often a reasonable first guess)
a 1
Y 2  t slab   7.5"  7.0"
2 2

Enter Manual Table 3-19 with the required strength and Y2 =


7.0in. Select a beam and neutral axis location that indicates
sufficient available strength
Select a W21x50 as a trial beam.
When PNA Location 5 (BFL), this composite shape has an
available strength of This is our required
strength for the
Mn = 769ft-k > 688ft-k OK composite beam

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2
From Table 3-19:
Y2 = 7.0 in.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2
Check the beam deflections and available strength
Check the deflection of the beam under pre-composite
conditions, considering only the pre-composite dead
loads as contributing to the deflection (i.e. no pre-
composite live load)
Limit Δpre-composite to a maximum of 2.5 in. to facilitate
concrete placement
4 klf ft 4 in3 / ft 3
5w DL 5(0.83 )(45 ) (1728 ) in 4
Ireq    1060
384E  384(29000ksi )2.5 in

From Manual Table 3-20, a W21x50 has Ix = 984in4, so the


member does not satisfy the deflection criterion under
construction loads
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 2

Check the beam deflections and available strength

Ix of
beam
(only)

(Table 3-20)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2

Using Manual Table 3-20, revise the trial member


selection to a W21x55, which has Ix = 1140in4

Check selected member strength as an unshored beam


under construction loads assuming adequate lateral
bracing through the deck attachment to the beam flange.
Calculate the required strength
1.4DL  1.4(0.83klf )  1.16 klf
1.2DL  1.6LL  1.2(0.83klf )  1.6(0.2 klf )  1.32 klf
1.32klf (45 ft ) 2
Mu   331ft  k Governs
8

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2

The design strength for a W21x55 is 473ft-k > 331ft-k OK


Mp

(Table 3-19)

For a W21x55 with Y2 = 7.0in, the member has sufficient


available strength when the PNA is at Location 6 and
ΣQn = 292kips Y2 = 7.0 in.
Mn = 767ft-k > 688 ft-k OK

ΣQn

(Table 3-19)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 2

Check a (were we right to assume a = 1 in?)


Qn 292kips
a   0.716 in

0.85fc'b 0.85(4ksi )10ft (12in / ft )


0.716in < 1.0in OK (we are close and required concrete compression
area is less than we assumed)
In some situations
you need to go
back and
Check live load deflection recalculate strength
ΔLL= ℓ/360 = [(45ft)12in/ft]/360 = 1.5in

Lower bound moment of inertia for composite beams is


tabulated in Manual Table 3-20.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2

For a W21x55 with Y2 = 7.0in and the PNA at Location 6, ILB =


2440in4
4 klf ft 4 in3 / ft 3
5w LL 5(1.0 )(45 ) (1728 )
 LL   4  1.3 in

384EILB 384(29000ksi )2440in

1.3in < 1.5in OK


Y2 = 7.0 in.

(Table 3-20)
Note that PNA is in the
web
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 2

Determine if beam has sufficient shear strength


45 ft
Vu  (2.72klf )  61.2k
2
Vn  234 k  61.2k OK

Determine the required number of shear stud connectors


Using perpendicular deck with one ¾ in. diameter weak
stud per rib (per foot) in normal weight 4ksi concrete,
Qn = 17.2k/stud
Qn 292k
 k / stud
 17 studs on each side of the beam
Qn 17.2

Total number of shear connectors = 2(17 studs) = 34 studs


Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 2

Check spacing of shear connectors


Since each flute is 12in, use one stud every flute,
starting at each support, and proceed for 17 studs on
each end of the span (checking to make sure maximum
spacing is satisfied).
(Usually, the designer would simply require one stud per
foot without trying to save the 4 or 5 extra studs for a
22.5 ft half span.)
6dstud < 12in < 8tslab, therefore shear stud spacing
requirements are met
The studs are to be 5in. long, so they will extend a
minimum of 1.5in. into the slab
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 2

Final design:
Use W21x55 beam with minimum of 34 studs and camber
1.75 in.

in 4
Ireq 1060
(Note:  max  in 4
0.8(2.5 in )  1.86in
IW 21x 55 1140

(So, use camber of 1.75 in.)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


Design Summary

1. Determine pre-composite and composite loads for


strength evaluation (factored loads) and serviceability
evaluation (unfactored loads)
2. Determine required strength of beam supporting pre-
composite loads (using factored loads)
3. Check deflection of pre-composite beam using
unfactored loads and establish initial camber
recommendation
4. Check beam under composite loads (factored) and
determine required number of studs
5. Check deflection under composite loads (unfactored)
6. Summarize design recommendations
Professor Thomas A. Sabol