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VISI

Pendidikan Berkualiti
Insan Terdidik Negara Sejahtera

MISI
Melestarikan Sistem Pendidikan
Yang Berkualiti Untuk Membangunkan
Potensi Individu Bagi
Memenuhi Aspirasi Negara
INTRODUCTION TO
WHAT IS SCIENCE??
 SCIENCE IS A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF NATURE
AND HOW IT AFFECTS US AND OUR
ENVIRONMENT

 SCIENCE CAN EXPLAIN NATURE PHENOMENA


THAT HAPPEN IN OUR ENVIRONMENT

 HOW?
THROUGH CAREFUL OBSERVATIONS, STUDIES
AND INVESTIGATIONS BY SCIENTISTS
GROUP ACTIVITY 1 :

 STATE 5 NATURAL PHENOMENA


 STATE 5 CAREERS IN SCIENCE
5 FIELDS IN SCIENCE

DO IN BUBBLE MAP/CIRCLE MAP


NATURAL
PHENOMENA
TORNADO
TSUNAMI
MELTING OF ICE
THUNDERSTORM
THE IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE
 Contributes to the area of engineering such as
construction of tall building

 Invention of satellites has made communication more


effective and faster

 Increases crop yields by invention of fertilisers,


pesticides and hydroponic method

 Discovery of vaccines and antibiotics – controlling


the infectious diseases
CAREERS IN SCIENCE
DOCTOR
SCIENTIST
ARCHITECT
METEOROLOGIST
GEOLOGIST
SCIENCE TEACHER
1.2 A SCIENCE LABORATORY
GENERAL RULES AND SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS

DO’S IN THE LABORATORY


PUT YOUR
SCHOOL BAG
OUTSIDE THE
LABORATORY
FOLLOW TEACHER INSTRUCTION
OPEN DOORS AND WINDOWS – TO IMPROVE AIR CIRCULATION
MEASURE CAREFULLY
WASH YOUR
HANDS AFTER
ALL
LABORATORY
WORKS
REPORT ALL THE
ACCIDENTS,
BREAKAGES AND
SPILLAGES
IMMEDIATELY TO
YOUR TEACHER
GENERAL RULES AND SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS

DONT’S IN THE
LABORATORY
DO NOT ENTER THE
LABORATORY
WITHOUT TEACHER’S
PERMISSION
FOOD AND DRINKS NOT
ALLOWED IN
LABORATORY
DO NOT PLAY IN
LABORATORY
DO NOT PERFORM
ANY EXPERIMENT
WITHOUT
TEACHER’S
PERMISSION
COMMON
LABORATORY
APPARATUS
1.2 : A SCIENCE LABORATORY

Group activity :
 label all the laboratory apparatus
 Draw and copy in notebook
 State their functions
do in exercise book

1.2 : A SCIENCE LABORATORY (INDEX)

1) List 10 Laboratory Safety Rules


2) List 3 safety measures when using
chemicals and apparatus
TEST TUBE
CONTAINING SMALL
AMOUNT OF LIQUID
BEAKER
CONTAINING CHEMICAL
SUBSTANCES/COLLECTI
NG LIQUIDS
CONICAL
FLASK
CONTAINING CHEMICAL
SUBSTANCES/COLLECTI
NG LIQUIDS
MEASURING
CYLINDER
MEASURE VOLUME OF
LIQUID
(ACCURACY 1.0 CM3)
GAS JAR
COLLECTING GASES
FILTER
FUNNEL
SEPERATING AN
INSOLUBLE SOLID FROM
A LIQUID (USING FILTER
PAPER)
TRIPOD
STAND
SUPPORTING APPARATUS
DURING HEATING
RETORT
STAND
SUPPORTING APPARATUS
DURING EXPERIMENT
PIPETTE
MEASURE VERY
ACCURATELY A SPECIFIC
VOLUME OF LIQUID
BURETTE
MEASURE VOLUME OF
LIQUID
(ACCURACY 0.1 CM3)
TEST TUBE
HOLDER
TO HOLD TEST TUBE
DURING HEATING
PROCESS
TEST TUBE
RACK
TO HOLD TEST TUBES IN
AN UPRIGHT POSITION
HAZARD WARNING SYMBOL
HAZARD WARNING SYMBOL

POISONOUS / TOXIC CORROSIVE HARMFUL

FLAMMABLE EXPLOSIVE RADIOACTIVE


 NOTE BOOK :
DRAW THE HAZARD SYMBOL & STATE EXAMPLES FOR EACH HAZARD
(REFER TEXTBOOK PAGE 12)

HOMEWORK : DO FORMATIVE PRACTICE 1.2 (PAGE 14) IN EXERCISE


BOOK
POISONOUS / TOXIC
FLAMMABLE
CORROSIVE
EXPLOSIVE
HARMFUL
RADIOACTIVE
TEXT BOOK : PAGE 10
NOTE (13/1/2015)
INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE
WHAT IS SCIENCE??

 SCIENCE  SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF NATURE AND HOW IT AFFECTS US AND


OUR ENVIRONMENT

 SCIENCE CAN EXPLAIN NATURE PHENOMENA THAT HAPPEN IN OUR


ENVIRONMENT

 HOW?
THROUGH CAREFUL OBSERVATIONS, STUDIES AND INVESTIGATIONS BY
SCIENTISTS

NATURAL PHENOMENA

 TORNADO
 TSUNAMI
 GROWTH OF BABY INTO AN ADULT
 MELTING OF ICE
 THUNDERSTORM
ARCHITECT

ENGINEER SCIENTIST

CAREERS
IN
SCIENCE
SCIENCE
GEOLOGIST
TEACHER

DOCTOR
1.2 A SCIENCE LABORATORY
GENERAL RULES AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

DO’S IN THE LABORATORY


 PUT YOUR SCHOOL BAG OUTSIDE THE LABORATORY
 FOLLOW TEACHER INSTRUCTION
 OPEN DOORS AND WINDOWS – TO IMPROVE AIR CIRCULATION
 MEASURE CAREFULLY
 WASH YOUR HANDS AFTER ALL LABORATORY WORKS
 REPORT ALL THE ACCIDENTS, BREAKAGES AND SPILLAGES IMMEDIATELY TO YOUR TEACHER

DONT’S IN THE LABORATORY


 DO NOT ENTER THE LABORATORY WITHOUT TEACHER’S PERMISSION
 FOOD AND DRINKS NOT ALLOWED IN LABORATORY
 DO NOT PLAY IN LABORATORY
 DO NOT PERFORM ANY EXPERIMENT WITHOUT TEACHER’S PERMISSION
COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS

APPARATUS SYMBOL FUNCTION


TEST TUBE CONTAINING SMALL AMOUNT OF LIQUID

BEAKER CONTAINING CHEMICAL


SUBSTANCES/COLLECTING LIQUIDS

CONICAL FLASK CONTAINING CHEMICAL


SUBSTANCES/COLLECTING LIQUIDS

TEST TUBE RACK TO HOLD TEST TUBES IN AN UPRIGHT POSITION


APPARATUS SYMBOL FUNCTION
MEASURING MEASURE VOLUME OF LIQUID
CYLINDER (ACCURACY 1.0 CM3)

GAS JAR COLLECTING GASES

FILTER SEPERATING AN INSOLUBLE SOLID FROM A LIQUID


FUNNEL (USING FILTER PAPER)

TRIPOD STAND SUPPORTING APPARATUS DURING HEATING


APPARATUS SYMBOL FUNCTION
RETORT STAND SUPPORTING APPARATUS DURING EXPERIMENT

PIPETTE MEASURE VERY ACCURATELY A SPECIFIC


VOLUME OF LIQUID

BURETTE MEASURE VOLUME OF LIQUID


(ACCURACY 0.1 CM3)

TEST TUBE TO HOLD TEST TUBE DURING HEATING PROCESS


HOLDER
THE BUNSEN BURNER
LUMINOUS FLAME (YELLOW FLAME) NON-LUMINOUS FLAME (BLUE FLAME)

AIR HOLE : CLOSE AIR HOLE : OPEN


EASY TO SEE DIFFICULT TO SEE
A LOT OF SOOT NOT GIVE OUT SOOT
NOT SO HOT VERY HOT
NOT SUITABLE FOR HEATING SUITABLE FOR HEATING
CORRET WAY TO LIGHT UP A BUNSEN BURNER

HOLD THE
CLOSE THE AIR MATCHSTICK NEAR OPEN THE AIR
TURN ON THE GAS
HOLE THE MOUTH OF HOLE
THE BARREL
1.3 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND THEIR UNITS
- Quantity that can be measured

SI Unit = Systeme International d’Unites


(This allows accurate exchange of data and scientific
knowledge to the entire world)
Some Physical Quantities And Their SI Unit

QUANTITY UNIT SYMBOL OF UNIT


Length metre m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Temperature Kelvin K
Electric Ampere A
Current
MEASURING TOOL MEASUREMENT PHYSICAL SI UNIT
VALUE QUANTITIES

Metre ruler Meter (m)

Thermometer Kelvin (K)

Stopwatch Second (s)

Lever balance Kilogram (kg)


ACTIVITY

1 : measure the length of a table using meter ruler


2 : measure the rate of heartbeat in one minute using a stopwatch
3 : measure the temperature of tap water using a thermometer
4 : measure the mass of 5 onions/5 exercise books using a lever balance
1m = 100cm

1kg = 1000 g

…………degree celcius + 273 = ………Kelvin


SI UNIT???

LENGTH OF TABLE
SI UNIT???

MASS OF ONION
SI UNIT???

TEMPERATURE OF WATER
SI UNIT???

TIME
USING PREFIXES IN MEASUREMENTS
PREFIX VALUE STANDARD FORM SYMBOL
giga 1 000 000 000 109 G
mega 1 000 000 106 M
kilo 1 000 103 k
desi 0.1 10-1 D
senti 0.01 10-2 C
mili 0.001 10-3 m
mikro 0.000 001 10-6
nano 0.000 000 001 10-9 n
Examples:

4000 m = 4 x 1000 m
= 4 km
1
0.0015 m = 1.5 x m
1000
= 1.5 mm
1
0.25 m = 25 x m
100
= 25 cm
Examples:

4 0 0 0 m = 4 0 0 0 = 4 km
0.3 m = 0.3 = 30 cm
0.002 m = 0.0 0 2 = 2 mm
THE IMPORTANCE
OF SI UNITS IN LIFE
Inconsistencies of units used in daily life may
cause a lot of problem

The use of a standard unit for measurement


will make it easier for scientist to communicate
at international level.
SPAN. Same size????
FADHEM. Same size????
Measure the length the laboratory
by counting your paces
Measure the length the science
textbook by using your ruler
1.4 : THE USE OF MEASURING
INSTRUMENTS, ACCURACY, CONSISTENCY,
SENSITIVITY AND ERRORS
1.4 THE USE OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS, ACCURACY,
CONSISTENCY, SENSITIVITY AND ERRORS

- The use of right measuring instruments


- Using Measuring Instruments with higher accuracy
- Making an estimation before taking the actual
measurement
- Technology and Innovation in measuring
instruments
Yard
SI UNIT
Meter (m)

Span
The Use Of Right Measuring Instruments

a) Measuring length

Length  distance between two points(mm, cm, m, km)


SI UNIT
Kilogram (kg)

Kati, ounce, pound, tahil


The Use Of Right Measuring Instruments

b) Measuring mass

TRIPLE BEAM BALANCE


LEVER BALANCE

Mass  quantity of matter (SI unit: kg)


Used in the olden times:

Weighing scale
The Use Of Right Measuring Instruments

c) Measuring time

SI unit: second (s)


Other unit: minute, hour, day, week, month, year
• Copy notes from page 26 (errors)
The Use Of Right Measuring Instruments

d) Measuring temperature

laboratory thermometer
clinical thermometer

temperature  degree of heat of an object (SI unit: Kelvin)


The Use Of Right Measuring Instruments

e) Measuring electric current

AMMETER
The Use Of Right Measuring Instruments

f) Measuring volume of water


Error in measurement

Random error Systematic error


(observer) (measuring
instrument)

Positive/negative zero error


Parallax error
(position of eye when taking reading)
Using Measuring Instruments With Higher Accuracy
a) Measuring length
- Vernier Calipers
Main scale

Vernier scale
= 2.78 cm
= 10.02 cm
= 5.47 cm
Using Measuring Instruments With Higher Accuracy
a) Measuring length
- micrometer screw gauge
= 3.5 + 0.32
=3.82 mm
= 0.2 + 0.12
=0.32 mm
= 8.5 + 0.125
=8.625 mm
Activity
1) By using Vernier Callipers, measure the thickness of 5 exercise books.
Answer : main scale + Vernier scale
= __________ + ___________
= _____________cm

2) By using micrometer screw gauge, measure 2 coins


Answer : main scale + Vernier scale
= __________ + ___________
= _____________mm
Using Measuring Instruments With Higher Accuracy
b) Measuring mass
- digital electronic balance
Using Measuring Instruments With Higher Accuracy
c) Measuring time
- digital stopwatch
Using Measuring Instruments With Higher Accuracy
d) Measuring temperature
- digital thermometer
Using Measuring Instruments With Higher Accuracy
e) Measuring electric current
- digital ammeter
MAKING AN ESTIMATION BEFORE TAKING THE ACTUAL MEASUREMENT

1) LENGTH ??
MAKING AN ESTIMATION BEFORE TAKING THE ACTUAL MEASUREMENT

LENGTH
Let say, length of pencil  4 cm
4
MAKING AN ESTIMATION BEFORE TAKING THE ACTUAL MEASUREMENT

LENGTH = number of pencil x cm


Of table
LENGTH = 5 x 4cm
= 20cm
MAKING AN ESTIMATION BEFORE TAKING THE ACTUAL MEASUREMENT

2) AREA FOR REGULAR SHAPE??


MAKING AN ESTIMATION BEFORE TAKING THE ACTUAL MEASUREMENT

AREA FOR REGULAR SHAPE??


MAKING AN ESTIMATION BEFORE TAKING THE ACTUAL MEASUREMENT

AREA FOR IRREGULAR SHAPE??


mark on squares
that are half and more
than half covered by
the leaf
Count the total number
of squares marked
Total number
of squares
marked

= 27 cm2
2 cm

2 cm
2 cm

2 cm

Number of square counted = 17

Area of each square = 2cm x 2cm


= 4 cm2

Area = 17 x 4 cm2
= 68 cm2
MAKING AN ESTIMATION BEFORE TAKING THE ACTUAL MEASUREMENT

3) MASS??

What is the mass of a sheet of paper which is light and cannot be measured?
Mass of 100
sheets of
paper
= 500 gram
Mass of a sheet of paper??
MAKING AN ESTIMATION BEFORE TAKING THE ACTUAL MEASUREMENT

4) Volume for regular shape??

Using formula
MAKING AN ESTIMATION BEFORE TAKING THE ACTUAL MEASUREMENT

Volume for irregular shape??


EXPERIMENT :
WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD
 READ TEXTBOOK PAGE 31 BEFORE WE START EXPERIMENT
 COPY THE RESULTS IN YOUR note BOOK.
Water displacement method

Volume of stone
= 260 – 200
= 60 cm 3
___cm3 VOLUME =
=
40 cm3
How to measure the
volume of LIGHT
object???
8 cm3
7 cm3 VOLUME = 8-7
= 1 cm3
4 cm3
TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

Digital
blood
pressure
Digital
heart
rate
1.5 DENSITY Why they float
easily??
Density of
water in the
Dead Sea is
extremely
high and can
make people
float easily
THE FORMULA OF DENSITY
density is mass per unit volume of the substance

𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠
Density =
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
M
Unit = g/cm3 or kg/m3
D M V
EXAMPLE:

A stone has a volume of 10 cm3 and mass of 30 g.


Find its density.
EXAMPLE:

A stone has a volume of 10 cm3 and mass of 30 g. Find its density.

D M V
EXAMPLE:

A stone has a volume of 10 cm3 and mass of 30 g. Find its density.

𝑴𝒂𝒔𝒔
Density =
𝑽𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆
M

D M V
EXAMPLE:

A stone has a volume of 10 cm3 and mass of 30 g. Find its density.

𝑴𝒂𝒔𝒔
Density =
𝑽𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆
M
𝟑𝟎 𝒈
Density =
𝟏𝟎 𝒄𝒎𝟑
D M V
Density = 3 g/cm3
EXAMPLE 2:

A stone has a volume of 100 cm3 and its density is of 3 g/cm3. Find its mass.
EXAMPLE:

A stone has a volume of 100 cm3 and its density is of 3 g/cm3. Find its mass.

D M V
EXAMPLE:

A stone has a volume of 100 cm3 and its density is of 3 g/cm3. Find its mass.

Mass = density x volume


M

D M V
EXAMPLE:

A stone has a volume of 100 cm3 and its density is of 3 g/cm3. Find its mass.

Mass = density x volume


M Mass = 3 g/cm3 x 100 cm3
Mass = 300 cm3
D M V
Difference
thing with
the same
volume do
not have
the same
mass
Egg is
less dense than
the water
Wood is
less dense than
the water
Candle is
less dense than
the water

Marble is
more dense than
the water
MATERIAL DENSITY (g/cm3)
Gold 19.30
Lead 11.30
Copper 8.92
Aluminium 2.70
Ice 0.92
Cork 0.24
Mercury 13.60
Seawater 1.03
Pure water 1.00
Petrol 0.80
Gold
Mercury
Gold
Lead
Mercury
Gold
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Gold
Aluminium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Gold
Seawater
Aluminium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Gold
Pure water
Seawater
Aluminium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Gold
Ice
Pure water
Seawater
Aluminium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Gold
Petrol
Ice
Pure water
Seawater
Aluminium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Gold
Cork
Petrol
Ice
Pure water
Seawater
Aluminium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Gold
EXPERIMENT 1.5 : DENSITY
• MATERIALS : KEROSENE (MINYAK TANAH), ETHANOL,
METHYLENE BLUE, COOKING OIL, DISHWASH LIQUID
(SUNLIGHT)
• APPARATUS : MEASURING CYLINDER, DROPPPER
• PROCEDURES :
1. Put one drop of methylene blue in ethanol
2. Pour sunlight into measuring cylinder, followed by cooking
oil, ethanol, kerosene and lastly cork.
3. Observe the changes.
4. Complete the worksheet given.
1. IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMS

What can I use


to absorb the
water quickly?
1. IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMS
2. CONSTRUCT A HYPOTHESIS
3. CONTROL VARIABLES
4. PLAN AN EXPERIMENT

~Choose the right


materials and
apparatus~
1. IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMS
2. CONSTRUCT A HYPOTHESIS
3. CONTROL VARIABLES
4. PLAN AN EXPERIMENT
5. CONDUCT THE EXPERIMENT

~precautions must be practiced at


all times~
(accurate data and prevent
accident)
1. IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMS
2. CONSTRUCT A HYPOTHESIS
3. CONTROL VARIABLES
4. PLAN AN EXPERIMENT
5. CONDUCT THE EXPERIMENT
6. COLLECTING DATA

Measurements are carried out at


least three times to obtain more
accurate and precise reading~
1. IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMS
2. CONSTRUCT A HYPOTHESIS
3. CONTROL VARIABLES
4. PLAN AN EXPERIMENT
5. CONDUCT THE EXPERIMENT
6. COLLECTING DATA
7. ANALYSE AND INTERPRET THE DATA
1. IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMS
2. CONSTRUCT A HYPOTHESIS
3. CONTROL VARIABLES
4. PLAN AN EXPERIMENT
5. CONDUCT THE EXPERIMENT
6. COLLECTING DATA
7. ANALYSE AND INTERPRET THE DATA
8. MAKE A CONCLUSION

Cloth towel absorbs water more


quickly than tissue paper.
Hypothesis accepted
1. IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMS
2. CONSTRUCT A HYPOTHESIS
3. CONTROL VARIABLES
4. PLAN AN EXPERIMENT
5. CONDUCT THE EXPERIMENT
6. COLLECTING DATA
7. ANALYSE AND INTERPRET THE DATA
8. MAKE A CONCLUSION
9. WRITING A REPORT
2 kg

B
A
1. IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMS
2. CONSTRUCT A HYPOTHESIS
3. CONTROL VARIABLES
4. PLAN AN EXPERIMENT
5. CONDUCT THE EXPERIMENT
6. COLLECTING DATA
7. ANALYSE AND INTERPRET THE DATA
8. MAKE A CONCLUSION
9. WRITING A REPORT
One oscillation =

ACA
2. CONSTRUCT HYPOTHESIS
-

3. CONTROLLING THE VARIABLES


- Control :
- Manipulated :
- Respond :
8. MAKING A CONCLUSION
2. CONSTRUCT HYPOTHESIS
- When the length of simple pendulum is
shortened, it will swing faster
3. CONTROLLING THE VARIABLES
- Control :
- Manipulated :
- Respond :
8. MAKING A CONCLUSION
2. CONSTRUCT HYPOTHESIS
- When the length of simple pendulum is
shortened, it will swing faster
3. CONTROLLING THE VARIABLES
- Control : weight of metal bob
- Manipulated : length of string
- Respond : time taken for 20
complete swings

8. MAKING A CONCLUSION
2. CONSTRUCT HYPOTHESIS
- When the length of simple pendulum is
shortened, it will swing faster
3. CONTROLLING THE VARIABLES
- Control : weight of metal bob
- Manipulated : length of string
- Respond : time taken for 20
complete swings

8. MAKING A CONCLUSION
-- When the length of simple pendulum is
shortened, it will swing faster
SENSITIVITY
(page 18)
The ability of
measuring
instruments to
detect a small
change in the
measurement
quantity
ERROR

PARALLAX ZERO
ERROR ERROR
+0.02 mm -0.04 mm
EXAMPLE:

ERROR = + 0.03 mm Reading = 2.5 + 0.38


= 2.88 mm

Actual Reading = 2.88 - error


= 2.88 – 0.03
= 2.85 mm
EXAMPLE:

ERROR = - 0.04 mm Reading = 2.5 + 0.38


= 2.88 mm

Actual Reading = 2.88 - error


= 2.88 – (-0.04)
= 2.88 + 0.04
= 2.92 mm
ERROR = + 0.01 mm
ERROR = + 0.01 mm

Reading = 1.5 + 0.26


= 1.76 mm
ERROR = + 0.01 mm

Reading = 1.5 + 0.26


= 1.76 mm

Actual Reading = 1.76 - error


= 1.76 – 0.01
= 1.75 mm
+ 0.03 cm

- 0.02 cm