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FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

DEEPAK KUMAR G
SC14M080
 From Infinite to Finite…Hence theTerm “Finite
Element Method”
METHODS TO SOLVE ANY ENGINEERING PROBLEM
ARE FEA AND FEM DIFFERENT ?

 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Finite


Element Method (FEM) both are one & the
same.
 FEA is a method/process based upon FEM.

 Practical application of FEM is often known as


finite element analysis (FEA).
 Term “FEA” is more popular in industries while
“FEM” at Education centers.
NEED OF FEM
• Solutions Using Either Strength of Materials or Theory
of Elasticity Are Normally Accomplished for Regions
and Loadings With Relatively Simple Geometry.
• Many Applicaitons Involve Cases with Complex Shape,
Boundary Conditions and Material Behavior.
• Therefore a Gap Exists Between What Is Needed in
Applications and What Can Be Solved by Analytical
Closed-form Methods.
• This Has Lead to the Development of Several
Numerical/Computational Schemes Including: Finite
Difference, Finite Element and Boundary Element
Methods.
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD – WHAT IS IT?

 The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical


method of solving systems of partial differential
equations (PDEs)
 It reduces a PDE system to a system of algebraic
equations that can be solved using traditional
linear algebra techniques.
 In simple terms, FEM is a method for dividing up a
very complicated problem into small elements that
can be solved in relation to each other.
 The finite element method is a computational scheme
to solve field problems in engineering and science.
 The technique has very wide application, and has
been used on problems involving stress analysis, fluid
mechanics, heat transfer, diffusion, vibrations,
electrical and magnetic fields, etc.
ANALYSIS TYPES
 Structural analysis is the determination of the effects
of loads on physical structures and their components.
STEPS INVOLVED IN FEA
PRE PROCESSING
 Understanding the Problem (Thermal , Structural,
Dynamic etc)
 Element Selection (Solid , Shell , Beams etc)

 Deciding the Boundary Conditions(Constraints,


Connections etc..)
 Load Application (Point , Surface , Body loads etc..)

SOLUTION
 Deflection , Stress , Strain etc..
POST PROCESSING
 In-Depth study & interpretation of Analysis Results
 Report Preparation
 Observation and Conclusion from the Analysis
 Suggestion and Recommendation for Design Changes,
if required.
 The fundamental concept involves dividing the body
under study into a finite number of pieces
(subdomains) called elements.
 Finite element analysis starts with an approximation
of the region of interest into a number of meshes
(triangular elements in fig.). Each mesh is connected
to associated nodes (black dots) and thus becomes a
finite element.
 Consider a cantilever beam shown.
COMMON TYPES OF ELEMENTS
Two-Dimensional Elements
One-Dimensional Elements Triangular, Quadrilateral
Line Plates, Shells, 2-D Continua
Rods, Beams, Trusses, Frames

Three-Dimensional Elements
Tetrahedral, Rectangular Prism (Brick)
3-D Continua
TYPES OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS, LOADS &
RESULTS
Boundary Conditions :
 Fixed Boundary Conditions
 Prescribed Displacements
Loads:
 Point /Concentrated Load (Force)
 Surface Load (Pressure , Flux etc..
 Body Load (Temp , Inertia etc..)
Results:
 Displacement
 Reaction Forces
 Stresses /Strains
 Temperature etc..
USAGES OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
 Model Bodies of Complex Shape.
 Can Handle General Loading/Boundary Conditions.
 Models Bodies Composed of Composite and
Multiphase Materials.
 Model is Easily Refined for Improved Accuracy by
Varying Element Size and Type.
 Time Dependent and Dynamic Effects Can Be
Included.
 Can Handle a Variety Nonlinear Effects Including
Material Behavior, Large Deformations, Boundary
Conditions, Etc.
ADVANTAGES OF FEA
 Cost

 Design cycle time

 No. Of prototypes

 Testing

 Design optimization
APPLICATIONS OF FEM
 Mechanical / Aerospace / Civil Engineering /
Automobile Engineering
 Structural Analysis ( Static / Dynamic , Linear / Non-
Linear )
 Thermal Analysis ( Steady State / Transient )
 Electromagnetic Analysis
 Geomechanics
 Biomechanics etc….
MODELLING OF COMPOSITES

 The ANSYS program allows you to model


composite materials by using specialized
elements called layered elements.
 Once you build your model using these
elements, you can do any structural analysis.
 No layered elements are currently available for
thermal, magnetic, or electric field analysis.
ASPECTS OF BUILDING A COMPOSITE MODEL

 Choosing the proper element type


 Defining the layered configuration

 Specifying failure criteria


CHOOSING THE PROPER ELEMENT TYPE

The following element types are available to


model composite materials.
 Linear Layered Structural Shell Element

 Nonlinear Layered Structural Shell Element

 3-D Layered Structural Solid Element


DEFINING THE LAYERED CONFIGURATION
For each layer, the following properties are specified
in the element :
 Material properties
 Layer orientation angle
 Layer thickness
Two methods are available to define the layered
configuration:
 Specifying Individual Layer Properties
 Defining the Constitutive Matrices
SPECIFYING FAILURE CRITERIA

Failure criteria are used to learn if a layer has


failed due to the applied loads. The three
predefined criteria are:
 Maximum Strain Failure Criterion

 Maximum Stress Failure Criterion

 Tsai-Wu Failure Criterion


Role of mixture Halpin-Tsai model
Unit cell of square array fibre packing geometry for RVE model

Finite element mesh for different volume fraction


Stress distribution of matrix, fiber and composite during computing of E1
Comparison of finite element data, rule of mixtures and Halphin-Tasi results
for composite modulli E1 for different volume fration of fiber
Comparison of finite element data, rule of mixtures and Halphin-Tasi results
for composite modulli E2 for different volume fration of fiber
 https://www.scribd.com/doc/203342361/FEA
-Basics-very-imp-ppt#scribd
 http://mostreal.sk/html/guide_55/g-
str/GSTR1.htm