Group 1

Most people tire of a lecture in ten minutes; clever people can do it in five. Sensible people never go to lectures at all. - Stephen Leacock in Sherin 1995: 104)

Topic Person

Traditional approach Teacher-centered instruction Students matched by age, and possibly also by ability. All students in a classroom are taught the same material. Traditional education emphasizes:  Direct instruction and lectures  Seatwork Students learn through listening and observation

Classroom

Teaching methods 

Materials

Instruction based on textbooks, lectures, and individual written assignments

Subjects

Individual, independent subjects. Little connection between topics Little or no attention to social development. Focus on independent learning. Socializing largely discouraged except for extracurricular activities and teamwork-based projects.

Social aspects

Multiple tracks

Students choose (or are steered towards) different kinds of classes according to their perceived abilities or career plans. Decisions made early in education may preclude changes later, as a student on a vo-tech track may not have completed necessary prerequisite classes to switch to a university-preparation program.

Students often address teachers formally by their last names. The teacher is considered a respected role model in the community. Student and teacher relationship Students should obey the teacher. Proper behavior for the university or professional work community is emphasized.

Direct Instruction Lectus latin to read
y It is a procedure for explaining and clarifying

major concepts, ideas, theories, principles and laws. It makes use of exposition which may be a narration of descriptions.
y The lecture is one of the oldest and overused

teaching methods, still it is the most frequently used method of instruction.

Clear overview 


The lecture should be an overview of a key area of knowledge delivered by someone The lecturer should be aware of the level and stage of the students.

Controlled factual content  The lecture should be focused on the core themes  Amount of material presented should be strictly controlled

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Communicating enthusiasm for the topic Providing a structure or framework for the material Tailoring material to the student s needs Providing current information Using another format may or may not be viable.

- presents factual

material in direct, logical

manner - contains experience which inspires - stimulates thinking to open discussion - useful for large groups

- experts are not always good teachers - audience is passive - learning is difficult to gauge - communication in one way

- needs clear introduction and summary - needs time and content limit to be effective - should include examples, anecdotes

‡Also called discovery teaching or inquiry teaching ‡Is based on the claim that knowledge is built primarily from a learner s experiences and interactions with phenomena. ‡An instructor using an inductive approach begins by exposing students to a concrete instance, or instances, of a concept. Then learners are encouraged to observe patterns, raise questions, or make generalizations from their observations. The teachers role is to create the opportunities and the context in which students can successfully make the appropriate generalizations, and to guide students as necessary.

y Inductive

teaching has close ties with the instructional method called the learning cycle , where phenomena are explored before concepts are named. Inquiry-based teaching, in which students are asked to continually develop and test hypotheses in order to generalize a principle, is another member of the inductive family.

y Also called direct instruction y Much less contructivist and is based on the idea that

a highly structured presentation of content creates optimal learning for students. The instructor using a deductive approach typically presents a general concept by first defining it and then providing examples or illustrations that demonstrates the idea. y Students are given opportunities to practice, with instructor guidance and feedback, applying and finding examples of the concept at hand, until they achieve concept mastery.

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At the end of the discussion, the student must be able to: Acknowledge the importance of the Computer Technology in the learning process Define Computer Assisted Instruction and Computer Managed Instruction Identify the types of Computer Assisted Instruction Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of Computer Learning, CAI and CMI Appreciate the significance of the Internet in learning

A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, stores and manipulates data/information, and provides output in a useful format.

Computers can support the variety of ways learners construct their own understanding. Computer software can mix text, pictures, sound, and motion to provide a variety of options for learners.

Computer networking allows students to communicate and collaborate with content experts and with fellow students around the globe. Communication tools allow teachers to exchange lesson plans and teaching strategies and create a professional community. Assistive technology such as voice recognition systems, dynamic Braille displays, speech synthesizers, and talking books provide learning and communication alternatives for those who have developmental or physical disabilities.

Students· autonomy and confidence increase as they rely less on their teacher and more on their own initiative for knowledge-creation. As students gather more real-world data, share their findings with learners beyond their school, and publish their findings to the world, their role broadens from investigators of other products to designers, authors, purveyors, and publishers of their own work.

Technology amplifies the resources teachers can offer their students. Rather than relying on the textbook for content, computers can provide on-line access to content experts and up-to-date information from original sources.

CAI refers to the use of the computer as a tool to facilitate and improve instruction. CAI programs use tutorials, drill and practice, simulation, and problem solving approaches to present topics, and they test the student's understanding. CAI uses a combination of text, graphics, sound and video in enhancing the learning process. The computer has many purposes in the classroom, and it can be utilized to help a student in all areas of the curriculum. Typical CAI provides 1. text or multimedia content 2. multiple-choice questions 3. problems 4. immediate feedback 5. notes on incorrect responses 6. summarizes students' performance 7. exercises for practice 8. Worksheets and tests.

Types of Computer Assisted Instruction 1. Drill-and-practice 2. Tutorial 3. Game 4. Simulation 5. Discovery 6. Problem Solving

‡ one-to-one interaction ‡ great motivator ‡ freedom to experiment with different options ‡ instantaneous response/immediate feedback to the answers elicited ‡ Self pacing - allow students to proceed at their own pace ‡ Privacy helps the shy and slow learner to learns ‡ multimedia helps to understand difficult concepts through multi sensory approach ‡ self directed learning ² students can decide when, where, and what to learn

‡ over use of multimedia may divert the attention from the content ‡ learning becomes too mechanical ‡ non availability of good CAI packages

It is an instructional strategy whereby the computer is used to provide learning objectives, learning resources, and assessment of learner·s performance. € It aids the instructor in instructional management without actually doing the teaching.
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Individuality was restricted to the amount of time spent in the learning process. Little teacher intervention Uncertainties Negligence of students

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Evaluative

€ Diagnostic
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aide

Entertaining and informative € The teaching path was fixed and linear

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Offers a variety of potential interactive strategies. Free up time for the teacher to spend time with students in more interactive activities

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More developer- and learnerfriendly as well as increasingly inexpensive

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies.

Verbal Visual Kinesthetic

E-mail, chat rooms, texts, online journal Virtual tools, videos, threedimensional representations Manipulation of skills used for keyboarding and games, info on athletics and dance Online group discussions, personal expression of thoughts and reflections

Affective

Provides a wide range of choices of information. Allows repetition and rehearsal of information because students are able to visit and revisit different sites. Ease of searching for information needed. Spend less time for researching. Allows access to different people and experts all over the world

May divert the attention of the student to other websites not related to the intended topic Some knowledge or text are not verified as that of the books. Cost and availability Tendency for the student to merely copy what is written in the text without proper understanding.

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