0 views

Original Title: Tech%5Cdrilling%5CFractureGrad (1)

Uploaded by Thevaruban Ragunathan

- Skempton pore pressure coefficients A and B.pdf
- OrMen Lange decommisioning
- AADE 32Casing Drilling Technology Moves to More Challenging Applications Tesco
- Advanced Well Stimulation Technologies.pdf
- Squeeze Cementing Placement Techniques
- Treatise on Hydromech- Chorlton
- schubert_1
- Casing Design for Dual Gradient Drilling
- Drilling Systems and Operations
- New Well Control Manual
- Hydro-Mechanical Anderreamer Tech Summary
- Ashrae Duct Fittings (1)
- ormenlange.pdf
- SAL-14_Informe final.pdf
- OGP Stds
- Determining Depth to Set Casing
- Displace 3D Presentation Open Day 09.06
- peroforacion
- CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Physics (Solved) – Set D _ AglaSem Schools
- DSettlement User Manual

You are on page 1of 43

Well Drilling

Lesson 22

Prediction of

Fracture Gradients

1

Prediction of Fracture Gradients

Well Planning

Theoretical Fracture Gradient Determination

Hubbert & Willis

Matthews & Kelly

Ben Eaton

Comparison of Results

Experimental Frac. Grad. Determination

Leak-off Tests

Lost Circulation

2

Read:

Applied Drilling Engineering, Ch. 6

HW #12

Casing Design

due Nov. 1, 2002

3

NOTE:

On all HW and Quizzes please put:

* Name, written legibly

* Number of HW or Quiz

(on the outside)

Thank you!

4

Well Planning

Safe drilling practices require that the

following be considered when

planning a well:

Pore pressure determination

Fracture gradient determination

Casing setting depth selection

Casing design

Mud Design, H2S considerations

Contingency planning

5

Fig. 7.21

6

7

Formation Pressure and Matrix Stress

Formation pore pressure expressed

in equivalent mud weight is 9.2 lb/gal.

Overburden stress is 1.00 psi/ft.

Calculate:

1. Pore pressure, psi/ft , at 14,000 ft

2. Pore pressure, psi, at 14,000 ft

3. Matrix stress, psi/ft

4. Matrix stress, psi

8

Formation Pressure and Matrix Stress

S =S PP +

overburden pore matrix

stress = pressure + stress

(psi) (psi) (psi) 9

Formation Pressure and Matrix Stress

Depth = 14,000 ft.

Calculations: Pore Pressure = 9.2 lb/gal equivalent

Overburden stress = 1.00 psi/ft.

= 0.433 psi/ft * 9.2/8.33 = 0.052 * 9.2

= 0.478 psi/ft

2. Pore pressure at 14,000 ft

= 0.478 psi/ft * 14,000 ft

= 6,692 psig

10

Formation Pressure and Matrix Stress

Calculations:

3. Matrix stress gradient,

S P psi

S P

or psi/ft

D D D

S P

i.e., 1.000 0.478 psi / ft

D D D

/ D = 0.522 psi/ft

11

Formation Pressure and Matrix Stress

Calculations:

= 7,308 psi

12

Fracture Gradient Determination

drilling it is important to know the variation

of fracture gradient with depth.

approach to fracture gradient determination.

Below are listed and discussed four

approaches to calculating the fracture

gradient.

13

Fracture Gradient Determination

1 2P

1. Hubbert & Willis: Fmin 1

3 D

1 P

Fmax 1

2 D

where F = fracture gradient, psi/ft

P

= pore pressure gradient, psi/ft

D

14

Fracture Gradient Determination

K i P

F

D D

= vertical matrix stress, psi

15

Fracture Gradient Determination

3. Ben Eaton:

S P g P

F *

D 1 g D

g = Poisson’s ratio

16

Example

gradient of 0.735 psi/ft. Well depth = 11,000 ft.

using each of the above four methods.

answers, in units of lb/gal and also in psi/ft.

17

Example - Hubbert and Willis

Fmin 1

3 D

P psi

The pore pressure gradient, 0.735

D ft

1 psi

Fmin 1 2 *0.735 0.823

3 ft

18

Example - Hubbert and Willis

Also,

0.823 psi / ft

Fmin

psi / ft

0.052

lb / gal

19

Example - Hubbert and Willis

1 P

1 0.735

1

Fmax 1

2 D 2

= 0.8675 psi/ft

20

Example

P K i

2. Matthews & Kelly F

D D

In this case P and D are known, may be

calculated, and K i is determined graphically.

P

0.735 psi / ft (given )

D

21

Example - Matthews and Kelly

matrix stress , psi

=S-P

= 1.00 * D - 0.735 * D P pore pressure , psi

D depth , ft

= 0.265 * D

= 0.265 * 11,000

= 2,915 psi

22

Example - Matthews and Kelly

under normally pressured conditions, the

rock matrix stress, would be 2,915 psi.

Sn = Pn + n n = “normal”

1.00 * Di = 0.465 * Di + 2,915

Di * (1 - 0.465) = 2,915

2,915

Di 5,449 ft

0.535

23

Example -

Matthews and

Kelly

the plot on the

right, for

Di = 5,449 ft

Gulf Coast well,

Ki = 0.685

24

Example - Matthews and Kelly

K i P

(v) Now calculate F: F

D D

0.685 * 2,915

F 0.735

11,000

0.9165 psi / ft

0.9165

F 17.63 lb / gal

0.052

25

26

Example

Ben Eaton:

S P g P

F *

D 1 g D

S

? g?

D

27

Variable Overburden Stress by

Eaton

At 11,000 ft

S/D = 0.96 psi/ft

28

Fig. 5-5

At 11,000 ft

g = 0.46

29

Example - Ben Eaton

S P g P

From above graphs, F

D D 1 g D

at 11,000 ft.:

S

0.96 psi / ft; g 0.46

D

0.46

F 0.96 0.735 0.735

1 0.46

F = 0.9267 psi/ft

= 17.82 lb/gal

30

Summary of Results

Fracture Gradient

psi.ft lb/gal

Hubbert & Willis minimum: 0.823 15.83

Hubbert & Willis maximum: 0.868 16.68

Mathews & Kelly: 0.917 17.63

Ben Eaton: 0.927 17.82

31

Summary of Results

Note that all the methods take into

consideration the pore pressure gradient.

As the pore pressure increases, so does

the fracture gradient.

apparently consider only the variation in

pore pressure gradient. Matthews &

Kelly also consider the changes in rock

matrix stress coefficient, and in the

matrix stress ( Ki and i ).

32

Summary of Results

variation in pore pressure gradient,

overburden stress and

Poisson’s ratio,

the four methods. The last two

methods are actually quite similar, and

usually yield similar results.

33

Similarities

Ben Eaton:

S P g P

F *

D 1 g D

Ki P

F

D D

34

9 10

11 12 Pore Pressures

14

16

18

35

Experimental Determination of

Fracture Gradient

Drill out ~ 10 ft

below the casing seat

Close the BOPs

Pump slowly and

monitor the pressure

36

37

45

80

105

120

120

120

120

120

120

40

20

38

39

40

41

Experimental Determination of

Fracture Gradient

Example:

In a leak-off test below the

casing seat at 4,000 ft, leak-off

was found to occur when the

standpipe pressure was 1,000

psi. MW = 9 lb/gal.

42

Example

Leak-off pressure = PS + DPHYD

= 1,000 + 0.052 * 9 * 4,000

= 2,872 psi

D 4,000 ft

EMW = ?

43

- Skempton pore pressure coefficients A and B.pdfUploaded byRoda Cadiz
- OrMen Lange decommisioningUploaded byRizki Perdana
- AADE 32Casing Drilling Technology Moves to More Challenging Applications TescoUploaded bylewislee59
- Advanced Well Stimulation Technologies.pdfUploaded byfrancisco_pazv_59954
- Squeeze Cementing Placement TechniquesUploaded byzapspaz
- Treatise on Hydromech- ChorltonUploaded byAniruddha Shende
- schubert_1Uploaded byPal Yac
- Casing Design for Dual Gradient DrillingUploaded byAli
- Drilling Systems and OperationsUploaded byRachid Touati
- New Well Control ManualUploaded byalok_789
- Hydro-Mechanical Anderreamer Tech SummaryUploaded byYaqoob Ibrahim
- Ashrae Duct Fittings (1)Uploaded bysachinsaklani23
- ormenlange.pdfUploaded byFalokid Rabo
- SAL-14_Informe final.pdfUploaded bysanty222
- OGP StdsUploaded byAdnan Haji Harbi
- Determining Depth to Set CasingUploaded byWaldinho Gaucho da Silva
- Displace 3D Presentation Open Day 09.06Uploaded byGhadames in Our Heart
- peroforacionUploaded byDaniel Delgado
- CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Physics (Solved) – Set D _ AglaSem SchoolsUploaded byamitaich1991
- DSettlement User ManualUploaded byBluebelgian
- Construction Tank Specification - 40 MWUploaded byjajang nurjaman
- Lesson 8 Aerated Fluid DrillingUploaded byAdel Ahmed Alkhaligy
- Drilling Eng. II Ch 5 CalculationUploaded byShakerMahmood
- 8 ThingsUploaded byLester Garcia
- Equipment and LocationUploaded byOrlando Amusquivar Escudero
- GasVelocityCalculator.xlsUploaded byesutjiadi
- Presion de Bomba de Aceite de La TransmisionUploaded byEdgar Martinez Carmona
- Cotact Pp DistriUploaded bydhivya
- 246024927-Balanced-Cement-Plug-Calculation-docx.docxUploaded byAlejandro Viscarra
- pr mektan sayaUploaded byDian Ratri C

- Petroleum Fluids Mccain Solution ManualUploaded byThevaruban Ragunathan
- Hammam i 2003Uploaded byThevaruban Ragunathan
- A ModelofwaxdepositlayerformationUploaded byThevaruban Ragunathan
- Current Knowledge and Potential Applications of Ionic Liquids in the Petroleum IndustryUploaded byThevaruban Ragunathan
- Ch8_RateofReturnMultipleAlternatives.pptUploaded byquik silva
- Anti-Agglomerant Hydrate Inhibitors for Prevention of Hydrate Plugs in Deepwater SystemsUploaded byThevaruban Ragunathan
- Petroleum Production SystemsUploaded byThevaruban Ragunathan

- TOP MECHANICAL Engineering Interview Questions and AnswersUploaded byrajesh1924
- FEA TWO MARKSUploaded byMohammedRaffic
- T.saad - Introduction to Turbulent Flow (March2004)Uploaded byMohammed Gamal
- Air TemperatureUploaded byhakimiefaez
- ME361 Orthogonal CuttingUploaded byAkhil
- Identi UmUploaded byElena Daniela Saru
- (Advanced Structured Materials 28) Konstantin Naumenko, Holm Altenbach (Auth.)-Modeling High Temperature Materials Behavior for Structural Analysis_ Part I_ Continuum Mechanics Foundations and ConstitUploaded byGharsalli2017
- Adverse pressure gradient with a cylinderUploaded byAnonymous 4onBxUG
- SPE-175170-MSUploaded bysaeed65
- ICIDRET2016019.pdfUploaded byWin Radaza
- Sghs Mgsd Principles for Drilling OperationsUploaded byshoaib Khalil
- Study of Different Storage StructuresUploaded byNagaraj Mehtry
- Army Technical Manual Design of Structures to Resist the Effects of Atomic Weapons (Blast)Uploaded byagarwalkk
- Strengthening Slabs Using Externally-bonded Strip CompositesUploaded byDé Prinğ
- Considerations for Relative Humidity and Temperature in Indoor TestsUploaded bynikopigni2
- Evaporative Cooling System Design PDFUploaded byPatrick
- Flow Over Notches and WeirsUploaded byKendra Kaiser
- PotashUploaded bysivsyadav
- rohitsrUploaded byjyostnayadav
- Huong Huynh Lan - ReportUploaded byLan Hương
- Stress Concentration - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byAshish Meena
- Heat Transfer Heat Ex ChangersUploaded byAbubakkar Siddiq
- Solution#4Uploaded byVontrex Dergon
- Mat Chapter 8Uploaded byhemant_durgawale
- Chapter 7 Hardening ConcreteUploaded bytimsyki
- Analysis of Latent Heat Storage Devices With FinsUploaded byhello_ashish22
- V2I6_IJERTV2IS60454Uploaded byEtvanTvan
- l11Uploaded bytol
- Welding 1Uploaded byfauzailman
- P02S_V37No3Y2013.pdfUploaded byjvasilva13