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You are on page 1of 28

utm

Let us begin with a simple question:

into YOUR mind?

f ( x) x 2 this is a famous pair. But

something is not quite right

f 1 ( x) x with this pair. Do you know

what is wrong?

does not really have an inverse because it is not 1-1

and therefore, the graph will not pass the horizontal

line test.

Consider the graph of y x 2

.

y

on the graph and

also on the line y=4.

function supposed

to do with 4?

f 1 (4) 2 or f 1 (4) 2 ?

x

outputs for the same input, so the sad truth is that this

function, as is, does not have an inverse.

So how is it that we arrange for this function to have an

inverse?

yx 2

y=x

We consider only one half

of the graph: x > 0. 4

the horizontal line test y x

2

and we do have an

inverse:

f ( x) x for x 0

2

x

1

f ( x) x

its inverse.

A similar restriction on the domain is necessary to

create an inverse function for each trig function.

y

function does not y = 1/2

line test.

But we can come up x

with a valid inverse

function if we restrict

the domain as we did

with the previous

function.

Take a look at the piece of the graph in the red frame.

We are going to build y

from this section of

the sine curve

because:

This section picks up x

all the outputs of the

sine from –1 to 1.

This section includes

the origin. Quadrant I

positive ratios and

negative angles in

Quadrant IV generate Lets zoom in and look at some

the negative ratios. key points in this section.

I have plotted the special angles on the curve and the

table. y

y = sin(x)

x f ( x)

1

2

3

3 2

2

x

4 2

1

6 2

0 0

1

6 2

2

4 2

3

3 2

1

2

The new table generates the graph of the inverse.

1

The domain

x sin ( x )

x sin( x)

of the chosen

1 To get a good 1 section of

2 2

3

look at the 3 the sineis

,

graph of the 2 2

2 3

3 2

inverse So the range

2

2

of the arcsin

4 2 function, we 2 4

1 1 is

will “turn the 2 , 2

6 2 2 6

0 0 tables” on 0 0

1 the sine 1 The range of

6 2 function. 2 6 the chosen

2 2 section of the

4 2 2 4 sine is [-1 ,1]

3 3

so the domain

3 2 2 3

of the arcsin is

1 1

2 2 [-1, 1].

Note how each point on the original graph gets “reflected”

onto the graph of the inverse.

,1 to 1, y = arcsin(x) y

2 2

y = sin(x)

3 3

,

3 2 to 2 , 3

2 2

,

4 2 to 2 , 4

x

etc.

inverse listed

as both:

arcsin( x) and sin 1 ( x)

In the tradition of inverse functions then we have:

sin 1 arcsin( 1) or sin 1 (1)

2 2 2 instructed to

3 3 3

use degrees,

sin arcsin or sin

1

3 2 2 3 you should

2 3

assume that

inverse trig

functions will

generate

outputs of real

numbers (in

radians).

The thing to remember is that for the trig function the

input is the angle and the output is the ratio, but for the

inverse trig function the input is the ratio and the output

is the angle.

The other inverse trig functions are generated by using

similar restrictions on the domain of the trig function.

Consider the cosine function:

y

What do you y = cos(x)

think would be

a good domain

restriction for

the cosine?

Congratulations if

x

you realized that

the restriction we

used on the sine

is not going to

work on the

cosine.

The chosen section for the cosine is in the red frame. This

section includes all outputs from –1 to 1 and all inputs in

the first and second quadrants.

Since the domain and range for the section are 0, and 1,1,

the domain and range for the inverse cosine are 1,1 and 0 , .

y y = arccos(x) y

y = cos(x)

x

x

The other trig functions require similar restrictions on

their domains in order to generate an inverse.

Like the sine function, the domain of the section of the

tangent that generates the arctan is , .

2 2

y

y

y=arctan(x)

y=tan(x)

x x

D , and R ,

D , and R , 2 2

2 2

The table below will summarize the parameters we have

so far. Remember, the angle is the input for a trig function

and the ratio is the output. For the inverse trig functions

the ratio is the input and the angle is the output.

Domain 1 x 1 1 x 1 x

Range

x 0 x x

2 2 2 2 2

When x<0, y=arccos(x) will be in which quadrant? y>0 in II

When x<0, y=arctan(x) will be in which quadrant? y<0 in IV

The graphs give you the big picture concerning the

behavior of the inverse trig functions. Calculators are

helpful with calculations (later for that). But special

triangles can be very helpful with respect to the basics.

60 45 1

2

1 2

30

45

3 2

Use the special triangles above to answer the following.

Try to figure it out yourself before you click.

30 or because cos30

3

3

arccos

6 2

2

csc 1 (2) 30 or because csc30 2 / 1 2

6

OK, lets try a few more. Try them before you peek.

60

2 45 1

1 2

30 45

3

2

1 1

arcsin 45 (or ) because sin 45

2 4 2

tan 1 ( 3 ) 3

60 (or ) because tan 60

3

3 1

1

arcsin 45 (or ) because sin 45 1

2 4 2

Negative inputs for the arccos can be a little tricky.

y

2

60 2 3

1

60

30 x

-1

3

180 60 120

1 x 1

arccos

2

to check : cos 120

r 2

From the triangle you can see that arccos(1/2) = 60 degrees.

But negative inputs for the arccos generate angles in

Quadrant II so we have to use 60 degrees as a reference

angle in the second quadrant.

You should be able to do inverse trig calculations without

a calculator when special angles from the special

triangles are involved. You should also be able to do

inverse trig calculations without a calculator for

quadrantal angles.

Its not that bad. Quadrantal

angles are the angles between

the quadrants—angles like

y

y = cos(x)

or 90 , 0 or 0 ,

or 90 , or 180

2 2

To solve arccos(-1) for example, x

you could draw a quick sketch of

,1

But a lot of people feel comfortable using the following

sketch and the definitions of the trig ratios.

r=1

For arccos(-1) for example, y

(0, 1)

x

cos

r the point (-1, 0) is

the one we want. That point

is on the terminal side of

x

(1, 0)

(-1, 0)

.

x 1

So, since cos( ) 1,

r 1

arccos( 1) .

(-1, 0)

cot

x

that, since the point (0, 1) Good luck getting

y

is the one we want. That point is on that answer off of

the terminal side of 90 degrees. a calculator.

Finally, we encounter the composition of trig functions

with inverse trig functions. The following are pretty

straightforward compositions. Try them yourself before

you click to the answer.

1 3 so

1 3 3

sin sin ?

sin sin

sin

2 2

2

3

We know that is an angle whose sine is 2

.

Did you suspect from the beginning that this was the

answer because that is the way inverse functions are

SUPPOSED to behave? If so, good instincts but….

Consider a slightly different setup:

arcsin sin 120 This is also the

composition of two

3 inverse functions but…

arcsin 60.

2

Did you suspect the answer was going to be 120

degrees? This problem behaved differently because

the first angle, 120 degrees, was outside the range of

the arcsin. So use some caution when evaluating the

composition of inverse trig functions.

practice problems, their answers and a few complete

solutions.

First, some calculator problems. On most calculators,

you access the inverse trig functions by using the 2nd

function option on the corresponding trig functions. The

mode button allows you to choose whether your work

will be in degrees or in radians.

You have to stay on top of this because the answer is

not in a format that tells you which mode you are in.

found after the exercises.

Find the 1

1 10. sec 1 2

1. sin

exact value 2

of each 1

2. arccos 1 11. arccos

expression 2

without using 3. tan 1 1

a calculator.

1 12. arcsin sin

When your 4. arctan 2

3

answer is an

angle, 5. arcsin 0

13. arcsin sin 270

express it in 1

radians.

1

1 14. tan arccos

6. cos 2

Work out the 2

answers

yourself

7. arctan 3

15. arccos cos

8. sin 1 1 3

before you

click. 1 1

3 16. sin cos

9. cos

1

2

2

On most calculators, you access the inverse trig functions

by using the 2nd function option on the corresponding trig

functions. The mode button allows you to choose whether

your work will be in degrees or in radians. You have to stay

on top of this because the answer is not in a format that

tells you which mode you are in.

Use a calculator. For 17-20,

express your answers in

round to the nearest tenth

radians rounded to the

of a degree.

nearest hundredth.

17. 1

cos (.6666) 21. tan 1 3.585

18. arctan( 2.345) 22. arcsin(. 7878)

19. arcsin( .1234) 23. cos 1 .2345

20. arccos( .8787) 24. arctan(. 7878)

Use a calculator. When your answer is an angle, express

it in radians rounded to the hundredth’s place. When

your answer is a ratio, round it to four decimal places, but

don’t round off until the very end of the problem.

25. arcsin sin 3.58

26. arcsin cos1

27. arctan(sin 2.34)

28. cosarccos .5758

29. cos sin 1 .5758

30. tan arccos.2345

Answers appear in the following slides.

Answers for problems 1 – 9.

1 3 5

1. 1

sin 9. cos

1

6

2 6 2

2. arccos 1 Negative ratios for arccos

generate angles in Quadrant II.

3. tan 1

1

4 y

1

4. arctan 2

3 6 1

5. arcsin 0 0 x

3

1

1

6. cos

2 4 The reference angle is 6

7. arctan 3

3

so the answer is

6

6 5

6 6 6

8. sin 1

1

2

10. sec 1 2 cos 1 1 / 2

3 y

14.

1 3 2

11. arccos 3

2 4

60

x

12. arcsin sin -1

2 2

13. arcsin sin 270 arcsin 1 90

2

1 2

14. tan arccos tan 3 y

2 3

15.

1

15. arccos cos arccos 1

3 2 3 x

1 1 2 3 3

16. sin cos sin 2

2 3 2

Answers for 17 – 30.

1

17. cos (.6666) 48.2 21. tan 1 3.585 1.30

18. arctan( 2.345) 66.9 22. arcsin(. 7878) 0.91

19. arcsin( .1234) 7.1

23. cos .2345 1.81

1

26. arcsin cos1 arcsin 0.5403... 0.57

27. arctan(sin 2.34) arctan 0.7184... 0.62

28. cosarccos .5758 .5758

29. cos sin 1 .5758 cos 0.6136... 0.8175

30. tan arccos.2345 tan 1.3341... 4.1455

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