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# FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

DEEPAK KUMAR G
SC14M080
 From Infinite to Finite…Hence theTerm “Finite
Element Method”
METHODS TO SOLVE ANY ENGINEERING PROBLEM
ARE FEA AND FEM DIFFERENT ?

##  Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Finite

Element Method (FEM) both are one & the
same.
 FEA is a method/process based upon FEM.

##  Practical application of FEM is often known as

finite element analysis (FEA).
 Term “FEA” is more popular in industries while
“FEM” at Education centers.
NEED OF FEM
• Solutions Using Either Strength of Materials or Theory
of Elasticity Are Normally Accomplished for Regions
• Many Applicaitons Involve Cases with Complex Shape,
Boundary Conditions and Material Behavior.
• Therefore a Gap Exists Between What Is Needed in
Applications and What Can Be Solved by Analytical
Closed-form Methods.
• This Has Lead to the Development of Several
Numerical/Computational Schemes Including: Finite
Difference, Finite Element and Boundary Element
Methods.
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD – WHAT IS IT?

##  The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical

method of solving systems of partial differential
equations (PDEs)
 It reduces a PDE system to a system of algebraic
equations that can be solved using traditional
linear algebra techniques.
 In simple terms, FEM is a method for dividing up a
very complicated problem into small elements that
can be solved in relation to each other.
 The finite element method is a computational scheme
to solve field problems in engineering and science.
 The technique has very wide application, and has
been used on problems involving stress analysis, fluid
mechanics, heat transfer, diffusion, vibrations,
electrical and magnetic fields, etc.
ANALYSIS TYPES
 Structural analysis is the determination of the effects
of loads on physical structures and their components.
STEPS INVOLVED IN FEA
PRE PROCESSING
 Understanding the Problem (Thermal , Structural,
Dynamic etc)
 Element Selection (Solid , Shell , Beams etc)

##  Deciding the Boundary Conditions(Constraints,

Connections etc..)

SOLUTION
 Deflection , Stress , Strain etc..
POST PROCESSING
 In-Depth study & interpretation of Analysis Results
 Report Preparation
 Observation and Conclusion from the Analysis
 Suggestion and Recommendation for Design Changes,
if required.
 The fundamental concept involves dividing the body
under study into a finite number of pieces
(subdomains) called elements.
 Finite element analysis starts with an approximation
of the region of interest into a number of meshes
(triangular elements in fig.). Each mesh is connected
to associated nodes (black dots) and thus becomes a
finite element.
 Consider a cantilever beam shown.
COMMON TYPES OF ELEMENTS
Two-Dimensional Elements
Line Plates, Shells, 2-D Continua
Rods, Beams, Trusses, Frames

Three-Dimensional Elements
Tetrahedral, Rectangular Prism (Brick)
3-D Continua
TYPES OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS, LOADS &
RESULTS
Boundary Conditions :
 Fixed Boundary Conditions
 Prescribed Displacements
 Surface Load (Pressure , Flux etc..
 Body Load (Temp , Inertia etc..)
Results:
 Displacement
 Reaction Forces
 Stresses /Strains
 Temperature etc..
USAGES OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
 Model Bodies of Complex Shape.
 Models Bodies Composed of Composite and
Multiphase Materials.
 Model is Easily Refined for Improved Accuracy by
Varying Element Size and Type.
 Time Dependent and Dynamic Effects Can Be
Included.
 Can Handle a Variety Nonlinear Effects Including
Material Behavior, Large Deformations, Boundary
Conditions, Etc.
 Cost

##  Design cycle time

 No. Of prototypes

 Testing

 Design optimization
APPLICATIONS OF FEM
 Mechanical / Aerospace / Civil Engineering /
Automobile Engineering
 Structural Analysis ( Static / Dynamic , Linear / Non-
Linear )
 Thermal Analysis ( Steady State / Transient )
 Electromagnetic Analysis
 Geomechanics
 Biomechanics etc….
MODELLING OF COMPOSITES

##  The ANSYS program allows you to model

composite materials by using specialized
elements called layered elements.
 Once you build your model using these
elements, you can do any structural analysis.
 No layered elements are currently available for
thermal, magnetic, or electric field analysis.
ASPECTS OF BUILDING A COMPOSITE MODEL

##  Choosing the proper element type

 Defining the layered configuration

##  Specifying failure criteria

CHOOSING THE PROPER ELEMENT TYPE

## The following element types are available to

model composite materials.
 Linear Layered Structural Shell Element

##  3-D Layered Structural Solid Element

DEFINING THE LAYERED CONFIGURATION
For each layer, the following properties are specified
in the element :
 Material properties
 Layer orientation angle
 Layer thickness
Two methods are available to define the layered
configuration:
 Specifying Individual Layer Properties
 Defining the Constitutive Matrices
SPECIFYING FAILURE CRITERIA

## Failure criteria are used to learn if a layer has

failed due to the applied loads. The three
predefined criteria are:
 Maximum Strain Failure Criterion

##  Tsai-Wu Failure Criterion

Role of mixture Halpin-Tsai model
Unit cell of square array fibre packing geometry for RVE model

## Finite element mesh for different volume fraction

Stress distribution of matrix, fiber and composite during computing of E1
Comparison of finite element data, rule of mixtures and Halphin-Tasi results
for composite modulli E1 for different volume fration of fiber
Comparison of finite element data, rule of mixtures and Halphin-Tasi results
for composite modulli E2 for different volume fration of fiber
 https://www.scribd.com/doc/203342361/FEA
-Basics-very-imp-ppt#scribd
 http://mostreal.sk/html/guide_55/g-
str/GSTR1.htm