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Simile
ï¦ 
Ô Similes is ³the use of comparison of one
thing with another´.
Ô Often introduced with the words "like",
"as", or "than".
Ex: He fights like a lion.
She swims like a dolphin.
etaphor
ï¦ 
D etaphor is ³the use of a word or phrase to
indicate something different from the literal
meaning´
Ex: I will make him eat his words.
Her eyes were like glisten jewels.
˜inds of metaphors:
 ¦ 
  
D ead metaphors (unconscious or fossilized
metaphors): are used so often that they have lost their
metaphoric characteristics.

D ead metaphors are in fact idioms or fixed


expressions that native speakers just think directly,
unconsciously of its meaning used in a certain
context:
Ex : The legs/face of the table
The back of the chair
* 
  
Dive metaphors (conscious metaphors) are
implied or indirect comparisons which have
variety of figurative meaning through their
endless use
Dive metaphors can only be understood after the
implicit comparison is found through serious
consideration, and full appreciation.
Ex: Tom is a pig.
X  
D ersonification is a special kind of metaphor
in which some human characteristic is
attributed to an inanimate object or lifeless
things as if they were living.

Ex : Time never waits for anyone.

The flowers begged for water.


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HYPERBOLE
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Hyperbole = Overstatement

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HYPERBOLE
ßè :
ï I¶ve invited ë   (= a lot of) to my
party.
ï She sheds 
.(= cries a lot)
whenever she is upset.
ï on¶t    

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on¶t be too suspicious.)
ï The bag 0  
.( = very heavy)
LITOTES

« i    


  0eaker
0eaker statements 
   
 ^
LITOTES
Ex:
a) I don¶t think I would agree with you.
= I disagree with you.
b) I am afraid that no passenger is allowed to
smoke.
= You¶re are not allowed to smoke in here.
c) She is not very tall.
= She¶s short.
d) Tom¶s mother has passed away.
= She has died.
LITOTES
'
) She's not the brightest girl in the class.
= She's stupid¿

f) He's not the most handsome fellow¿


= He's ugly¿

g) They aren't the happiest couple around.


= They're unhappy.