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# 7.

## 1 Introduction-Functions and Inverses

A function is a rule that assigns a unique value to every member in
its domain.
2 1 7
3 5 3
0
9
f
Notation: f (2) = 1, f (3) = 7, f (5) = 3 and f (9) =0
f consists of ordered pairs (2,1) (3, 7) (5, 3) (9, 0)

7
2 3
3 5 0
9
g
Notation: g(2) = 7, g(3) = 7, g(5) = 3 and g(9) =0
(2,7) (3, 7) (5, 3) (9, 0)
One-to-One functions
A function is one –to-one if each value in its domain is assigned a
different value in the range.
2 1 7
3 5 3
0
9
f
ordered pairs (2,1) (3, 7) (5, 3) (9, 0)
One-to-one

2 7
3 5 3
9 0
g
(2,7) (3, 7) (5, 3) (9, 0)
Note g is not one-to-one.
Functions expressed as graphs

t  0  .01  10

## Use the horizontal line test to determine if function

is one-to-one. If derivative of a function is always
positive or always negative, the function is 1=1.
Restricting Domains t  0 .01 10

Restrict domain to x  0
Not 1-1 Now function is 1-1 and has
an inverse function

## You can make a function 1-1 by restricting its

domain. Such a function will have an inverse.
Inverse functions
If f is a one-to-one function with domain A and range B, it has
an inverse function f –1 with domain B and range A.
A B
2 1 7
3 5 3
0
9
f
Function ordered pairs ( a, b) are (2,1) (3, 7) (5, 3) (9, 0)
B A
1 7 2
3 3 5
0 9
f -1
Inverse ordered pairs (b, a) are (1, 2) (7, 3) (3, 5) (0, 9)
How to find the inverse of a one-to-one-function
1. Replace f(x) with y
2. Interchange x and y
3. Solve the equation for x in terms of y (if possible)
4. Replace y with f -1 (x)

f ( x)  x 5  4
1) y  x 5  4
2) x  y 5  4
3) y  5
x4
1
4) f  5
x4
f and f –1 are inverses if and only if the result of the
composition of a function and its inverse (in either
orderf is
1 the original input, x.
( f ( x))  x and f ( f 1 ( x))  x
f ={(2,1) (3, 7) (5, 3) (9, 0)} f -1 = {(1, 2) (7, 3) (3, 5) (0, 9)}

## f –1(f (2)) = f –1(1)= 2 and f (f –1(1) = f(2) =1

f ( x)  x 3  1 f 1 ( x)  3 x  1
Use the composition of functions to show inverses
f 1 ( x3  1)  x and f ( 3 x  1)  x
The graphs of inverse functions have reciprocal slopes at
corresponding points.
Slopes of Inverse functions
If f is a one-to-one differentiable function with
inverse function g = f –1and f ( g (a ))  0
then the inverse function is differentiable at a and
1
g (a) 
f ( g (a))
f ( x)  x  2
3 Find g (6) where g  f 1
f ( x)  3x 2
g ( x)  3 x  2 so g (6)  2
1 1
g (6)  
f (2) 12
The derivative of ƒ(x) = x3 – 2 at the point (2, 6) tells us the
derivative of ƒ –1 at the point (6, 2).
7.2*New way to define a function
n 1
x
 dx  n  1  C , n  1
n
From Calculus I: x

To investigate case for n = -1, we will define the integral as a new function.
x
1
f ( x)   dt , x0
1
t
f(x) is called the natural logarithm f(x) = ln x

## •Domain is set of all positive real numbers.

•Range is all reals
•For x > 1, ln x is positive.
•For 0 < x < 1, ln x is negative
•ln 1 = 0
interpretation
x
1
ln x   dt , x0
1
t
5

## Represents the area under the

curve when x > 1.
1/t

0 1 2 x 3 4
1

## Represents thet negative of the area under the

curve when 0 < x <1
When x = 1, the natural log is 0.
Characteristics of graph of y = ln x
dy 1 d2y 1
 
dx x dx 2 x2
dy 1

ln x is an antiderivative of 1/x . dx x
Since x is positive, 1/x is also positive so the slope of ln x is
always positive and ln x is increasing.

d2y 1
The second derivative of ln x is 
dx 2 x2

concave down.

## So, ln x is increasing, concave down and goes through (1, 0)

The graph of y = ln (x) and its relation to the function y = 1/x, x > 0. The
graph of the logarithm rises above the x-axis as x moves from 1 to the
right, and it falls below the axis as x moves from 1 to the left.
y=ln x

ln 1 = 0

ln e = 1
Differentiation of Natural Log Functions
d 1 d 1 du u
[ln x]  , x  0 [ln u ]   , u0
dx x dx u dx u
d
Examples 1)
dx
[ln 2 x]

(a) d
2) [ln( x 2  1)]
dx

d
3) [ x ln( x)]
dx

d
4) [ln( x)]5
dx
Differentiation of Natural Log Functions

d u 2 1
1) [ln 2 x]    1) Chain rule
dx u 2x x
(a)2) d [ln( x2  1)]  u  2x
dx u x2  1 1) Chain rule
d 1
3) [ x ln( x)]  x( )  ln x(1)  1  ln x 1) Product rule
dx x

d 41 5[ln( x)]4
4) [ln( x)]  5[ln( x)] 
5
1) power rule
dx x x
Properties of natural logs
•ln(1) = 0
•ln(ax) = ln(a) + ln (x)
•ln(xn) = n ln x
•ln(a/x) = ln (a) – ln (x)
Expand Logarithmic expressions to sums
3x  1
(a) ln
5x  2
(b) ln (x2 – 3)5
(c) ln ( x 2  2)3
x 5 x2  1
Expanding Logarithmic expressions to sums
3x  1
(a) ln = ln (3x +1) – ln (5x-2)
5x  2

## (b) ln (x2 – 3)5 = 5 ln (x2 – 3)

(c) ( x 2  2)3
ln
x 5 x2  1
1
 3ln( x  2)  (ln x  ln( x  1) 5 )
2 2

1
 3ln( x  2)  ln x  ln( x 2  1)
2
5
Logarithmic differentiation
• Use properties of logs to expand and then
find the derivative

## (a) y = (3x + 1)(5x - 2)(7x2 +4)

(b) ( x 2  2)3
y
5
x x2  1
y = (3x + 1)(5x - 2)(7x2 +4)
Take natural log of each side
1) . - 2)(7x2 +4))
ln y = ln ( (3x + 1)(5x
Use the properties of logs to rewrite
ln y = ln (3x + 1)+ ln(5x - 2)+ ln(7x2 +4)

## Differentiate both sides

y 3 5 14 x
   2
y 3x  1 5 x  2 7 x  4
 3 5 14 x 
Solve for y’ y     2 y
 3x  1 5 x  2 7 x  4 
Replace y with function of x.
 3
y   
5
 2
14 x 

 3x  1 5 x  2 7 x  4 

(3 x  1)(5 x - 2)(7 x 2
 4) 
( x 2  2)3
y
x 5 x2  1 ( x 2  2)3
Take natural log of each side ln y  ln 5 2
Use the properties of logs to rewrite x x 1

1
 
ln y  3ln( x  2)  (ln x  ln x 2  1 )
2
5
Differentiate both sides
y 6x 1 2x
 2  
y x 2 x 5( x 2  1)
 6x 1 2x 
Solve for y’ y   2   y
 x  2 x 5( x  1) 
2

## Replace y with function of x.

 6x 1 2x  ( x 2  2)3
y   2    5 2
x 2 x 5( x  1)  x x  1
2
Integration involving the natural log function
f ( x)

1 dx  ln | f ( x) | C
 u du  ln | u | C f ( x)

Examples 4x
 x2  3 dx

2sin
 3  cos d

sin
 tan d   cos
d
Solutions
4x u=x2- 3
 x2  3 dx du=2xdx 2
du
 2ln | u | C  2ln | x 2  3 | C
u

## 2sin u=3 + cos x

 3  cos d du=-sin x dx
2
du
u
 2ln | u | C  2ln | 3  cos x | C

sin u=cos x
 tan  d   cos d du=-sin x dx

sin x du
 cos x dx    u   ln | u | C   ln | cos x | C  ln | sec x | C
ln x is one to one so it has an inverse.The graphs of y = ln x
and y = ln–1 x.
7.3*Inverse of ln
The number that has a natural log of 1 is e.

ln–1 x = ex

1 = ln e

0 = ln 1
Cancellation properties
Since ex and ln x are inverse functions

ln ex = x lne = x elnx = x

ln e5 = 5 lne = 5 eln7 = 7
Derivative of y = ex

ln y  ln e  x x
y
1
y
y  y
y  e x

## ex is its own derivative

General formula
d u
dx
 
e eu du
dx
 e du  e C
u u
Integral of y = eu

 2 xe
x2
dx

e
cos x
sin xdx

 sec
2 tan x
xe dx
  
u u
Integral of y = eu e du e C
1. u=x2
du=2x dx

 2 xe dx   e du  e  C  e  C
x2 u u x2

2. u=cos x
du=-sin x dx
e sin xdx   e du  e  C  e C
cos x u u cos x

3. u=tan x
du = sec 2 x dx

 sec dx   e du  e  C  e C
2 tan x u u tan x
xe
ln u
7.4 Logs with other bases log a u 
ln a

d d  ln u  1 1 du
1) (log a u )    *
dx dx  ln a  ln a u dx

d
(log5 ( x  sin x) 
2 d  
 ln x 2  sin x  
2) dx dx  ln 5 
 
1 1 2 x  cos x
 * 2 (2 x  cos x) 
ln 5 ( x  sin x) ln 5( x 2  sin x)

## Hint: ln a is a constant factor

ln u
Logs with other bases log a u 
ln a
(log 7 x)  ln 7 x  1  ln 7 x 
 x dx    x ln10 dx  ln10   x dx
u=ln 7x
du = 1/x dx
2 2
1 1 u (ln 7 x)
ln10  udu 
ln10 2
C 
2ln10
C
Exponential functions decrease if 0 < a < 1 and increase if a > 1. As x
, we have ax  0 if 0 < a < 1 and ax  if a > 1. As x  –  ,
we have ax if 0 < a < 1 and ax  0 if a > 1.

Exponential functions
7.4 Exponential functions with other bases
x
a e
x ln a
e x ln a

d x d ln a x d x ln a
a  e  e  ln a * e x ln a
 a ln a
x
dx dx dx

## General formula (using the chain rule):

d u d ln au d u ln a
a  e  e 
dx dx dx
u ln a du du
ln a * e  a ln a
u
dx dx
Exponential functions with other bases
ln a x
a ex
e x ln a

1 x ln a 1 x
a dx   e dx   a C
x x ln a
e
ln a ln a
General formula where u = f(x)
1 u
   du  a C
u u ln a
a du a
ln a
Exponential functions with other bases

sin x
5 cos xdx

e
sin x ln 5
cos xdx
u  sin x ln 5
du  cos x ln 5dx

1

u
e du
ln 5 sin x
1 sin x ln 5 5
1 u e  C
e C ln5 ln5
ln 5
Review questions
Find the derivative for:

1) y  e x

2) y  x e

3) y  e e

4) y  x x
dy x
1) y  e   e
x
dx
Basic formula
dy e 1
2) y  x   ex
e
dx
Since e is a number, use basic power rule
3) y  e  y  0
e

4) y  x x
(When variable is in the
exponent, use logarithmic
differentiation)
ln y  x ln x
y 1
 x  ln x  1  ln x
y x

y  (1  ln x) y  (1  ln x) x x
7.5 Arcsin function

x = sin y
The graph of y = sin–1 x has vertical tangents at
x = –1 and x = 1.
Derivative of inverse sine
y = sin-1x is equivalent to sin y = x

## Using implicit differentiation,

cos y y = 1 1 x
1 y)
y 
cos y
1
y 
1  x2
1 du
If y = sin-1u y 
1  u 2 dx
Find the derivative for y = tan-1 u and sec-1u.
Using inverse cofunction identities, find the
derivatives of the inverse cofunctions.
1  1
cos x   sin x
2
1 
cot x  tan 1 x
2
1 
csc x   sec1 x
2
The derivative of the inverse cofunction is the
negative of the derivative of the function.
Derivatives of inverse trig functions
d 1 1 du d 1 1 du
sin u  and cos u 
dx 1  u 2 dx dx 1  u 2 dx

d 1 1 du d 1 1 du
tan u  and cot u 
dx 1  u 2 dx dx 1  u 2 dx

d 1 1 du d 1 1 du
sec u  and csc u 
dx u u 2  1 dx dx u u 2  1 dx
Integrals
1 1  u 
 a2  u 2
du  sin    C
a

1 1 1  u 
 a2  u 2 du  a tan  a   C

1 1 1 u
 u u2  a2
du  sec
a a
C
Integrals
1
 8  2t 2 dt 

1
 y y2  9
dy 

xdx
 16  x4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 u
 8  2t 2 dt  
2 4t 2
dt   2
2 a u 2
du   tan ( )  C
2 2 a
u t
du  dt
a2
1 1 t
tan ( )  C
4 2

1 1
 y y2  9
dy  
u u 2  32
du
Pattern recognition
uy Is the key to solving
du  dy These.
a3
1 1 y
sec C
3 3
xdx 1 du
  
16  x 4 2 a 2  u 2
u  x2
du  2 xdx
a4
1 1  x 2 
sin    C
2  4 
 
Complete the Trigonometric Integrals

##  sin udu  tan udu

 cos udu  cot udu
 udu  sec udu
2
sec

2
csc

##  sec u tan udu

 c sc u cot udu
7.6 Hyperbolic and circular functions
Definitions of Hyperbolic functions
e e
x x e x  e x
sinh x  cosh x 
2 2

e e
x  x 2 e e
x  x 2
cosh x  sinh x  
2 2
     1
 2 2
   

sinh x e x  e x cosh x e x  e x
tanh x   x x co th x   x x
cosh x e  e sinh x e  e

1 2 1 2
sech x   csch x   x x
cosh x e x  e x sinh x e  e
Derivatives of Hyperbolic functions
d e x  e x d e x  e x
sinh x   cosh x cosh x   sinh x
dx 2 dx 2

d
tanh x  sec h2 x
dx

d
co th x   csc h2 x
dx
d
sech x   sec hx tanh x
dx

d
csch x   csc hx coth x
dx
A hanging cable lies along the hyperbolic cosine
y = (H/w) cosh (wx/H).

A Catenary
Inverse hyperbolic functions
Derivatives of inverse hyperbolic functions

d 1 1 du d 1 1 du
sinh u  and cosh u 
dx 1  u 2 dx dx u 2  1 dx

d 1 1 du d 1 1 du
tanh u  and coth u 
dx 1  u 2 dx dx 1  u 2 dx

d 1 1 du d 1 1 du
sec h u  and csc h u 
dx u 1  u 2 dx dx u 1  u 2 dx
Integrals leading to inverse hyperbolic functions.
Interesting but you will learn how to do these in an easier
way next chapter. They won’t be on your test!!
1 u
1 1 1 u
 a2  u 2
du  sinh ( )
a
and  u 2  a2
du  cosh
a

1 1 1  u  2 1 1  u  2
 a2  u 2 a   
2 2
du tanh   , u a or coth   u a
a a a

1 1 1  u  1 1 1 u
 u a2  u 2 du   a sec h  a  and  u a2  u 2 du   a sec h a

## Another example of integrals of algebraic functions

Inverse Hyperbolics as Natural Log functions
Skip this for now.
y  sinh x
x  sinh y
e y  e y
x
2
1
2 x  e y  y  2 xe y  e2 y  1
e
u  ey 0  e2 y  2 xe y  1
0  u 2  2 xu  1

## b  b 2  4ac (2 x)  (2 x) 2  4(1)(1) 2 x  4 x 2  4

u  
2a 2(1) 2
u  x  x2  1

e y  x  x2  1  y  ln x  x 2  1
Inverse Hyperbolics as Natural Log functions
skip this-not on test.
sinh 1 x  ln x  x2  1 (, )

cosh 1 x  ln x  x 2  1 (1, )

1 1 1 x
tanh x  ln (1,1)
2 1 x

1 1 1 x
coth x  ln (, 1)  (1, )
2 1 x
1 1  x 2 
sec h1x  ln    (0,1]
x x 
 
1 1  x2 
1
csc h x  ln    x0
x | x| 
 
Indeterminate forms. Determinate forms
0 0
0

0

 0
 0
0  
 
1 0 
0  0
0
 
0
0
    -
0 1
1
L’Hôpital’s Rule
Let f and g be functions that are differentiable
on an interval (a, b) containing c except
possible at c itself. Assume that g ́(x) 0. If
f ( x) 0
lim x c produces the indeterminate form,
g ( x) 0
then f ( x) f ( x)
lim x c  lim x c
g ( x) g ( x)
This result applies to the following
indeterminate forms:    
, , ,
   
0
e 1
2x
lim x 0
x 0
Since the indeterminate form results, apply
L’Hôpital’s Rule.

e 1
2x
2e 2x
lim x0  lim x0 2
x 1

ln x
lim x 
x

Since the indeterminate form results, apply
L’Hôpital’s Rule.
1
ln x x 0
lim x   lim x 
x 1
2 
x
lim x x
e 
Since the indeterminate form results, apply L’Hôpital’s
Rule.
2 -
x 2x
lim x x
 lim x  x
e e
-
Since the indeterminate form results, apply L’Hôpital’s
Rule again. 2
x 2x 2
lim x x
 lim x x
 lim x x
 0
e e e
Indeterminate form 0* 
x rewrite
lim x e x

x
lim x  x
e 
Since the indeterminate form results, apply L’Hôpital’s
Rule. 1
1 2
x x 1
lim x  lim 2  lim  0
x x  x x  x
e e 2 xe
Indeterminate forms involving variable bases and
 0
variable exponents leading to 1 ,  or 0 0
x
 1
y  lim x  1  
 x
  1 
x
 1
ln y  ln  lim x   1     lim x  x ln  1  

  x    x

1 1
( 2 )
 1  1 x
ln 1   1
lim x  x
 lim x x  lim x
1
1
1 1 1
 2 1
x x x
ln y  1 so y  e
Indeterminate forms involving 

 1 1 
lim x 1   
 ln x x  1 
0
 x  1  ln x 
lim x 1  
 ( x  1)ln x  0
 1 
 1    
x x 1
lim x 1    lim x 1  
1
 ( x  1)  ln x   ( x  1)  x ln x 
 x   
 x 1   1  1
lim x 1    lim x 1   
 ( x  1)  x ln x  1
 1  x  ln x  2
 x 