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Genetics

Genetics Vocabulary - 1
Term Definition

Heredity The passing of genetic traits from parents to offspring.

Genetics The study of how traits are inherited.

Cross-pollination Sperm from one plant fertilizes the eggs of a different plant.

Self-pollination Sperm from one plant fertilizes the eggs of the same plant.

Trait The different forms, or colors, such as brown or red hair.

Gene One set of instructions for an inherited trait.

Allele One of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color.

Dominant Allele (Trait) The trait observed in the first generation when parents that have different traits are bred.

Recessive Allele (Trait) A trait that reappears in the second generation after disappearing in the first generation
when parents with different traits are bred.

Probability The likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event.
Genetics Vocabulary - 2
Term Definition

Punnett Square Used to predict the possible genotypes of offspring in a particular cross.

Phenotype An organism’s appearance or other detectable characteristic.

Genotype The entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one
or more specific traits.

Homozygous A plant with two dominant or two recessive alleles.

Heterozygous A plant that has the genotype Pp.

Purebred An animal bred from parents of the same breed or variety.

Hybrid The offspring of two plants or animals of different species or varieties.

Codominance A form of dominance wherein the alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully
expressed.

Genetic Variation The differences in the sets of alleles between individuals in a population.
Parts of the Flower - 1
Parts of a Flower and their Functions
Many flowers have male parts and female parts.

Male part – Stamen


The stamen has two parts

● Anthers – Pollen producing part


● Filaments – They hold up the anthers

Female part – Pistil


The pistil has three parts

● Stigma – Sticky surface at the pistil’s top, where the pollen germinates
● Style – Holds up the stigma
● Ovary – Contains the ovules
● Ovules – Become the seed after fertilization by pollen
Parts of the Flower - 2
Other Parts of the Flower
● Petals – Usually bright, to attract pollinators
● Sepals – Protect the flower bud when it is developing
● Receptacle – Portion of the stalk with the flower structure
● Peduncle (Pedicel) – Flower stalk
Comparison of Self-pollination and Cross-pollination
Describe the similarities and differences between self-pollination and cross-pollination in the space below:

Self-pollination is different from cross-pollination because in self-pollination the anther fertilizes the ovule
of the same flower and in cross-pollination the pollen from one flower travels to the stigma of a different
flower. These are similar because they both include an anther fertilizing the stigma.
Prediction

If you cross a black squirrel with a white squirrel, what color will the offspring be? Explain.

I think that if you cross a black squirrel with a white squirrel you would get a grey squirrel or brown
squirrel. The offspring might be a dark grey if the black squirrel has stronger genes. You might get a light
grey offspring if both squirrels have about the same amount of strong genes and there will be a mixture of
both characteristics in the offspring.
Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel - A Brief Biography
Gregor Mendel, often referred to the “Father of Genetics”, was born into a
poor family in Austria on July 20, 1822. Mendel was a very bright child
and his parents saved as much money as they could in order to send him
to a decent school. Mendel’s father became crippled after a farm accident.
After the accident Mendel became interested in human deformity and
where they came from. Mendel decided to move to a monastery away
from home. He had no idea that the monastery’s garden would change his
life forever. He became interested in human reproduction or what he
called “blending”. Mendel thought that “blending” could teach us
something about biology and life itself. In order to pursue his interest he
had to experiment. He used peas to find how a man and a women could
produce a child. By 1860 he was halfway through his pea experiment .
Through his experiment he found that wrinkled peas had a ratio of 1:3
compared to smooth peas. 16 years after Gregor Mendel died people
started to realize what he had discovered and how he changed the world,
he was then recognized.
Bikini Bottom Genetics - 1A

Scientists at Bikini Bottoms have been investigating the genetic makeup of the organisms in this community. Use the
information provided and your knowledge of genetics to answer each question.

1. For each genotype below, indicate whether it is heterozygous (He) OR homozygous (Ho)

TT Bb DD Ff tt dd Dd ff Tt bb BB FF

Ho He Ho He Ho Ho He Ho He Ho Ho Ho

Which of the genotypes in #1 would be considered purebred? TT, DD, tt, dd, ff, bb, BB, and FF would be considered
purebred.

Which of the genotypes in #1 would be considered hybrids? They all are considered hybrid.
Bikini Bottom Genetics - 1B

2. Determine the phenotype for each genotype using the information provided about SpongeBob.

Yellow body color is dominant to blue.

YY Yellow Yy Yellow yy Blue


Square shape is dominant to round.

SS Square Ss Square ss Round

3. For each phenotype, give the genotypes that are possible for Patrick.

A tall head (T) is dominant to short (t)

Tall TT, Tt Short tt

Pink body color (P) is dominant to yellow (p)

Pink body PP, Pp Yellow body pp


Bikini Bottom Genetics - 1C

4. SpongeBob SquarePants recently met SpongeSusie Roundpants at a dance. SpongeBob is heterozygous for his
square shape, but SpongeSusie is round. Create a Punnett square to show the possibilities that would result if
SpongeBob and SpongeSusie had children. HINT: Read question #2!

s s
What shape might their children have? The children could be square
or round.
S Ss Ss
What are the chances of a child with a square shape? The chances of
a child having a round shape is 50%.

s ss ss What are the chances of a child with a round shape? The chances of
a child having a round shape is 50%.
Bikini Bottom Genetics - 1D

5. Patrick met Patti at the dance. Both of them are heterozygous for their pink body color, which is dominant over a
yellow body color. Create a Punnett square to show the possibilities that would result if Patrick and Patti had children.
HINT: Read question #3!

P p
What color might their children be? The children could possibly be
pink or yellow.
P PP Pp
What are the chances of a child with a pink body? 75%

What are the chances of a child with a yellow body? 25%


p Pp pp
Bikini Bottom Genetics - 1E

6. Everyone in Squidward’s family has light blue skin, which is the dominant trait for body color in his hometown of Squid
Valley. His family brags that they are a “purebred” line. He recently married a nice girl who has light green skin, which is
a recessive trait. Create a Punnett square to show the possibilities that would result if Squidward and his new bride had
children. Use B to represent the dominant gene and b to represent the recessive gene.

b b What color skin might their children have? There children would have
light blue skin.

B Bb Bb What are the chances of a child with light blue skin? There is a 100%
chance of having a child with light blue skin.

What are the chances of a child with light green skin? There is no
chance of them having a child with light green skin.
B Bb Bb
Would Squidward’s children still be considered purebreds? Explain!
I don’t think Squidward’s children would be considered purebred
because their mother is homozygous recessive.
Bikini Bottom Genetics - 1F

7. Assume that one of Squidward’s sons, who is heterozygous for light blue body color, married a girl that was also
heterozygous. Create a Punnett square to show the possibilities that would result if they had children.

B b
What color skin might their children have? Light blue skin

B BB Bb
What are the chances of a child with light blue skin? 75%

What are the chances of a child with light green skin? 25%
b Bb bb
Bikini Bottom Genetics - 1G

8. Mr. Krabbs and his wife recently had a Lil’ Krabby, but it has not been a happy occasion for them. Mrs. Krabbs has
been upset since she first saw her new baby who had short eyeballs. She claims that the hospital goofed and mixed up
her baby with someone else’s baby. Mr. Krabbs is homozygous for his tall eyeballs, while his wife is heterozygous for her
tall eyeballs. Some members of her family have short eyes, which is the recessive trait. Create a Punnett square using T
for the dominant gene and t for the recessive one.

T t What shape eyes might their children have? Their child could have tall
eyeballs.

T TT Tt Did the hospital make a mistake? Explain your answer. Yes he


hospital goofed because the dominant trait is overpowering the
recessive trait.

T TT Tt
Bikini Bottom Genetics - 2A

Trait Dominant Gene Recessive Gene

Body Shape Squarepants (S) Roundpants (s)

Body Color Yellow (Y) Blue (y)

Eye Shape Round (R) Oval (r)

Nose Style Long (L) Stubby (l)

1. Use the information for SpongeBob’s traits to write the phenotype for each genotype.

LL Long Nose Rr Round Eyes

yy Blue Body ll Stubby Nose

Ss Squarepants ss Roundpants

RR Round Eyes Yy Yellow Body


Bikini Bottom Genetics - 2B

Trait Dominant Gene Recessive Gene

Body Shape Squarepants (S) Roundpants (s)

Body Color Yellow (Y) Blue (y)

Eye Shape Round (R) Oval (r)

Nose Style Long (L) Stubby (l)

2. Use the information above to write the genotype (or genotypes) for each trait below:

Yellow body YY, Yy Stubby nose ll

Roundpants ss Round eyes RR,Rr

Oval eyes rr Squarepants SS,Ss

Long nose LL,Ll Blue body yy


Bikini Bottom Genetics - 2C

Trait Dominant Gene Recessive Gene

Body Shape Squarepants (S) Roundpants (s)

Body Color Yellow (Y) Blue (y)

Eye Shape Round (R) Oval (r)

Nose Style Long (L) Stubby (l)

3. Determine the genotypes for each using the information in the chart.

Heterozygous round eyes Rr Homozygous long nose LL

Purebred squarepants SS Hybrid yellow body Yy

Homozygous recessive nose ll Homozygous dominant nose LL

Purebred dominant eye shape RR Blue body yy


Bikini Bottom Genetics - 2D

4a. One of SpongeBob’s cousins, SpongeBillyBob, recently met a cute squarepants gal, SpongeGerdy, at a local dance
and fell in love. Use the chart on slide 20 and your knowledge of genetics to answer the questions below:

s s
If SpongeGerdy’s father is a heterozygous squarepants and her
mother is a roundpants, what is her genotype? Complete the Punnett
S Ss Ss square to show the possible genotypes.

Based on your results, what would Gerdy’s genotype have to be?


Gerdy’s genotype would have to be Ss because it occurred 50% of the
time.
s ss ss
Bikini Bottom Genetics - 2E

4b. One of SpongeBob’s cousins, SpongeBillyBob, recently met a cute squarepants gal, SpongeGerdy, at a local dance
and fell in love. Use the chart on slide 10 and your knowledge of genetics to answer the questions below:

S s
Complete the Punnett square to show the possibilities that would
result if BillyBob and Gerdy had children. NOTE: SpongeBillyBob is
heterozygous for his squarepants shape.
S SS Ss
What is the probability of kids with squarepants? The probability of
kids with squarepants is 75%.

s Ss ss What is the probability of kids with roundpants? The probability of


having kids with roundpants is 25%.
Bikini Bottom Genetics - 2F

5. SpongeBob’s aunt and uncle, SpongeWilma and SpongeWilbur, have the biggest round eyes in the family. Wilma is
believed to be heterozygous for her round eye shape, while Wilbur’s family brags that they are a pure line. Complete the
Punnett square to show the possibilities that would result if SpongeWilma and SpongeWilbur had children.

a. Give the genotype for each person.


R r
Wilma Rr Wilbur RR

R RR Rr b. Complete the Punnett square to show the possibilities that would


result if they had children.

c. What is the probability the kids would have round eyes? The
R RR Rr probability of round-eyed children is 100%.

d. What is the probability that the kids would have oval eyes? The
probability of having children with oval eyes is 0%.
Bikini Bottom Genetics - 2G

6. SpongeBob’s mother is so proud of her son and his new wife, SpongeSusie, as they are expecting a little sponge. She
knows that they have a 50% chance of having a little roundpants, but is also hoping the new arrival will be blue (a
recessive trait) like SpongeSusie and many members of her family. If SpongeBob is heterozygous for his yellow body
color, what are the chances that the baby sponge will be blue? Use the Punnett square to help you answer this question.

y y
Answer: The chances that the new arrival will be blue is 50%.

Y Yy Yy

y yy yy
Bikini Bottom Genetics - 2H

7. SpongeBob’s aunt is famous around town for her itty, bitty stubby nose! She recently met a cute squarepants fellow
who also has a stubby nose, which is a recessive trait. Would it be possible for them to have a child with a regular long
nose? Why or why not? Use the Punnett square to help you answer this question.

l l
Answer: No, it would not be possible.

l ll ll

l ll ll
Bikini Bottom Genetics - 2I

8. If SpongeBob’s aunt described in question #7 wanted children with long noses, what type of fellow would she need to
marry in order to give her the best chances? Use the Punnett square to help you answer this question.

l l
Answer: She would need to marry a fellow with a long nose as his
dominant trait, so that there is a 100% chance for the couple to have
L Ll Ll children with long noses.

L Li Ll
GENETICS VOCABULARY

BB . . . Bb . . . bb . . .
? ? ?
MENDELIAN TRAITS FOR PEA PLANT
GENETICS PROBLEMS (A)
1. Cross a hybrid purple flowered male with 2. Cross a pure breeding purple flowered 3. Cross two hybrids for seed color. What is 4. Cross a homozygous axial flowered 5. Cross a homozygous tall female with a
a pure breeding purple flowered female. male with a hybrid purple flowered female. the percent chance of having offspring with female with a terminal flowered male. What heterozygous male. What is the percent
What is the percent chance of having purple What is the percent chance of having white green seeds? is the percent chance of having offspring chance of having dwarf offspring?
flowered offspring? flowered offspring? with terminal flowers?

P P P p Y y A A T T

P PP PP P PP Pp Y YY Yy a Aa Aa T TT TT

p Pp Pp P PP Pp y Yy yy a Aa Aa t Tt Tt

ANSWER: 100% ANSWER: 0% ANSWER: 25% ANSWER: 0% ANSWER: 0%

6. If two heterozygous pea plants are 7. A female pea plant with green pods is 8. Can yellow seeded offspring be produced 9. Can green seeded offspring be produced 10. An offspring pea plant with white
crossed, what are the chances of having crossed with a male pea plant with yellow by two green seeded parent plants? by two yellow seeded parent plants? flowers was produced by two parent pea
offspring with wrinkled pods? pods. Both are true breeding for this trait. plants, both with purple flowers. What are
What are the chances of their offspring the genotypes of both parent pea plants?
having green pods? What is the phenotype of the recessive
offspring?

S s G G y y Y y P p

S SS Ss g Gg Gg y yy yy Y YY Yy P PP Pp

s Ss ss g Gg Gg y yy yy y Yy yy p Pp pp

ANSWER: 25% ANSWER: 100% ANSWER: No ANSWER: Yes ANSWERS:The


genotypes are Pp & Pp.
The phenotype is white
flowers.
PAIRED GENES FOR EACH TRAIT
HUMAN
KARYOTYPE:
23 PAIRS OF
non-
CHROMOSOMES tongue tongue
(this individual is male) roller roller

tongue rolling gene from mom

chromosome
pair # 9

X
Y tongue rolling gene from dad

Your genes determine your traits, and they are found on your chromosomes. Each trait, such as tongue rolling, depends on
the two genes you received for that trait. One gene came from your mom, the other came from your dad. You have 23 pairs
of chromosomes. For each pair, one chromosome came from your mother’s egg cell, while the other came from your father’s
sperm cell. Since your chromosomes come in pairs, so do your genes for any particular trait.
* Each of these traits is not truly
FIFTEEN DIFFERENT HUMAN TRAITS * Mendelian, but for simplicity,
we will treat them as such.
GENETICS PROBLEMS (B)
1. Cross a hybrid straight thumbed male 2. Cross a homozygous dark eyed female 3. A true-breeding woman with attached ear 4. A curly haired man and a curly haired 5. Jane and Jim both have red hair.
with a purebred straight thumbed female. with a blue eyed male. What is the percent lobes marries a true-breeding man with free woman are both heterozygous for hair If Jane is homozygous and Jim is
What is the percent chance they will have a chance they will have a blue eyed child? earlobes. What is the percent chance they texture. When they have a child, what is the heterozygous, what is the percent
hitchhiker thumbed child? will have a child with free earlobes? percent chance that it also will have curly chance they can have a red haired
hair? child?

S S D D f f C c R R

S SS Ss d Dd Dd F Ff Ff C CC Cc R RR RR

s Ss Ss d Dd Dd F Ff Ff c Cc cc r Rr Rr

ANSWER: 0% ANSWER: 0% ANSWER: 100% ANSWER: 75% ANSWER: 100%

6. Light-haired Maria has dark haired 7. Polly, her dad, and all twelve of her 8. Fernando has a straight thumb. His mom 9. A man with widow's peak has a daughter 10. A man with long eyelashes and a
parents. What is genotype of both her siblings can all roll their tongues. Polly's and dad have the same phenotype as with straight hairline and a wife with straight woman with long eyelashes have a baby
parents? mom cannot roll her tongue. What is the Fernando, but his sister Juanita has a hairline. What is the man's genotype? with short eyelashes. What is the
likely genotype of Polly's dad? hitchhiker thumb. What is the genotype of genotype of the man and woman?
Fernando's mom?

D d r r S s w w L l

D DD Dd R Rr Rr S SS Ss W Ww Ww L LL Ll

d Dd dd R Rr Rr s Ss ss w ww ww l Ll ll

ANSWER: Dd ANSWER: RR ANSWER: Ss ANSWER: Ww ANSWERS: Ll


GENETICS PROBLEMS (C)
1. A child with short second toes has a 2. A mother with straight pinkies has a 3. A curly haired man and a straight-haired 4. A boy can roll his tongue, but his sister 5. Jeff breeds true for cleft chin. His wife
mother with long second toes. What is the daughter with straight pinkies. Her husband woman have 2 straight-hair children. What can't. If their father can't roll his tongue, also has a cleft chin, but she does not
phenotype of the father? has bent pinkies. What is his genotype? is the genotype of the father? what is the genotype of their mother? breed true. What is the percent chance of
them having a smooth chin child?

s s b b c c R r C c

S Ss Ss B Bb Bb C Cc Cc r Rr rr C CC Cc

s ss ss b bb bb c cc cc r Rr rr C CC Cc

ANSWER:Heterozygous ANSWER:Bb ANSWER:Cc ANSWER:Rr ANSWER: 0%


short 2nd toe

6. A boy has a straight hairline, but his 7. Jeff breeds true for dark eyes. He has 8. Is it possible for a hitchhiker thumbed 9. A heterozygous dark haired woman and a 10. All four of Bill's grandparents have
sister, dad, and mom all have widow's peak. three children. What is the phenotype of man and a hitchhiker thumbed woman to heterozygous dark haired man have nine straight hair. What is Bill's phenotype?
What is the genotype of the boy's father? each child? produce a child with straight thumbs? children in a row, all with dark hair. What is
the percent chance that their tenth child will
have light hair?

W w ? ? s s D d c c

W WW Ww D D? D? s ss ss D DD Dd c cc cc

w Ww ww D D? D? s ss ss d Dd dd c cc cc

ANSWER:Ww ANSWER: They each ANSWER: No ANSWER: 25% ANSWERS:Purebred


have dark eyes. recessive/straight hair
GENETICS PROBLEMS (D)
1. John has dark hair. His son has light hair 2. Jack and Jill's phenotype for eye color is 3. Pablo and Penny want to have a baby 4. Jim and Jane are both hybrid for eye 5. Barney is purebred for hair texture, and
and his daughter has dark hair. If John's son dark. Their baby, Jane, has blue eyes. Is with hitchhiker thumbs. They both breed true color. Their first three children have dark his wife is hybrid. If Barney has wavy hair,
had a 25% chance of having light hair, what Jill homozygous or heterozygous for eye for thumb shape. Pablo is dominant and eyes. What are their chances of the fourth what is the percent chance they will have a
is the genotype of John's wife? color? Penny is recessive. What are their chances child being born with dark eyes? straight-hair baby?
of having the baby they want?

D d D d s s D d C c

D DD Dd D DD Dd S Ss Ss D DD Dd C CC Cc

d Dd dd d Dd dd S Ss Ss d Dd dd C CC Cc

ANSWER:Dd ANSWER:Heterozygous ANSWER:0% ANSWER:75% ANSWER:0%

6. Six red haired children were born to 7. A short 2nd toe man marries a long 2nd 8. A hybrid bent pinkie woman and a 9. Two brothers can roll their tongue, and 10. A child with dark eyes has
redheads Greg and Grace. One of their toe woman. They have two long 2nd toe purebred straight pinkie man have a bent their two sisters can't. Both parents can. heterozygous parents for this trait. What is
children doesn't have red hair. What is children. What is the genotype of the father? pinkie child. What is the phenotype of the What is the genotype of both parents? the % chance he is purebred?
genotype of the parents? woman?

R r s s B b r r D d

R RR Rr S Ss Ss b Bb bb R Rr Rr D DD Dd

r Rr rr s ss ss b Bb bb r rr rr d Dd dd

ANSWER:Rr ANSWER:Ss ANSWER:Heterozygous ANSWER:The dad is Rr ANSWERS:25%


dominant & the mm is rr.