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You are on page 1of 91

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

those with concrete vs. those with only metal deck) are

composite systems

connectors (headed prior to welding spanning

studs) perpendicular to

beam

Deck flutes – the deck

Headed shear stud welded spans parallel to the flutes

through deck to the steel

beam

Metal deck spanning

perpendicular to beam

COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

•Structural requirements (often not a governing requirement)

•Fire-resistive requirements (often governs)

•Type of concrete (lightweight vs. normal weight)

•Vibration requirements (benefit of added mass)

•Seismic and foundation demands (need to reduce weight)

Concrete

topping

thickness

Deck

thickness

spans

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

•Structural requirements (spans between beams)

•Vibration requirements

•Fire rating

Flute

COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

• Hourly fire ratings are used as a measure of the

ability of the composite deck and slab to contain

a fire and keep it from spreading from floor to

floor.

• The “fire” is defined in ASTM E119 – it is a

laboratory standard, not a fire in a real building

COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

• For the duration of the fire test, the floor must

carry the design load, not allow a 250o

temperature rise through the slab, and not permit

flames or hot gasses to penetrate the assembly.

• The building code controls the number of hours

required (see IBC Table 601)

• Concrete cover is often controlled by fire rating

required rather than structural requirements.

COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

110 to 115 145 to 150 pcf

pcf

Type I-A or I-B construction isn’t considered

(the most fire-resistive economical

construction)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Section I.3 of the AISC Specification addresses

composite flexural members

Uses material efficiently: concrete in compression

& steel in tension (web & flange)

Reduces weight and increases stiffness

compared to non-composite: deflection only 20-

30% of non-composite for the same size beam

COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Advantages of Composite Construction:

Reduces structural depth

Efficiently supports high live loads or high “post-

composite” dead loads because these are applied

after the steel beam has become composite with

the concrete

Provides greater reliability because stability limit

states are usually not critical

SHORED CONSTRUCTION

weight of uncured (i.e. wet) concrete must be

carried by steel beam

Sometimes, the beam is not strong enough and it

must be shored so it does not fail

Metal deck and

concrete fill

Beam

Shoring – exact

placement varies

SHORED CONSTRUCTION

“no” load) because shoring supports weight of

wet concrete until composite action is available.

This usually results in a smaller beam.

Beam being

shored

Shoring

post

enough to support weight of

upper beam

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

UNSHORED CONSTRUCTION

strength (i.e. Mn) to resist all pre-composite loads

(i.e. Mu) applied prior to concrete reaching 75% of

its design strength, f’c

concrete fill

Beam

concrete as a non-composite

steel member until concrete

reaches 75% of f’c

UNSHORED CONSTRUCTION

High expense and difficult construction

logistics make shoring almost always more

expensive than potential savings from reduced

beam weight in shored construction

Creep - Concrete slab always in compression

which can lead to greater long-term

deflections

Therefore, shored steel frame construction is

almost never used. Unshored construction is

usually preferred.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

CAMBER

Usually, the size of beam is based on the “pre-

composite” condition, but it may not be stiff enough

(i.e. too much deflection).

enough strength to support the superimposed

composite loads.

upwards)

CAMBER

Camber allows us to use a more efficient section

Recommended that beams be cambered if 80% of pre-

composite deflection > 1/2" to 3/4" or more

Camber in 0.25 in. increments and limit to about 2.5 in.

max. for 30 to 40 ft. long beams

Camber – deform beam in opposite

direction of anticipated dead load

deflection

Beam

CAMBER

Camber allows use of more efficient sections

Recommended that beams be cambered if 80% of pre-

composite deflection > 1/2" to 3/4" or more

Camber in 0.25 in. increments and limit to about 2.5 in.

max. for 30 to 40 ft. long beams

Camber in pre-composite

beam

placed

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

CAMBER

Level beams run the risk of excessive concrete due to

“ponding” of concrete

Camber in pre-composite

beam

Composite Level

beam slab

with after the concrete

excessive has

concrete to been

maintain

level slab placed

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

CAMBER

Do not over-camber

Sometimes the camber “doesn’t come out” because of

fixity and over-estimation of pre-composite loads

Camber in pre-composite

beam

connections should not be cambered rotation required to flatten-out a

Level slab after the concrete has been

cambered beam

placed

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

CAMBER

Problem locations: interior columns adjacent to

longer spans, roof beams with large camber

Area around interior column won’t deflect. If

camber in adjacent beam doesn’t come out, an

unintended low spot at the column may result

If camber doesn’t come out of roof beams, roof

drainage can be impacted unfavorably.

excessive excessive camber

camber (potential high spot)

(potential high Area around column

spot that (potential low spot)

interferes with

roof drainage) Professor Thomas A. Sabol

CAMBER

If camber doesn’t come out:

Shear connector can protrude above slab

Concrete cover may be unequal or insufficient

connectors Camber in pre-composite

beam

Over-cambered beam

Level slab afterwith

the uneven concrete

concrete thickness

has been

placed

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

CAMBER

General recommendations:

Camber ≤ 0.8Δpre-composite (considers restraint)

Δpre-composite should only include those loads

likely to be present before composite condition

(e.g., beam self-weight, concrete slab)

When evaluating camber for cantilevered beams

with and without backspan, consider actual

conditions Relative length of cantilever and

backspan will change apparent

deformed shape

Does this beam rotate?

significant composite action

Is this a column with significant stiffness?

(concrete is in tension)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

CAMBER

Cambering uses hydraulic rams or heat. Operator has

to be careful not to buckle the beam. Cambering is a

trial and error process

Beam is pushed beyond elastic limit to

achieve a permanent set. When hydraulic

rams are released, the beam springs back

by the elastic deformation. The residual set

is the camber.

Beam Reference

line (a

string)

Hydraulic Hydraulic

ram ram

Cambering

with hydraulic

rams Professor Thomas A. Sabol

CAMBER

camber on the opposite site of

the desired crown (i.e., upward

camber).

(beam’s crown (camber) is to the

top)

Cambering with

heat Professor Thomas A. Sabol

UNBRACED LENGTH OF BEAM

If decking is perpendicular to the beam, it is

usually assumed that the unbraced length is 0 ft.

If decking is parallel to the beam (often applies to

girders) the deck isn’t oriented in its strongest

direction. The unbraced length is then based on

conventional bracing considerations (e.g.,

location of perpendicular beams).

Composite Condition (Positive Moment)

Concrete slab braces beam, therefore, unbraced

length is 0 ft.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

UNBRACED LENGTH OF BEAM

Bottom flange is in compression (often applies to

cantilevers). The unbraced length is then based

on conventional bracing considerations (e.g.,

location of perpendicular beams).

Composite Condition (Negative Moment)

Concrete is in tension and bottom flange is in

compression (often applies to cantilevers). The

unbraced length is then based on conventional

bracing considerations (e.g., location of

perpendicular beams).

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH

beam? (See Section I3.1a)

Concrete stress decreases with distance from beam.

Concrete over the beam flange is under greatest

stress. Nevertheless, AISC Specification assumes

constant stress over assumed (effective) width with

reasonable accuracy.

Concept of effective width is similar to that used for

“t-beams” by ACI 318.

EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH

beam?

be is taken on each side of the beam center line.

Effective width is sum of the be values.

Slab edge t

(where occurs)

Bottom of metal

deck

be be

1

Effective 2

Flange Width

EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH

Slab edge t

(where occurs)

Bottom of metal

deck

be be

1

Effective 2

Flange Width

1

span of beam

8

1

be distance from centerline of beam to beam Use smallest value

2

Centerline of beam to slab edge

SHEAR TRANSFER

For the metal deck/concrete and the steel beam to

work together effectively, adequate shear transfer

must be provided

Shear connectors – studs, headed (“Nelson”) studs –

most common

3/4" most common diameter

Length > 4 stud

Stud

Shear

demand Beam flange

Q

prior to welding

SHEAR TRANSFER

Although not directly related to composite strength

calculations, the deck must also be attached to the

steel framing

Decking usually attached to steel using puddle welds

or power-actuated fasteners

Powder-actuated

fasteners fired through

deck into steel attach

Puddle welds used to decking

attach decking to steel

framing Professor Thomas A. Sabol

SHEAR TRANSFER

Most failures occur with slab crushing so we usually

assume plastic behavior in both steel and concrete

(i.e., we can fully develop Mp in the beam)

Required strength of shear connectors (V’), between

point of M+max and M = 0, is the least of the following

(Section I3.2d):

V’ = AsFy Tensile strength of steel

V’ = Qn Total nominal strength of shear studs

where Ac = area of concrete within effective slab width (in2)

As = area of steel cross section (in2)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

SHEAR TRANSFER

Uniform

load

M0

Beam

n* = required

number of

shear studs

from M+max to

M+ma

M0

x

*For most beams (e.g.

those with symmetric

uniform loads), total If two or more studs

number of studs required per flute are required,

for a beam is 2n and they the additional studs

are evenly distributed are added starting at

along the length of the the supports and

beam. working toward the

middle

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

SHEAR TRANSFER

Symmetric

point

loads

M0 Beam

n = required

number of

shear studs

from M+max to M+ma

x

M0

Shear diagram

shear in this region (theoretically, no

shear connectors are required), but

minimum spacing of shear connectors

governs in this region Professor Thomas A. Sabol

SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH (Qn)

Nominal strength of shear connector is:

Qn 0.5 Asa f ' c E c Rg Rp Asa Fu (Eq. I8-1)

where

Asa = Area of shear connector shank in.2

Ec = Young's modulus of concrete (ksi)

Fu = Specified minimum tensile strength (ksi)

Rg = Varies between 1.0 and 0.75 depending on number of

studs and direction of deck flutes

Rp = Varies between 1.0 to 0.6 depending on how many

studs are welded in a given flute

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

“Parallel”

SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH (Qn)

usually refer to

girders

Condition Rg RP

No decking 1.0 0.75

Decking oriented parallel to the steel shape

wr/hr ≥ 1.5 1.0 0.75 “Perpendicula

wr/hr < 1.5 0.85 0.75 r” usually

Decking oriented perpendicular to the steel shape refers to

Number of studs occupying the same decking rib beams

1 1.0 0.6

2 0.85 0.6

3 or more 0.7 0.6

(See User Note on page 16.1-98 of the Steel Manual for common values of Rg and Rp)

wr = average width of concrete rib or haunch

(as defined in Section I3.2c), in.

Decking oriented

perpendicular to steel shape

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH (Qn)

stud per rib in the “weak” position (see next slide)

f'c Qn

(ksi) (pcf) (kips)

3.0 110 17.2 3/4" A36 studs

145 17.2

Most common stud

4.0 110 17.2 diameter and

concrete strength

145 17.2

Specification gives

values for other

conditions

Weak and Strong Stud Positions

stud be located to one side or the other

Stud strength can be a function of position

“Weak” position typically assumed unless otherwise

indicated (since specific placement not usually specified)

Stiffening rib

in deck flute

Direction of Direction of

shear shear

“strong” “weak”

“More” position position

concrete to

support stud

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

Concrete Cover and Thickness

0.5” min

1.5” min 2” min

3” max

unless the rib is parallel to beam

(e.g. a girder condition -- typically

about 50% of the concrete is

available in this case)

Metal deck flutes (ribs)

perpendicular to beams

Metal deck flutes (ribs) parallel to beam (girder)

perpendicular to beams Partial Framing Plan

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

similar performance compared with a spacing that

follows the statical shear distribution (i.e. VQ ÷ Ib)

…therefore we use uniform spacing for uniform loads

and nearest point of zero moment must be sufficient to

develop M+max at point load.

Provide at required number

of connectors over this

distance

P Key

M=0

concept for

girder

Moment Diagram M+max design

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

would usually govern

Provide at required number

of connectors over this

distance

P P

M=0

Moment Diagram further apart than 8 x slab

M+max

thickness

concept for

girder

design

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

(where is stud diameter) and minimum center to

center transverse spacing along beam is 4. If

Formed Deck: 4 either direction.

Studs require min. 1" lateral concrete cover (except

where deck is used)

of stud < 2.5 tf if not over webs

4 min

is too narrow – this can Top of beam flange

squeeze in a few more

studs over a given distance.

Multiple Studs in a Row (or

Flute) Professor Thomas A. Sabol

NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

4 min

6 (min) -

Studs

8 x toal Top of beam flange

slab

thickness

When composite action is small or a beam has a point

(max)

loaded at its third points), provide shear connectors

spacing governed by maximum spacing

Maximum spacing < 8 x total slab thickness (36 in.

max.) to prevent vertical separation between slab and

beam flange when slab goes into compression

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

are installed based on the flute spacing in the deck,

typically 12 in. on center

When decking runs parallel to the beam (e.g., a girder),

the stud spacing is independent of the deck flute

spacing and 6 x stud diameter would govern

If flutes are

perpendicular to

beam, flute spacing

establishes stud

spacing

beam, stud spacing is

independent of flute

spacing Professor Thomas A. Sabol

PARTIALLY COMPOSITE BEAMS

but you only need Mn* where < 1.0, you can

provide enough studs just to reach Mn*

A partially composite beam will have fewer than the

maximum number of studs required to develop the

full composite strength of the beam and slab

system: same beam and slab but fewer studs =

lower moment strength

Partially composite beams are the most common in

actual building design

It is recommended that > 25%

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

PARTIALLY COMPOSITE BEAMS

metal deck, even if design requires fewer, because:

• Reduces construction errors by keeping things

consistent

• Provides added flexural strength at a nominal

cost (i.e. studs are less expensive than

strengthening the beam later)

FLEXURAL CAPACITY Key

concep

t

Flexural capacity of composite section may be governed by:

• Tensile strength of beam,

• Compressive strength of concrete slab or

• Strength of shear connectors.

governs the design

developed by the shear connectors – if the shear

connectors have less strength than the concrete slab or

the beam, then this will establish the limit on the flexural

state of the composite section.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

FLEXURAL CAPACITY

If web is slender and in compression, it may buckle.

hc

3.76 E

Wide flange sections

satisfy this, so you

may assume entire

section yields

hc = distance between toes of fillet d-2k

k

The flange and the web do

not meet at a right angle

hc

d

due to the rolling process

that creates the wide flange

shape. There is a small

radius at the intersection

k

called a “fillet.”

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

FLEXURAL CAPACITY Not a common

condition -- you

must calculate

strees distribution

based on level of

Use elastic stress distribution if: strain

hc

3.76 E ; where 0.9

tw Fyf

be considered.

frequently when built-up members are used (e.g. plate

girders) and relatively thin plates are used.

FLEXURAL CAPACITY

Calculating the moment capacity of a composite section is

a function of plastic neutral axis (PNA) location.

Steel beam

Possible plastic neutral axis locations: weaker than

•Neutral axis in the concrete slab concrete

slab

•Neutral axis in top flange of beam

•Neutral axis in web of steel beam

b = effective PNA

Concrete in

tension width 0.85f’c

C (from

(doesn’t concrete)

contribute to

flexural

strength) T (from steel

t = total slab beam)

thickness Stress

Fy

PNA in Distribution

slab Professor Thomas A. Sabol

FLEXURAL CAPACITY

Concrete in b = effective width

tension 0.85f’c

(doesn’t a/2 C = 0.85f’ ab

t a c

contribute to

flexural

PN

strength) A d/2 + t - a/2

T = AsFy

d

d/2

Fy

d a T must

Mn M p As Fy t equal C to

2 2 satisfy

equilibrium

0.9

(Note: If a > t, then PNA is not in slab and you need to revise

your assumptions and recalculate the flexural capacity.)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

FLEXURAL CAPACITY

If deck is used, the methodology to calculate the flexural

capacity is the same except the slab is elevated above the

beam flange by the height of the deck (hr). Adjust geometry.

Concrete in

compressio

n

Concrete in

tension (below 0.85f’c

PNA) a a/2 C = 0.85f’ ab

hr h c

c

PN

t

A

d/2 + t - a/2

Dec

k

T = AsFy

d

d/2

Fy

(Note: If a > hc, then PNA is not in slab and you need to limit

the compression strength to C = 0.85f’cbhc. If PNA is no lower

than t, you can assume PNA is “in the slab” to calculate Mn.)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

FLEXURAL CAPACITY

Ccon

Neutral Axis in Top Flange of Beam: c

b Cstee

y is depth

0.85f’c

of steel in 0.85f’cbt l

compressio

n

t C

Fy

y N.A. bf Fybfy

d-y T

Fy(As - bfy)

Fy

Tsteel

C 0.85 f ' c b t Af Fy

T As Af Fy

Not all of

the steel

is in

tension

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

FLEXURAL CAPACITY

Neutral Axis in Top Flange of Beam: Ccon

c

Cstee

l

b

0.85f’c

0.85f’cbt

t C

Fy

y N.A. bf Fybfy

d-y T

Fy(As - bfy)

Fy Tsteel

satisfy

equilibrium

But if C > T with assumed PNA at base of flange, then our

assumption is wrong and PNA is not at base of flange.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

Ccon

FLEXURAL CAPACITY c

l

b

0.85f’c

0.85f’cbt

t C

Fy

y N.A. bf Fybfy

d-y T

Fy(As - bfy)

Fy Tsteel

0.85 f ' c b t Fy bf y Fy As Fy bf y T

Fy As 0.85 f ' c bt

C y

2 Fy bf

t y d

Mn M p 0.9 0.85 f ' c bt y 2 Fy bf y Fy As y

2 2 2

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

FLEXURAL CAPACITY

Neutral Axis in Web of Steel Beam

b

0.85f’c

t 0.85f’cbt

Fybftf

C

x bf

tf

Fytw(d-2tf-x) Fy

d

Fy(As -Cs)

tw T

Fy

PNA, one can solve for Mn (derivation not shown).

“Inadequate slab” means

FLEXURAL CAPACITY that strength of concrete

slab is less than tensile

strength of steel

Limit States of Composite Beams Based on Relative Strength of Components

FLEXURAL CAPACITY

(Assuming Beams Without Shoring)

The bare steel section must have enough strength to

resist weight of uncured concrete and other pre-

composite loads (i.e., pre-composite dead and live

loads).

If uncured composite section will support incidental

construction loads, it is recommended that an

allowance for 10 – 20 psf be included as a “pre-

composite” live load.

FLEXURAL CAPACITY

If the decking is judged not provide bracing for the

compression flange, Lb must be considered in

designing the beam. Otherwise, Lb = 0.

To avoid yielding the beam, it is recommended that

for “pre-composite” condition:

This is Z for the

Mu < FyZ steel beam alone

where:

Mu = Factored moment due to loads from

concrete + weight of other pre-

composite loads

= 0.9

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

DEFLECTION ESTIMATE

Lower Bound Moment Of Inertia

Moment of inertia will vary with the applied moment

and location of the neutral axis because of the

amount of uncracked concrete

Use of a transformed moment of inertia (Itr)using

elastic theory will underestimate deflections by 15%

to 30%

Lower bound moment of inertia (ILB) is moment of

inertia at required strength level (i.e., it uses only the

provided shear transfer (Qn) and enough of the

slab to balance Qn)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

DEFLECTION ESTIMATE

Moment of inertia will vary with the applied moment

and location of the neutral axis because of the

amount of uncracked concrete

Use of a transformed moment of inertia (Itr)using

elastic theory will underestimate deflections by 15%

to 30%

AISC recommends that effective moment of inertia

(Ieff) be about 0.75Itr

DEFLECTION ESTIMATE

Transformed Moment Of Inertia

beff

Effective width of concrete is

transformed (reduced) to

equivalent width of steel based on

ratio of n = Es/Ec (i.e., beff/n)

decking is in compression, an

effective width of 50% may be

used when doing the

transformation (only applies

when flutes are parallel to the

beam (e.g., girders)

Transformed moment of inertia (Itr) of the

composite section can be calculated using

parallel axis theorem using the transformed

properties

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

DEFLECTION ESTIMATE

Lower Bound Moment Of Inertia

Full elastic analysis involves many assumptions,

so, as an alternative, AISC offers the use of

Lower Bound Moment of Inertia

Q n

ILB I s As YENA d 3 d3 d1 YENA 2

2

Fy

Equivalent concrete area =Qn/Fy

a/2 C

d1 Location of effective

Concrete flange force

T d3 Qn

d

Distance from

ENA resultant tension

YENA

force (for full tension

yield) to top of steel

(usually, d/2)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

DEFLECTION ESTIMATE

Q n

As d 3 2d 3 d1

F

y

=

Q n

As

Fy

a/2 C

d1

Location of effective

d3 Concrete flange force

T Qn

d

ENA

YENA

EXAMPLE 1

Assume beams at 10' center to center, L = 36’, 4" lightweight

concrete + 3" deck (t = 7”). Steel is ASTM A992 (i.e. Fy = 50 ksi)

DL = 0.78klf, LL = 1.2klf , Fy = 50 ksi, f'c = 3 ksi

2.86 klf (36) 2

Moment: Mu 462.7ft k

8

Effective Flange Width: L = 36’

2( 36 12 )

b 108" Governs

8 Center of beam

b 2( 5 12 ) 120" spacing is 10’/2 = 5’

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

EXAMPLE 1

Try a W18 x 35 As = 10.3 in2

Where is plastic neutral axis? Assume that PNA is in slab.

As Fy

a Note:

0.85 f 'c b really it is

because a

10.3 in.2 (50 ksi)

< t-3”

0.85 (3 ksi) (108 in.) Since a < t, the PNA

Concrete in 1.87 in. is in concrete slab

compression

b = effective

Concrete in width

tension

a/2 C = 0.85f’ ba

a

hr hc

t c

d/2 + t - a/2

Dec

k N. T = AsFy

d A. d/2

fy

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

EXAMPLE 1

d a

Mn M p As Fy t

2 2

17.7 1.87 1

( 0.9 ) 10.3 ( 50 ) 7

2 2 12

576.1ft k 462.7ft k O.K .

Composite section may be oversized because Mn is much

greater than Mu. We may be able to reduce the steel section, but

we still have to check its ability to support the pre-composite

loads (i.e. the loads prior to development of composite action).

EXAMPLE 1

Design of Studs

Use Qn = 17.2k for f'c = 3 ksi (weak position) lightweight

concrete and =3/4"

What is magnitude of force used to establish the number of

studs for shear transfer? Select minimum of:

(a) 0.85 f'cab = 0.85 (3) (1.87) (108) = 515k

or

(b) AsFy = 10.3 (50) = 515k Mu

(c) or d

t

a

2 2

462.7ft k x 12 in / ft

Q n 372.3k Governs (assuming

17.7 in

1.87 in

you use only the

7 minimum number of

2 2 studs – no longer

assuming full

Professor

composite Thomas A. Sabol

action)

EXAMPLE 1

fully composite section would require sufficient studs to

transfer at least 515k but only 372k is required to transfer

shear due to design loads. Amount of composite action is

about 72% (i.e. 372/515 = 0.72)

Minimum number of required studs on each side of beam

centerline is:

372.3k Say, 22 studs each side of beam

nmin 21.65 centerline or a total of 44 studs

17.2k

This value is used later in the deflection calculations.

EXAMPLE 1

Compare strength of W18x35 against loads present before

composite section is developed (i.e. pre-composite condition) :

Weight of concrete

slab

w conc 52 10' 0.52klf

psf

Assumed

DL' 0.78 0.52 0.26klf construction live

Superimposed load

20 psf

x 10'

dead load (not w u 1.2( 0.52klf ) 1.6

used in this 1000

check because 0.94 klf

it is applied

0.94 klf ( 36') 2

when the Mu 152ft k

composite 8

strength is M p 249 ft k

152 ft k

OK

available)

A W18x35 is OK for non-composite loads

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

EXAMPLE 1 Camber is

based on DL

only in this

case

w 0.52klf

5(0.52)(36) 4 1728

1.29"

384(29000)(510)

36' x 12 L

325 240 OK

1.29 325

A W18x35 has significant pre-composite dead load deflection,

but we can camber out most of this (or we could upsize the

beam).

Typically, anything

below L/240 for DL

only is considered

too flexible

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

EXAMPLE 1

Normally, we camber a section if the pre-composite deflection is

greater than about 0.5 to 0.75 in. And we camber in 0.25in. increments.

Therefore, camber in this case is at most 1.25 in. (Δpre-composite =1.29 in.

initial deflection).

AISC recommends camber be based on 0.8 Δpre-composite = 1.03”, so use

1 in. of camber

Camber 1.0”

Beam

EXAMPLE 1

Lower Bound I: Q n

ILB I s As YENA d 3 2d 3 d1 YENA

2 2

Equivalent Fy

concrete

Q n

F 3 1

d3 = d/2

area =Qn/Fy As d 3 2d d

tslab

a/2

d1 YENA y

a Q

As n

YENA

F

ENA y

( 17.7 ) 378.4 1.87

10.3 17. 7 7

As = 10.3 in2 2 50 2

Is = 510 in4 378.4

10.3

50

d = 17.7 in.

15.17"

ΣQn = 378.4 k

d1 = tslab – a/2

tslab = 7 in.

a = 1.87 in.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

EXAMPLE 1

Substitute YENA into equation for Lower Bound Moment of Intertia:

2 2

17.7 378.4 1.87

ILB 510 10.3 15.17 17.7 7 2 15.17

2 50

1481in.4

5 ( 1.2 )( 36 ) 4 1728

LL

384 ( 29000 )( 1481)

L 36 x 12

1.06" Max.Deflection 1.2"

360 360

36 x 12

408 360 O.K .

1.06

AISC Building code

recommends typically limits

limiting deflection LL deflection to

to less than 1” for

L/360

typical spans

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

EXAMPLE 1

W18x35 with 44 - 3/4”diameter studs. Camber beam

1.0”

the beam size, the total number of studs, and

the amount of camber.

This is

important!

EXAMPLE 2

Design composite beam for the following loads using AISC Manual

Fy = 50 ksi f'c = 4.0 ksi

3" deck + 4.5" hardrock ( = 145 pcf)

DL slab= 0.075ksf

DL beam weight = 0.008ksf (assumed)

DL all other = 0.010ksf (ceiling, floor, MEP, etc.)

LL = 0.1ksf (unreduced)

Total dead load = 0.093ksf (10 ft) = 0.93klf

Total live load = 0.10ksf (10 ft) = 1.0klf

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

Concrete

EXAMPLE 2 slab plus

beam weight

Construction loads

Construction dead load = 0.083ksf (10 ft) = 0.83klf

Construction live load = 0.020ksf (10 ft) = 0.20klf

wu 1.2(0.93klf ) 1.6(1.0klf ) 2.72klf

2.72klf (45ft )2

Mu 688ft k

8

Determine beff

The effective width of the concrete slab is the sum of the

effective widths for each side of the beam centerline

Note use of “2” to

EXAMPLE 2 account for beff on

both sides of

Determine beff beam

(1) One-eighth of the beam span

45ft

(2) 11.3ft

8

(2) One-half the distance to centerline of adjacent beam

10ft

(2) 10.0ft controls

2

EXAMPLE 2

Using the figures on pages 3-30 and 3-31 and the tables

starting on page 3-156 of the AISC Steel Manual, we can

significantly simplify the effort required to design the beam.

Y2 = tslab –

a/2

PNA in beam web

PNA in beam top flange

TFL assumes

compression

force is in

concrete only

EXAMPLE 2

Using the figures on pages 3-14 and 3-15 and the tables

starting on page 3-158 of the AISC Steel Manual, we can

significantly simplify the effort required to design the beam.

EXAMPLE 2

Calculate moment arm for concrete force measured from top

of steel shape (Y2):

Assume a = 1” (this is often a reasonable first guess)

a 1

Y 2 t slab 7.5" 7.0"

2 2

7.0in. Select a beam and neutral axis location that indicates

sufficient available strength

Select a W21x50 as a trial beam.

When PNA Location 5 (BFL), this composite shape has an

available strength of This is our required

strength for the

Mn = 769ft-k > 688ft-k OK composite beam

EXAMPLE 2

From Table 3-19:

Y2 = 7.0 in.

EXAMPLE 2

Check the beam deflections and available strength

Check the deflection of the beam under pre-composite

conditions, considering only the pre-composite dead

loads as contributing to the deflection (i.e. no pre-

composite live load)

Limit Δpre-composite to a maximum of 2.5 in. to facilitate

concrete placement

4 klf ft 4 in3 / ft 3

5w DL 5(0.83 )(45 ) (1728 ) in 4

Ireq 1060

384E 384(29000ksi )2.5 in

member does not satisfy the deflection criterion under

construction loads

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

EXAMPLE 2

Ix of

beam

(only)

(Table 3-20)

EXAMPLE 2

selection to a W21x55, which has Ix = 1140in4

under construction loads assuming adequate lateral

bracing through the deck attachment to the beam flange.

Calculate the required strength

1.4DL 1.4(0.83klf ) 1.16 klf

1.2DL 1.6LL 1.2(0.83klf ) 1.6(0.2 klf ) 1.32 klf

1.32klf (45 ft ) 2

Mu 331ft k Governs

8

EXAMPLE 2

Mp

(Table 3-19)

available strength when the PNA is at Location 6 and

ΣQn = 292kips Y2 = 7.0 in.

Mn = 767ft-k > 688 ft-k OK

ΣQn

(Table 3-19)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

EXAMPLE 2

Qn 292kips

a 0.716 in

0.716in < 1.0in OK (we are close and required concrete compression

area is less than we assumed)

In some situations

you need to go

back and

Check live load deflection recalculate strength

ΔLL= ℓ/360 = [(45ft)12in/ft]/360 = 1.5in

tabulated in Manual Table 3-20.

EXAMPLE 2

2440in4

4 klf ft 4 in3 / ft 3

5w LL 5(1.0 )(45 ) (1728 )

LL 4 1.3 in

Y2 = 7.0 in.

(Table 3-20)

Note that PNA is in the

web

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

EXAMPLE 2

45 ft

Vu (2.72klf ) 61.2k

2

Vn 234 k 61.2k OK

Using perpendicular deck with one ¾ in. diameter weak

stud per rib (per foot) in normal weight 4ksi concrete,

Qn = 17.2k/stud

Qn 292k

k / stud

17 studs on each side of the beam

Qn 17.2

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

EXAMPLE 2

Since each flute is 12in, use one stud every flute,

starting at each support, and proceed for 17 studs on

each end of the span (checking to make sure maximum

spacing is satisfied).

(Usually, the designer would simply require one stud per

foot without trying to save the 4 or 5 extra studs for a

22.5 ft half span.)

6dstud < 12in < 8tslab, therefore shear stud spacing

requirements are met

The studs are to be 5in. long, so they will extend a

minimum of 1.5in. into the slab

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

EXAMPLE 2

Final design:

Use W21x55 beam with minimum of 34 studs and camber

1.75 in.

in 4

Ireq 1060

(Note: max in 4

0.8(2.5 in ) 1.86in

IW 21x 55 1140

Design Summary

strength evaluation (factored loads) and serviceability

evaluation (unfactored loads)

2. Determine required strength of beam supporting pre-

composite loads (using factored loads)

3. Check deflection of pre-composite beam using

unfactored loads and establish initial camber

recommendation

4. Check beam under composite loads (factored) and

determine required number of studs

5. Check deflection under composite loads (unfactored)

6. Summarize design recommendations

Professor Thomas A. Sabol

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