An Introduction to Engineering: A Comprehensive Approach

The History of Engineering


1.1 Introduction 

Definition of Engineering 

The profession in which knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied with judgment to develop ways to use, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.


1.2 Getting Started 

Prehistoric Culture Our Computer Age The Speed of History Quick Overview


1.3 The Beginnings of Engineering 

The Earliest Days Egypt and Mesopotamia (add picture)**


3 Pictures of Pyramids 6 .1.

4 The Overview Approach     Engineering the Temples of Greece The Roman Roads and Aqueducts The Great Wall of China **FROM HERE MIGHT WANT TO ADD PICTURES FROM BOOK 7 .1.

     A.1. roads and aqueducts in Rome. 8 .5 Traveling Through the Ages  1200 B. 1  Quality of wrought iron is improved Swords are mass produced Siege towers are perfected Greeks develop manufacturing Archimedes introduces mathematics in Greece Concrete is used for arched bridges.D.C.

D. 1-1000    Chinese further develop the study of mathematics Gunpowder is perfected Cotton and silk manufactured 9 .1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: A.

5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1000-1400   Silk and glass industries continue to grow Leonardo Fibinacci.1. writes the first Western text on algebra 10 . a medieval mathematician.

11 .1. stating pressure varies inversely with volume. with which he observes the rotation about the sun Otto von Guerick first demonstrates the existence of a vacuum Issac Newton constructs first reflecting telescopes Boyle s Gas Law. is first introduced.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1400-1700      First toilet is invented in England Galileo constructs a series of telescopes.

1. a professional engineering society.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1700-1800     Industrial Revolution begins in Europe James Watt patents his first steam engine Society of Engineers. is formed in London First building made completely of cast iron built in England 12 .

5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1800-1825     Machine automation is first introduced in France First railroad locomotive is designed and manufactured Chemical symbols are developed. He) Single wire telegraph line is developed 13 . the same symbols used today (Au.1.

1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1825-1875      Reinforced concrete is first used First synthetic plastic material is created Bessemer develops his process to create stronger steel in mass quantities First oil well drilled in Pennsylvania Typewriter is perfected 14 .

5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1875-1900     Telephone is patented in the US by Alexander Graham Bell Thomas Edison invents the light bulb and the phonograph Gasoline engine developed by Gottlieb Daimler Automobile introduced by Karl Benz 15 .1.

5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1900-1925     Wright brothers complete first sustained flight Ford develops first diesel engines in tractors First commercial flight between Paris and London begins Detroit becomes center of auto production industry 16 .1.

5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1925-1950     John Logie Baird invents a primitive form of television The VW Beetle goes into production First atomic bomb is used The transistor is invented 17 .1.

1. the first artificial satellite. put into space by USSR First communication satellite Telstar is put into space The U. completes the first ever moon landing 18 . and are common by 1960 Sputnik I.S.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1950-1975     Computers first introduced into the market.

1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1975-1990    The Concord is first used for supersonic flight between Europe and the U.S. Columbia space shuttle is reused for space travel First artificial heart is successfully implanted 19 .

as well as many other consumer applications 20 .5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1990-Present    Robots travel on Mars The Chunnel between England and France is finished GPS is used to predict and report weather conditions.1.

1.6 Case Study of Two Historic Engineers   Leonardo Da Vinci Gutenberg and His Printing Press 21 .

Civil Eng.1. Agricultural Eng. Chemical Eng.  Computer Eng.       22 .7 The History of the Disciplines  Aerospace Eng. Mechanical Eng. Industrial Eng. Electrical Eng.

23 .1.7 History: Aerospace Engineering  Aerospace engineering is concerned with engineering applications in the areas of aeronautics (the science of air flight) and astronautics (the science of space flight).

1.7 History: Agricultural Engineering  Agricultural engineering focuses on:      Soil and water Structures and environment Electrical power and processing Food engineering Power and machinery 24 .

25 . such as the manufacture of drugs.1.7 History: Chemical Engineering  Chemical engineering applies chemistry to industrial processes. and the like. paints. lubricants. cements.

7 History: Civil Engineering  Civil engineering focuses on structural issues. Gas Facilities.1. such as:      Bridges and Highways Skyscrapers Industrial Plants and Power Plants Shipping Facilities and Railroad Lines Pipelines. Canals 26 .

and their uses are only increasing Electrical is the largest branch of engineering Involved in:     Communication Systems Computers and Automatic Controls Power Generation and Transmission Industrial Applications 27 .1.7 History: Computer and Electrical Engineering    The world s business is centered around computers.

7 History: Industrial Engineering  Industrial engineers design. materials. and improve systems that integrate people. 28 .1. and machines to improve efficiency. install.

the generation of power.7 History: Mechanical Engineering  Deals with power. and the application of power to a variety of machines. ranging from HVAC to space vehicles. 29 .1.

CHAPTER 2 Engineering Majors 30 .

1 Introduction  Several characteristics of students that might have an interest in engineering are:      Proficient skills in math and physical science An urging from a high school counselor Knows someone who is an engineer Knows that engineering offers literally dozens.2. if not hundreds of job opportunities Is aware that a degree in engineering is quite lucrative 31 .

2. engineers study atomic structure to make smaller and faster microchips 32 .1 Engineers and Scientists    Scientists seek technical answers to understand natural phenomenon Engineers study technical problems with a practical application always in mind For example  Scientists study atomic structure to understand the nature of matter.

2.1 The Engineer and the Engineering Technologist  Main difference between the two is:  Engineers design and manufacture machines and systems. while engineering technologists have the technical know-how to use and install the machines properly The technologist identifies the equipment necessary to assemble a new CD player. the engineer designs said CD player 33  An example:  .

1 What Do Engineers Do?  Ways to get information about careers:      Visit job fairs Attend seminars on campus by various employers Contact faculty with knowledge of engineering fields Get an intern or co-op position Enroll in an engineering elective course 34 .2.

1 What Engineers Do 35 .2.

physics. and a Ph. and mathematics Computer know-how is also recommended A Masters Degree is almost always required. biology.2. D is often strongly recommended 36 .2 Engineering Functions: Research    Research engineers are knowledgeable in principles of chemistry.

2.2 Engineering Functions: Development    Development engineers bridge the gap between the laboratory and the production facility They also identify problems in a potential product An example is the development of concept cars for companies like Ford and GM 37 .

T.s simulate instances and environments in which a product would be used Crash testing of a vehicle to observe effects of an air bag and crumple zone are examples of a testing engineer s duties 38 .2. every time.E. making sure that it performs how it is supposed to.2 Engineering Functions: Testing   Testing engineers are responsible for testing the durability and reliability of a product.

2.2 Engineering Functions: Design    Design aspect is where largest number of engineers are employed Design engineers often work on components of a product. providing all the necessary specifics needed to successfully manufacture the product Design engineers regularly use computer design software as well as computer aided drafting software in their jobs 39 .

2 Engineering Functions: Design   Design engineers must also verify that the part meets reliability and safety standards required for the product A concern always on the mind of design engineers is how to keep the development of a part cost effective.2. which is taken into account during a design process 40 .

2. acoustics. vibrations. fluid flow. and many other system characteristics 41 .2 Engineering Functions: Analysis   Analysis engineers use computational tools and mathematic models to enrich the work of design and research engineers Analysis engineers typically have a mastery of: heat transfer. dynamics.

2.2 Engineering Functions: Systems   Responsible on a larger scale for bringing together components of parts from design engineers to make a complete product Responsible for making sure all components of a product work together as was intended by design engineers 42 .

2.2 Engineering Functions: Manufacturing & Construction     Work individually or in teams Responsible for molding raw materials into finished product Maintain and keep records on equipment in plant Help with design process to keep costs low 43 .

2. must be certified in various inspection methods 44 .2 Engineering Functions: Operations & Maintenance    Responsible for maintaining production line Must have technical know-how to deal w/ problems Responsible for inspecting facility and equipment.

2 Engineering Functions: Technical Support    Works between consumers and producers Not necessarily have in depth knowledge of technical aspects of product Must have good interpersonal skills 45 .2.

2.2 Engineering Functions: Customer Support   Often have more of a technical knowledge than Tech. because they must be able to work with basic customers Evaluate whether or not a current practice is cost effective via feedback from customers 46 . Support.

2 Engineering Functions: Sales   Sales engineers have technical background. due to the fact that products are becoming more and more technically complex 47 . but are also able to communicate effectively w/ customers Job market for sales engineers is growing.2.

installation.2 Engineering Functions: Consulting    Are either self-employed. or work for a firm that does not directly manufacture products Consulting engineers might be involved in design. and upkeep of a product Sometimes required to be a registered professional engineer in the state where he/she works 48 .2.

and cleaner burning engines. Propulsion engineers: develop quieter.3 Engineering Majors: Aerospace Engineering    Previously known as aeronautical and astronautical engineering First space flight Oct.2. more efficient. 4. 1957 (Sputnik I) KEY WORDS:   Aerodynamics: The study of the flow of air over a streamlined surface or body. 49 .

and other new materials to meet design requirements of new spacecraft Control systems: systems used to operate crafts Orbital mechanics: calculation of where to place satellites using GPS 50 .3 Engineering Majors: Aerospace Engineering  KEY WORDS:    Structural engineers: use of new alloys. composites.2.

and begins processing of food Structures: used to hold crops.2. .removes crops from field.3 Engineering Majors: Agricultural Engineering   Concerned with finding ways to produce food more efficiently KEY WORDS   Harvesting Equip. and livestock. Agricultural engineers develop and design the structures that hold crops 51 . feed.

3 Engineering Majors: Agricultural Engineering   Food process engineers: concerned with making healthier processed food products Soil/Water Resources: working to develop efficient ways to use limited resources 52 .2.

as well as humidity and air quality (HVAC) 53 . Evaluates loads placed on buildings. and makes sure the building is structurally sound Mechanical systems: control climate of building.2.3 Engineering Majors: Architectural Engineering   Structural: primarily concerned with the integrity of the building structure.

3 Engineering Majors: Biomedical      First recognized in 1940 s Three basic categories: Bioengineering.2. and Clinical Bioengineering is application of engineering principles to biological systems Medical engineers develop instrumentation for medical uses Clinical engineers develop systems that help serve the needs of hospitals and clinics 54 . Medical.

3 Engineering Majors: Chemical    Emphasizes the use of chemistry and chemical processes in engineering Chemical engineers develop processes to extract and refine crude oil and gas resources Chemical engineers also develop circuit boards. where processes are designed to create new.2. and work in the pharmaceutical industry. affordable drugs 55 .

2. railroads.3 Engineering Majors Civil Engineering     First seen in pyramids of Egypt Structural engineers most common type of civil engineer Transportation engineers concerned w/ design and construction of highways. and mass transit systems Surveyors start construction process by locating property lines and property 56 areas .

3 Engineering Majors Computer Engineering    Focuses primarily on computer hardware. and to run the computer Responsible for the architecture of the computer system 57 .2. not software Work w/ electrical engineers to develop faster ways to transfer information.

electrical engineers will ALWAYS have a job Work in communications.2.3 Engineering Majors Electrical Engineering    More engineers are electrical than any other discipline With an ever growing technological society. etc 58 . microelectronics. bioengineering. signal processing.

3 Engineering Majors Environmental Engineering   Often coupled with Civil Engineering 3 aspects of environmental engineering:    Disposal: disposing of industrial/residential waste products Remediation: clean up of a contaminated site Prevention: working with corporations to reduce and/or prevent emissions and work to find ways to recycle products to be used again to reduce waste 59 .2.

and installation of integrated systems of people. improvement. and energy Emphasis placed on: Production. scheduling.2.3 Engineering Majors Industrial Engineering     Design. Manufacturing. Human Factors Area. and Operations Research Production focuses on plant layout. material. and quality control Human Factors focuses on the efficient placement of human resources within a plant/facility 60 .

2. communication. and operation of ships and boats Marine engineer designs and maintains the systems that operate ships. I.3 Engineering Majors Marine and Ocean Engineering    Concerned with the design.E.s might also work on submarine pipelines and/or cables and drilling platforms 61 .e. such as submersibles. steering and navigation Ocean engineer design and operates marine equipment other than ships. propulsion. O. development.

and the development of composites and alloys 62 . hardness.e. strength. I. as well as other important properties of materials. and durability Run tests to ensure the quality of the performance of the material Material Engineers also study metallurgy.2.3 Engineering Majors Materials Engineering    Study the structure.

Often 4 or more math classes required for graduation 63 .3 Engineering Majors Mechanical Engineering    Concerned with machines and mechanical devices Work in design.2. development. control. and operation of machines/devices Requires a strong math and physics background. production.

3 Engineering Majors Mining Engineering   Work to maintain constant levels of raw minerals used every day in industrial and commercial settings Must discover. remove. process.2. and refine such minerals 64 .

3 Engineering Minerals Nuclear Engineering    Most concerned with producing and harnessing energy from nuclear sources Propulsion and electricity are the main uses of nuclear power Engineers also responsible for disposal of the nuclear waste byproduct. and how to keep people safe from harmful nuclear products 65 .2.

remove.2.3 Engineering Majors Petroleum Engineering   Discover. refine. and transport crude and refined oil around the world PE s design and operate the machinery used to refine crude oil into its many forms 66 .

Chapter 3 Profiles of Engineers 67 .

1 Introduction   Diversity of the engineering work force Wide range of engineering careers that are possible 68 .3.

3. Medical Corps. Womack Army Medical Center IDE (BSE. Biomedical Engineering). Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. United States Army Medical Director. Abreu. North Carolina Occupation:   Lieutenant Colonel.1 Profile of a Biomedical Engineer   Sue H. Ft. Quality Assurance. Bragg. 1982 69  Education:   . 1978 MD.

Boeing Space Beach BS.1 Profile of an Aerospace Engineer   Patrick Rivera Anthony Occupation:  Project Manager. Aerospace Engineering  Education:  70 .3.

1987. Boulder. Structural Engineering. Colorado Occupation:  AISES Executive Director BSCE. MS.1 Profile of a Civil Engineer   Sandra Begay-Campbell. 1991 71  Education:  .3.

Michigan Occupation:  Project Engineer at Barton Malow Company BS-CEM (Construction Engineering and Management).3. Farmington. 1996  Education:  72 .1 Profile of an Electrical Engineer   Ryan Maibach.

Battle Creek. Michigan Occupation:  Project Manager. Maley. Agricultural Engineering (food engineering)  Education:  73 .3.1 Profile of an Agricultural Engineer   Mary E. Kellogg Company BS.

Chapter 4 A Statistical Profile of the Engineering Profession 74 .

4.1 Statistical Overview      How many people study engineering? What are the most common majors? What kind of job market is there for engineers? How much do engineers earn? How many women and minorities study engineering? 75 .

000-80.000 engineering students 1970s marked the lowest number of students.4. with around 118. at 43.000 students 76 .2 College Enrollment Trends of Engineering Students    1950s-1960s: 60.000 Engineering peaked in 1980s.

4.000 were undecided 77 .3 College Majors of Recent Engineering Students   Of approximately 350.000) were majoring in computer and electrical engineering Just over 32.000 full-time undergrad engineering students. just less than 1/3 (124.

there have been many fluctuations.4 Degrees in Engineering   Steady decline in Engineering degrees awarded between 1986 and 1995. but as of data of 2000. there were 63.300 engineering degrees awarded For a long time. electrical awarded the highest number of degrees. but that was eventually replaced by mechanical engineering 78 . Since then.4.

5 Job Placement Trends   1999-2000 was the hottest year for engineering majors to find jobs As the number of engineering students declines. This has led to a very promising job placement ratio 79 .4. employers must fight harder to get whatever students they can get their hands on to fill vacant positions.

000 80 .6 Salaries of Engineers    On the whole. and computer science recently have led the way.D.4. in computer science will earn a starting average of around $84. with average salaries from a Bachelor degree starting at around $52.000 A Ph. engineers make more money than any other graduate with another degree Electrical. computer.

4. white males dominated engineering Recently.7 Diversity in the Profession   For a long time. and various minority students have entered colleges and universities with an engineering diploma in mind 81 . foreign nationals. women.

numbering close to 375. with 200.4.000 Mechanical employs almost 250.000 workers 82 .8 Distribution of Engineers by Field of Study    Electrical engineering employs the highest number of engineers.000 Civil is the next highest populated . nearly 25%.

11 Words of Advice from Employers  Looking for graduates who possess:      Excellent communication skills Teamwork Leadership Computer/Technical proficiency Hard working attitude 83 .4.

Chapter 5 Global and International Engineering 84 .

Taking a few foreign language classes in college cannot hurt. but only help your chances at getting a job after college.5. engineering became a more global business. 85 .1 Introduction   After WWII.

2 The Evolving Global Market: Changing World Maps & Alliances   Breakup of former USSR New laws. policies have affected the spread of international engineering 86 . regulations.5.

5. Mexico.2 NAFTA    1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (US. US. Canada) Designed to reduce tariffs. and Mexico since 1994 87 . and increase international competition Manufacturing trade has increased by 128% between Canada.

3 International Opportunities For Engineers  Engineers are employed internationally in:         Automobile Industry Manufacturing Construction Pharmaceuticals Food Industry Petroleum and Chemical Industry Computer and Electronics Industry Telecommunications 88 .5.

4 Preparing for a Global Career  Students who look to work internationally should:    Be language and culturally proficient Should participate in study abroad programs Look into work international work experience and Co-Op opportunities 89 .5.

Chapter 6 Future Challenges 90 .

world population climbs from 1.6 billion to 6 billion people Places new stress on conservation of resources. and gives engineers new challenges to compensate for high population  91 .6.1 Expanding World Population  1900-2000.

2 Pollution  Engineers concerned with management and the control of pollution.6. especially:    Air pollution Water pollution and the depletion of freshwater resources Management of solid waste 92 .

3 Energy   It is predicted that energy usage in the Developing Countries will more than double in the next 30 years Engineers must find new ways to generate power in an effort to conserve natural resources (fossil fuels) 93 .6.

as well as the human capital that process them. engineers will be responsible in the future for designing and maintaining a system by which the transportation of raw materials.5 Infrastructure  With mass transportation an everpresent problem. can easily and efficiently move from place to place 94 .6.

CHAPTER 7 Succeeding in the Classroom 95 .

the student will most likely fail Keep an open mind.2 Attitude    Success in an engineering curriculum depends largely on a student s attitude and work ethic If the student s attitude is one of failure. and be willing to work with the professor in order to best understand the material 96 .7.

grade on an upcoming exam.7. but to reach their higher standard/goal Set short. but not impossible This will motivate the student to work hard. not just hard enough to do the minimum.3 Goals    Set goals that will be difficult to attain. intermediate. and long term goals  GPA for a semester. GPA for a year/college career 97 .

not just the minimum amount for homework Study in groups 98 .7.4 Keys to effectiveness        GO TO CLASS Allow 2 hrs. of study time outside of class for every hour in class Re-read sections of book covered in class Keep up with class and reading Take good notes Work lots of problems.

to see what will basically be covered 99 .7. then work on the harder problems Skim test first.5 Test Taking      Obtain past exams Ask professor for practice exams Work problems in book Start with problems you know how to do.

so give them the benefit of the doubt 100 .6 Making the Most of Your Professor    Don t wait until the end of the semester to go for help If you make yourself visible in class and during office hours. the professor may remember you while grading Teaching is not professors only responsibility.7. often the are researchers and advisors as well.

they will ever have (estimated at 180 billion neurons) 101 . or neurons.7.7 Learning Styles    Each person s brain is unique to him or her Proper nutrition. stress. drugs and alcohol are some of the factors that can affect a developing brain Each person is born with all the brain cells.

7 Learning Styles   None of us is ever too old or too dumb to learn something new! People think and memorize in several different ways 102 .7.

7 Learning Styles  Memorizing:   Refers to how people assimilate new material to existing knowledge and experience How we accommodate.7. or change our previous way of organizing material 103 .

7 Learning Styles  Thinking:  Refers to how we see the world. 104 .7. approach problems and use the different parts of our brain.

7 Learning Styles   We all have different learning styles Memory Languages:    Auditory Visual Kinesthetic 105 .7.

7 Learning Styles  Auditory Learner:       Buy a small tape recorder and record lectures Sit where you can hear the professor well Focus on what is said in class.7. take notes from the tape recorder later Ask the professor questions Read out loud to yourself Keep visual distractions to a minimum 106 .

7.7 Learning Styles  Visual Learner:  Sit where you can see the professor and board or screen clearly  Write notes during lecture with lots of pictures and meaningful doodles  Rewrite notes later in a more organized fashion and highlight main ideas  Write out questions to ask the professor  Highlight and take notes in your book 107 .

7. such as volunteering in his/her lab Use models or experiments at home 108 .7 Learning Styles  Kinesthetic Learners:     TAKE Labs! Make connections between what is being said and what you ve done in the past Talk to professor about ways to gain more hands-on experience.

and four quadrants generally categorize how we think 109 .7. approach problems and use the different parts of our brain Different people think differently Two hemispheres in our brain.7 Learning Styles  Thinking Skills:    Refers to how we see the world.

7 Learning Styles 110 .7.

8 Well Rounded Equals Effective   Make sure to balance social.7. intellectual. and physical activities in your schedule Well rounded students are generally more effective than students with a one-track mind 111 .

9 Your Effective Use of Time       Decide in advance what to study and when Make schedules Use calendars effectively Organize tasks by priority level Stay focused on task **Remember. everyone will fail at some point. it s how you respond to a failure that determines your future success or failure 112 .7.

Chapter 8 Problem Solving 113 .

1 Introduction  Problem solving requires many tools and skills. Make sure that you have them. or at least know where to find them and how to use them 114 .8.

8. where there is one right answer Creative problem solving has no right answers 115 .2 Analytic and Creative Problem Solving    Two basic types of problem solving involved in design process: creative and analytic More students familiar with analytic.

2 Analytic and Creative Problem Solving  Steps that typically help w/ problem solving      Make a model/figure Identify necessary. desired and given info Work backwards from answers Restate problem in one s own words Check the solution and validate it 116 .8.

3 Analytic Problem Solving  Six steps to analytic problem solving:       Define the problem and create a problem statement Diagram and describe the problem Apply theory and any known equations Simplify assumptions Solve necessary problems Verify accuracy of answer to desired level 117 .8.

Divergence is brainstorming. seeking out the best possible solutions What is wrong? What do we know? What is the real problem? What is the best solution? How do we implement the solution? 118 . Convergence is analyzing and evaluating the ideas.4 Creative Problem Solving       Use divergence and convergence to gather and analyze ideas.8.

Chapter 9 Visualization and Graphics 119 .

9. tables.2 Visualization   Visualization is often used as a mode of communication between engineers Sketches. computer generated drawings.1-9. blueprints are various ways in which engineers communicate via visual mediums 120 . graphs.

and any pertinent notes/comments pertaining to the drawing  For instance. if a line is supposed to be straight. 121 .9. A square will not pass for a circle. Sketches should display an adequate amount of detail. initial and freehand sketches are vital to the design process Freehand does not mean messy.3 Sketching   Although most final drawings are computer generated. make it as straight as possible.

and often have dimensions for the part Object. more detailed.7 Graphical Communication    Oblique and isometric drawings are 3D and general Orthographic drawings are 2D. Hidden. and Construction are 4 common types of lines used in engineering graphics 122 .9. Centerline.

Chapter 10 Computer Tools 123 .

and basic spreadsheets Engineers will most likely be required to have some knowledge of mathematical software. word processing. Microsoft PowerPoint 124 . such as MatLab Engineers also make computer presentations using most commonly.6 Computer Tools for Engineers     There are many aspects to the design process of a product Engineers must be competent in basic computer tools such as the internet.10.1-10.

called binary code FORTRAN. MS-DOS. C.7-10.10. and C++ are all programming languages used by engineers to communicate with the computer 125 . or a Microsoft Windows System Computers work on series of 1 s and 0 s. BASIC.8 Operating Systems and Programming Language    Engineers may be required to have experience or be expected to be able to work in UNIX.

Chapter 11 Teamwork Skills 126 .

11. which require more workers 127 .1 Teamwork  Corporations develop teams for many reasons    Projects are becoming increasingly complex Projects often span international borders. and require workers all over Projects are requiring more speed.

2 What Makes a Successful Team?       A common goal Leadership Each member makes unique contributions Effective communication Creativity Good planning and use of resources 128 .11.

11. Participative: Leader is closer to individual workers. The leadership moves with the situation to the worker with the most expertise in a given subject 129 . who directs subordinates. All members are equal. Leader typically is the only one who speaks . Flat: There is no leader .4 Team Leadership Structures    Traditional: One leader.

11.5 Decisions within a Team     Consensus: All team members agree on a decision Majority Rule Minority/Committee decision Expert input 130 .

11. why? Did the team grow throughout the process? Evaluate the team leader Evaluate the other members of the team Evaluate your own contribution to the project 131 .7 Grading a Team Effort       Did the team accomplish its goal? Were results of a high quality? If not.

Chapter 12 Project Management 132 .

1 Introduction    Failure to plan is planning to fail. A good plan is one of the most important attributes of successful teams and projects.12. Projects should be organized systematically. 133 .

1 Eight Questions that can be Addressed with a Plan         What to do first? Next? How many people? What resources? How long? Time table? Deadlines? Objectives? 134 .12.

12.2 Creating a Project Charter    A project summary Defining what your project is and when you will know when it is done Elements include     Deliverables Duration Stakeholders Team members 135 .

12.3 Task Definitions  Identify the completion tasks to achieve the objectives and outcomes     Plan Design Build Deliver 136 .

How to determine if the project is on schedule Manage people and resources Determine the end! 137 .12. resources. etc.3 Plans  Plans should include:      Who to hold accountable for progress Needed materials.

12.4 Milestones    Monitoring of your plans progress Deadlines for deliverables Completion of subcomponents 138 .

5 Defining Times   Include the full time needed for tasks As a student. you don t have a full eight-hour work day every day  Break tasks into week segments  Weekday and/or weekend  Class periods No more than a week or two 139  Break tasks into short time periods  .12.

12.6 Organizing the Tasks   Determine task relationships and sequencing Relate the task groups from your outline 140 .

7 PERT Charts 141 .12.

12.7 PERT Charts    Each task is represented by a box containing a brief description of and duration for the task The boxes can be laid out just as the project plan is laid out Useful as a what if tool during planning stages 142 .

12. others cannot  Ex. prerequisites such as the math curriculum for engineering  Some tasks can be accelerated by using more people.8 Critical Paths  The longest string of dependant project tasks  Ex. nine people cannot have the same baby in one month 143 .

dates 144 .12.9 Gantt Charts    Popular project management charting method Horizontal bar chart Tasks vs.

12.9 Gantt Charts 145 .

will. Details   Remember Murphy s Law .10 Details. Leave time to fix debug or fix errors 146 .12.Anything that can go wrong.

errors.10 Details. Details     Don t assume things will fit together the first time Order parts well in advance to leave time for shipping. or backorders Leave time for parts malfunction Push delivery times back to a week before they re actually due this will help to avoid panic if things go badly 147 .12.

12.11 Personnel Distribution     Get the right people on the right tasks Assign people after developing a draft of the plan Balance the work between everyone Weekly updates does everyone understand what they re doing and is everyone still on task? 148 .

12.12 Money and Resources 

Develop a budget 

Estimate with high, middle, and lower quality products offer a range of solutions Shipping Travel Extra parts such as nails, screws, resistors Material costs and labor 

Extra costs 

Have someone be responsible for managing the budgets and financial aspects

12.13 Document As You Go 

Document milestones as they occur Leave time at the end for reviewing, not writing


12.14 Team Roles 


Project Leader or Monitor Procurement Financial Officer Liaison 

Project Management Software


12.14 Project Leader or Monitor 

Designate a leader, or rotate leaders Monitor and track progress of milestones Maintains timelines Increases likelihood of meeting goals




Learns purchasing system Tracks team orders


12.14    Financial Officer Manages teams expenses Creates original budget Makes identifying budgetary problems easier 154 .



Responsible for keeping everyone informed about the progress of the plan and any changes This includes outside customers, management, professors, etc.


Chapter 13
Engineering Design


13.1 Engineering Design 

Engineering design is the process of devising a system, component, or process to meet desired needs. It is a decision making process in which the basic sciences and mathematics and engineering sciences are applied to convert resources optimally to meet a stated objective. Among the fundamental elements of the design process are the establishment of objectives and criteria, synthesis, analysis, construction, and testing .

13.2 The Design Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Identify the problem Define the working criteria/goals Research and gather data Brainstorm ideas Analyze potential solutions Develop and test models Make decision Communicate decision Implement and commercialize decision Perform post-implementation review

Chapter 14
Communication Skills


14.1 Why do we Communicate?     Transfers important information Provides basis for judging one s knowledge Conveys interest and competence Identifies gaps in your own knowledge 160 .

easier-tounderstand word will suffice.3 Oral and Written Communication Skills  Present communication on a level that you believe will be easily understood by whomever is to be receiving your communication  Don t use big words if a smaller.14.2-14. 161 .

he. hers.e.14. I. she 162 .5 Power of Language      Be as clear as possible Avoid clichés Avoid redundancy Avoid using jargon specific to a certain group of people Don t make sexual generalizations. his.

14. not biased either way 163 .6 Technical Writing        Identify thesis early Follows a specific format Follows a problem solving approach Uses specialized vocabulary Often incorporates visual aids Complete set of references Be objective.

9 Formal Reports  Should include:     Title. short and concise Summary of what will be discussed Table of Contents (not including abstract) Introduction       Analysis Procedure and Results Discussion of results Conclusions References Appendices 164 .14.

14.10 Other forms of Communication      E-mail Progress reports Problem statements Cover letters Resumes 165 .

Chapter 15 Ethics 166 .

The Nature of Ethics   Ethics is generally concerned with rules or guidelines for morals and/or socially approved conduct Ethical standards generally apply to conduct that can or does have a substantial effect on people s lives 167 .15.

Chapter 16 Units 168 .

etc) Majority of nations in the world today operate on the metric system because of its simplicity (multiples of 10) 169 . established by Congress.1 History of Units    A common denomination of units is essential for the development of trade and economics around the world National Bureau of Standards. adopted the English system of measurement (12 inches.16.

French for the International System of Units Improvements in the definitions of the base units continue to be made by the General Conference of Weights and Measures as science dictates 170 .16.SI Units   Le Systeme International d Unites.1 History of Units .

a multinational organization which includes the United States Built on a foundation of seven base units.16.2 The SI System of Units    Modernized metric system adopted by the General Conference. plus two supplementary ones All other SI units are derived from these nine units 171 .

otherwise it is lowercase 172 .2 The SI System of Units   Multiples and sub-multiples are expressed using a decimal system Generally. the first letter of a symbol is capitalized if the name of the symbol is derived from a person s name.16.

2 The SI System of Units  Base Units in the SI system        Meter = m Kilogram = kg Seconds = s Ampere = A Kelvin = K Mole = mol Candela = cd 173 .16.

such as the newton (N).16. 174 .3 Derived Units   Expressed algebraically in terms of base and supplementary units Several derived units have been given special names and symbols.

Meter per m/s velocity second Density Kilogram per Kg/m3 cubic meter 175 .3 Derived Units  Quantities whose units are expressed in terms of base and supplementary units Quantity Area SI Unit SI Symbol m2 Square meter Speed.16.

16. Other SI Units cycle/s kg*m/s2 V/A 176 Frequency Force Electrical Resistance .3 Derived Units  Quantities whose units have special names Quantity SI Name hertz newton ohm SI Symbol Hz N .

3 Derived Units  Units used with the SI System Symbol Value in SI Units min h ° 1 min = 60 s 1 h = 3600 s 1° = T/180 rad 177 Name Minute Hour Degree .16.

16. for example in a table Notation in powers of 10 is often used in place of a prefix 178 .4 Prefixes     Defined for the SI system Used instead of writing extremely large or very small numbers All items in a given context should use the same prefix.

16.000001 = 10-6 micro .4 Prefixes Multiplication Prefix Symbol Factor 1000000 = 106 mega M 1000 = 103 .001 = 10-3 kilo milli k m Q Term (USA) One million One thousand One thousandth One millionth 179 .

000 = 3 000 000 .3867 = . except when we write a degree symbol  3 m = 3 meters.386 7) 180 .5 Numerals  A space is always left between the numeral and the unit name or symbol.000.000 005  This is optional when there are four digits in a number (3456 = 3 456.16.000005 = . . 8 ms = 8 milliseconds  SI units a space is used to separate groups of three in a long number   3.

16.5 Numerals    A zero is used for numbers between -1 and 1 to prevent a faint decimal point from being missed Rounding Significant Digits 181 .

224 81 182 .54 0.017 453 2.6 Conversions To convert from: Degrees Inches Newtons To: Radians Centimeters Pounds Multiply by: 0.16.

Chapter 17 Mathematics Review 183 .

1 Algebra  Three basic laws    Commutative: a + b = b + a Distributive: a ( b + c ) = a b + a c Associative: a + ( b + c ) = ( a + b ) + c 184 .17.

17.1.1 Algebra  Exponents   Used for many manipulations Examples   xa xb=xa+b xab=(xa)b  Logarithms  Related to exponents   bx = y then x = logby Table 17.5 185 .

11  Binomial Theorem    Partial Fractions    Examples 186 . Used to expand (a+x)n Formula 17. 17. 17.7 Used for simplifying rational fractions Formulas Algebra  Quadratic Formula   Solves ax2 + bx + c = 0 Formula 17.1.8.

5.10 Hyperbolic Trig Functions 17.2. cotangent.2. 17.2. cosine.17. tangent.2 Trigonometry    Involves the ratios between sides of a right triangle sine. 17.2.2. and cosecant are the primary functions Trigonometry identities are often used  17. 17.7   For all triangle we can also use the laws of sines and cosines Some other equations that can be found in your book are   Pythagorean Theorem 17.2.11  Examples 187 . secant.

17.3 Geometry   Used to analyze a variety of shapes and lines The equation for a straight line  Ax + By + C = 0  This equation can also be written in Pint-slope.3. Slopeintercept.5 The general equation of the second degree is Ax 2  2 Bxy  Cy 2  2 Dx  2 Ey  F ! 0 188 . and Two-intercept forms   Distance between a line and a point is given in Formula 17.

17.3 Geometry  This equation is used to represent conic sections   Classified on page 473 Ellipse. Hyperbola  More information on pages 474-475  Examples 189 . Parabola.

17.4 Complex Numbers  Complex numbers consist of a real (x) and imaginary (y) part   x+iy where i= In electrical engineering j is used instead of i because i is used for current   Useful to express in polar form Euler s equation is also commonly used x  iy ! re iU e iU ! cos U  i sin U   Other useful equations can be found on page 477 Examples 190 .

5 Linear Algebra  Used to solve n linear equations for n unknowns   Uses m x n matrices Many manipulations of this basic equation are shown on page 479  Determinants of matrices are often used in calculations  Illustrated on page 480   Eigenvalues are used to solve first-order differential equations Examples n n ik kj ?c A! § ?a A? A b ij k !1 aij ! § aij Aij j !1 (  PI ) x ! 0 191 .17.

6 Calculus  We first write derivatives using limits    Some basic derivatives are shown on pages 484-485 Used to indicate points of inflection.6.6 192 .17. maxima. and minima L Hospial s rule when f(x)/g(x) is 0 or infinity 17.

17.7 Can be used to find the length of a curve Used to find volumes Definite when there are limits When indefinite a constant is added to the solution Basic Integrals on page 486  Examples 193 .6 Calculus  Inversely we have integration        Used for finding the area under a curve Equation 17.6.

r ) ! (n  1)! ( n  r )! C ( n. r ) ! n! r!( n  r )! P(A or B) = P(A)+P(B) P(A and B)=P(A)P(B) P(not A) = 1-P(A) P(either A or B)=P(A)+P(B)-P(A)P(B) 194 .7 Probability and Statistics   The probability of one events occurrence effects the probability of another event Probabilities Many combinations can occur     P ( n.17. r ) !  n! ( n  r )! P ( n.

17.7 Probability and Statistics   Probability ranges from 0 to 1 Additional equations on page 490      Arithmetic Mean Median Mode Standard Deviation Variance  Examples 195 .

Chapter 18 Engineering Fundamentals 196 .

1 Statics   Concerned with equilibrium of bodies subjected to force systems The two entities that are of the most interest in statics are forces and moments. 197 .18.

18. or from the action at a distance of one body upon another.1 Statics  Force:    The manifestation of the action of one body upon another. Arise from the direct action of two bodies in contact with one another. Represented by vectors 198 .

18. The system of forces acting on a body is one whose resultant is absolutely zero  Equilibrium:  199 .1 Statics  Moment:  Can be thought of as a tendency to rotate the body upon which it acts about a certain axis.

1 Statics  Free Body Diagrams (FBD):  Neat sketch of the body showing all forces and moments acting on the body.18. together with all important linear and angular dimensions. 200 .

18.2 Dynamics  Separated into two sections:  Kinematics  Study of motion without reference to the forces causing the motion Relates the forces on bodies to their resulting motions  Kinetics  201 .

2 Dynamics  Newton s laws of motion:     1st Law The Law of Inertia 2nd Law F=ma 3rd Law Fab=-Fba Law of Gravitation 202 .18.

3 Thermodynamics  Involves the storage. kinetic energy. and potential energy Transformed between these various forms Transferred as work or heat transfer 203 .    Stored as internal energy. transformation and transfer of energy.18.

laws.3 Thermodynamics  There are many definitions. 204 . and other terms that are useful to know when studying thermodynamics.18.

18.3 Thermodynamics  A few useful definitions:  System  A fixed quantity of matter A volume into which and/or from which a substance flows A system and its surrounding 205  Control Volume (open system)   Universe  .

18.3 Thermodynamics  Some Laws of ideal gases:  Boyle s Law  Volume varies inversely with pressure Volume varies directly with temperature Equal volumes of different ideal gasses with the same temperature and pressure contain an equal number of molecules 206  Charles Law   Avagadro s Law  .

18.4 Electrical Circuits  Interconnection of electrical components for the purpose of:    Generating and distributing electrical power Converting electrical power to some other useful form Processing information contained in an electrical form 207 .

4 Electrical Circuits     Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC) Steady State Transient circuit 208 .18.

18.4 Electrical Circuits Quantity Charge Current Voltage Energy Power Symbol Q I V W P Unit coulomb ampere volt joule watt 209 .

18.4 Electrical Circuits  Circuit Components:    Resistors Inductors Capacitors Voltage Current 210  Sources of Electrical Energy   .

18.4 Electrical Circuits  Kirchhoff s Laws   Kirchhoff s Voltage Law (KVL) Kirchhoff s Current Law (KCL) V=IR  Ohm s Law  211 .

4 Electrical Circuits   Reference Voltage Polarity and Current Direction Circuit Equations   Using Branch Currents Using Mesh Currents   Circuit Simplification DC Circuits 212 .18.

5 Economics  Value and Interest  The value of a dollar given to you today is of greater value than that of a dollar given to you one year from today    Cash Flow Diagrams Cash Flow Patterns Equivalence of Cash Flow Patterns 213 .18.

Chapter 19 The Campus Experience 214 .

19.1 Orienting Yourself to Your Campus   Introduction to Campus Life Tools to assist students to adjusting to the college lifestyle 215 .

2 Exploring  Begin by becoming familiar with some different locations on campus    Offices Dorms Classroom Buildings  Engineering Building  Sample map of Michigan State University Campus 216 .19.

19.3 Determining and planning your Major    Narrow down to a few different majors Ask questions of insightful people Look for any opportunity to learn more about each field 217 .

19.4 Get into the Habit of Asking Questions    Active questioners learn the most Questions help students understand and complete tasks Communication skills are vital to engineers   Understanding information given Giving information that is understandable 218 .

classes.19.5 The People Issue  Meeting People  Make friends of other engineers   Helpful as study partners Offer perspective on engineering  Academic Advisor  Advisors are an excellent resource   Discuss problems Information about the school. and instructors  Offer guidance for graduating and careers 219 .

5 The People Issue  Instructors   Ask other students about an Instructor before signing up for the class Sit in on a class to see their teaching style Keep in contact with friends and acquaintances Useful for assistance and support in and out of the classroom 220  Networking   .19.

calendar of events  What s Happening    Library locations and hours Services  Legal aid. Places to Go  Planetarium. Union Academic calendar.19. Museum.6 Searching for Campus Resources   Every school has a document or website that lists activities and opportunities Examples  Things to Do. financial aid  Extracurricular Activities 221 . Gardens. counseling.

7 Other Important Issues  Managing Time   Control time to achieve success Recommended Reading Engineering requires the extensive use of technical and non-technical materials    The Usefulness of Reading  Read each paragraph for its central point Create outlines for each reading assignment 222 .19.

19.7 Other Important Issues  Fulfilling Duties   Engineers have a responsibility to society Contributing to Society brings its own reward Use the internet to look up more information on topics of interest outside the classroom Most contacts use email for some part of their interaction 223  Using the Web   Sending e-mail  .

19.7 Other Important Issues  Test-taking Skills    Preparing outlines as subject matter is presented will make studying easier Form study groups Ask questions Organize information Highlight essential information 224  Taking Notes   .

7 Other Important Issues  Study Skills    Should be calm.19. structured. and routine Remember to get up and move a few times in an hour Reward yourself for studying Variety of Instructors including graduate students Fully engage professors and ask questions Discover your Learning Style and use it to your advantage 225  Teaching Styles    Learning Styles  .

7 Other Important Issues  Perspectives of others   Learn to listen to others respectfully Be open to discussion of a variety of topics Dialogue does not need to be confrontational Allow others to express their opinions Listen carefully to what other people say 226  Listening Skills    .19.

7 Other Important Issues  Handling Stress         Include time to relax in your schedule Take classes for the right reason Do not resent required classes Approach weak points with a positive attitude Focus on learning instead of grades Be patient for results of increased studying Stress can not be avoided Talking out problems can help 227 .19.

19. Don t forget to ask questions!!! 228 .8 Final Thoughts   Use the concepts from this chapter to make the college experience all it can be.

Chapter 20 Financial Aid 229 .

20.1 Intro  What costs are involved in going to college?     Tuition Other college or university fees Cost-of-living expenses Other extras 230 .

20.2 Parental Assistance   Some parents are able and willing to cover all of your college expenses On average. nine million students must find ways to fund their college education every fall 231 .

Non-need Academic qualifications  Why apply? 232 .3 Is Financial Assistance for You?  Applying for Financial Aid  Three areas:    Grants and scholarships Loans Work   Need vs.20.

3 Is Financial Assistance for You?  Budgeting   Advisors available to assist with personal budgeting Help estimate costs and income and develop a plan Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) 233  How to apply  .20.

gov First thing to complete to become eligible for aid Can apply as early as January for the following fall semester Look up the information required before starting to fill out the form 234 .fafsa.3 Is Financial Assistance for You?  FAFSA     http://www.20.

professional groups.  It is your responsibility to seek out private scholarships/grants 235 . or university sources  Local high school. corporations. private.4 Scholarships   Educational funds that do not need to be repaid Public. government. college. service organizations.20. etc.

5 Loans    May be secured from lending institutions and state and federal loan programs Students who apply for financial aid will be notified of their eligibility for both student and parent federal loans Loans can be obtained from parents or relative who feel that you should repay the money that is required to put you through school 236 .20.

6 Work-Study  Earning money the old-fashioned way     On.or off-campus employment during school Summer jobs Internships Co-ops  Requires careful management of time 237 .20.

20.6 Work-Study  Work-Study:   Employment subsidized by the federal or state government Will be listed on your financial aid award letter is you are eligible    Just Plain Work Volunteering Full Semester Off-Campus Employment 238 .

20. and Back-to-back semesters 239 . Parallel.6 Work-Study  Cooperative Education   Academic program in which college students are employed in positions directly related to their major field of study Alternating.

7 Scams to Beware    Do your own homework to avoid scholarship service rip-offs Check with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) http://www.htm 240

8 The Road Ahead Awaits    Examine the many different sources available to you for obtaining the funds needed for your college expenses How much do you actually need? Correct forms and deadlines 241 .20.

Chapter 21 Engineering Work Experience 242 .

21. and how do you get a job without experience? Graduate schools and employers look for experiences outside the classroom Incorporating career experience is a worthwhile consideration  May extend college to 6 years  Many Economic shifts have happened in a college students lifetime       1980-1983: 1983-1986: 1988-1994: 1994-2001: 2001-2003: 2004: Major Recession Revival of U. Economy Restructuring of Corporate America Vigorous Rebound of Economy Recession Signs of improvement in the labor market for engineers 243 .1 A Job and Experience    How do you get experience without a job.S.

1 A Job and Experience  In good and bad times employers look for Engineers with job-related experience   Engineers require less training Faster results  Many different Experiences are available 244 .21.

more career related jobs Skills include teamwork. communication.21.2 Summer Jobs   Even jobs such as baby-sitting and mowing lawns is a place to start All jobs help develop basic employable skills   Provide stepping stone to better. and problem solving  Help you discover what working environments you like 245 .

21.3 Volunteer      Especially useful to freshmen and sophomores to gain experience Generally volunteer positions are with non-profit organizations Not a paid experience Useful in developing skills Able to experiment with different career related fields 246 .

21.4 Supervised Independent Study  Designed for the advanced undergraduate  Preparatory for grad school or a career in Research     Some are paid and others award credit Provides a unique experience Challenging in many different areas To learn more  Talk to professors that share similar interests 247 .

21. curriculum. and location constraints 248 .5 Internships  Paid or unpaid experience for a set period of time   Usually during the summer No obligations for future employment     Sometimes they support other engineers Other times they are given individual projects No official evaluation or credit given Short term projects  Obtain a description of these projects prior to employment to assure it is of interest  Great for students with time.

21.6 Co-operative Education    Cooperative Education is often the preferred form of experimental Learning Co-ops are considered to be academic and are administered by the college Assignments are directly related to field of study  Detailed job descriptions are used to create the best possible matches Alternating terms of school with work at the same company    School and work are closely integrated  Projects become more extensive throughout the experience Term in school followed by a term at work followed by a term at school and so on 249 .

21.6 Co-operative Education 

Parallel co-ops is an alternative 

Students are partially enrolled in classes and spend 20 to 25 hours at work Difficulties arise in allowing ample time for both areas Students work two consecutive semesters then attend class for a semester or two Allows for longer projects 

Sometimes a longer alternating approach is used 

Some schools use all three methods Co-ops are rarely summer only 

Break between work assignments is too long 

Requires a three or four semester commitment

21.6 Co-operative Education 

Advantages for Students 

Consideration for employment and grad school Improved technical skills Helps determine career path Excellent pay Recruiting Co-op students is more cost efficient Many students accept full time positions with their employer More diverse and dedicated students Students free up other engineers and bring in fresh approaches 

Advantages for Employers 


21.6 Co-operative Education 

Advantages for Schools 

Integrates theory and practice Keeps faculty informed of trends in industry Creates relationships between schools and businesses Improves a schools reputation Communication Skills Networking Self-discipline Management Experience Interactions with a variety of people 

Other Benefits 


21.7 Which is Best for You? 

Some Questions to help determine which is best for you  

Am I willing to sacrifice convenience for the best experience? How flexible can I be? How committed do I want to be? 

Seek out advice from professors, academic advisors, and campus placement officers


Chapter 22
Connections: Liberal Arts and Engineering


1 What are Connections?  Connections exist between engineering and liberal arts       Literature History Music Art Social studies Philosophy 255 .22.

1 What are Connections?    Look closely at what engineers really are and what they really do liberal comes from liberty. so that liberal arts means works befitting a free man Need for a general education   Developed because people have a need for a strong.22. open mind in addition to a specialty in order to be well-rounded Not trapped by cultural blind-spots 256 .

22.2 Why Study Liberal Arts?  Liberal arts help improve your broadness    Look in many directions at once Questions about areas that do not have pre-set answers Expected to be a leader 257 .

22.2 Why Study Liberal Arts?  The Arts Improve:  Your Perspective  See the big picture Practice dealing with a variety of diverse ideas Be aware of things that modern tendencies avoid or neglect 258  Your Balance   Your People Skills  .

so society respects you more 259 . and unify the standards of the profession Fulfill your duty in life. integrate.22.2 Why Study Liberal Arts?  The Arts Improve:  Your Sense of Duty and Responsibility   Elevate.

Appendix A: The Basics of Power Point 260 .

A.1 Introduction  The purpose of this section is to introduce a user to PowerPoint   Learn 20 key procedures Be able to do 80% of everything you will ever need to do  To learn more experiment with the software 261 .

2 The Basics of PowerPoint  To begin open a blank presentation  Activate the standard.A. picture. and WordArt toolbars    Select a slide type for the first slide Select a background Enter text into given text blocks    Edit the text and box sizes and shapes Add additional text boxes selecting Insert-TextBox Insert WordArt as necessary 262 . formatting. drawing.

2 The Basics of PowerPoint  Insert any pictures   Click Insert-Picture-From File Format the picture using the Picture toolbar Click Insert-Picture-Clip Art Picture Toolbar is used for formatting  Insert Clip Art     Change visibility of an object by right clicking on an object and then selecting Order from the menu To Delete objects click on it and press backspace or delete 263 .A.

2 The Basics of PowerPoint  To begin a new slide click the new slide button  Repeat from the beginning to format Useful for arranging or hiding slides for presentations Can be used when copying or deleting whole slides  View slides by thumbnails in the Slide Sorter View      Save your work when finished Change slide transitions and animations View the entire Show 264 .A.

Appendix B: Introduction to MATLAB 265 .

B.1 Introduction 

MATRIX LABORATORY Powerful tool in performing engineering computations Many engineering curricula have moved to making MATLAB the primary computing tool in its undergraduate program Can be run on many different platforms, including UNIX, PC, and Macintosh.

B.2 MATLAB Environment 

Command window 

Use to run your programs and see the results Shows a history of the commands that have been entered into the command window Allows you to start applications and demonstrations by clicking the icons in the window

Command History window  

Launch Pad window 

B.2 MATLAB Environment 

Demonstration Programs 

>>demo >>help <command name> >>lookfor topic >>helpwin Apple apple APPLE aPPle

Help Files 

MATLAB is case sensitive 

B.2 MATLAB Environment 

Helpful commands 


Allows the user to see the variables currently in memory Erase the memory Clears just that variable


>>clear <variable> 

B.2 MATLAB Environment  

MATLAB has some predefined functions that should not be used to name variables A few variable names to avoid: 

ans Inf NaN i j realmin

B.3 Symbolic Manipulations  To declare variables as a symbol  >> syms x y >>solve (x^2-4) >>diff (y^3) >>int (sin(x)) 271  Algebraic expressions   Symbolic derivatives   Symbolic integrals  .

4 Saving and Loading Files   To find out the identity of your working directory.B. type pwd (print working directory) Use cd to change the working directory  >>cd c:\matlab\mystuff  The file can be saved using save at the MATLAB prompt 272 .

4 Saving and Loading Files  Use the command load followed by the file name to retrieve your file.B.  >>load my_workspace   path lists the directories that MATLA will search for files addpath <pathname> will add the location to the path listing 273 .

10]  To change a column vector into a row vector and vice versa.8.4.B. use transpose 274 .6.5 Vectors   A vector is simply a row or column of numbers Vectors are enclosed in square brackets   >>row_vector = [1 2 6 9 12] >>col_vector = [2.

special MATLAB symbols must be used   . they must be of the same type and size To multiply or divide vectors.B.5 Vectors   For vectors to be added and subtracted./ is used for division 275 .* is used for multiplication .

B. or specific elements 276 .6 Matrices   A matrix is a group of numbers arranged in columns and rows Each element in a matrix is identified by the use of two numbers or indices   The first index is the row number The second index is the column number  MATLAB can extract an entire row or column.

B.7 Simultaneous Equations   Put the equations to be solved into standard form To solve for matrix x from Ax=b  X=A\b 277 .

9 Plotting  To generate linear xy plots use plot  >>plot(x axis values. ylabel.B. and title To generate multiple plots on a single figure use subplot 278 . y axis values. symbol or line type )    Use hold on to plot multiple data sets The axes can be labeled using the commands xlabel.

B.9 Plotting  Semi-log and log plots    semilogx semilogy loglog 279 .

9 Plotting 280 .B.

M-file to open the programming editor Enter MATLAB commands just like you would type them into the workspace Add comments by using the % symbol 281 .B.10 Programming     Programs. called scripts. consist of a series of MATLAB commands that can be saved to run later Select new.

B.10 Programming    Save the file with a .m extension Remember to avoid file names that MATLAB already uses The file can then be executed by typing the file name at the MATLAB prompt 282 .

10 Programming  Input commands  To ask the user to input a number  >>W=input( Enter a number to be used by the program ) >>my_word=input( Enter a word: . s )  To ask the user to enter a string   The function disp can be used to display data 283 .B.

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