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wave
 Disturbance that travels through a medium from one location to another location

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Waves Properties
 Reflection
 Interference
 Absorption
 Refraction
 Diffraction
 Polarization
 Dispersion

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TECHNOLOGY, ISLAMABAD
Wave Theory
 All the particles exhibit both wave and particle
nature.
 The photoelectric effect,
 Heisenberg principle of uncertainty,
 Concept of quantum or packet of light and the
wave nature are all the part of the developments
in wave theory

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Types of Wave
 Waves come in many shapes and forms.
 All waves share some basic characteristic properties and
behaviours,
 Some waves can be distinguished from others based on
some characteristics.
 Differentiating it by the means of the medium in which
they travel.
 Waves can be classified into:
1) Mechanical Waves
2) Electromagnetic Waves
3) Matter Waves

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Mechanical Waves
 Not capable of transmitting its energy through a vacuum.
 Transmitted by intermolecular forces and collisions b/w
the molecules.
 Periodic disturbance,
 Energy and momentum propagates by motion of
particles of medium but medium remains at previous
position.
 Elastic waves because their propagation depends upon
the elastic properties of the medium
 Medium particles vibrate to and fro about their mean
position

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Examples & Types
 Sound waves, water waves, ocean waves, vibration of
string, earthquake waves, ultra sounds, vibrations in
gas, and oscillations in spring, internal water waves,
and waves in slink etc.
 Mechanical waves can be classified into three types:
1. Transverse waves
2. Longitudinal Waves
3. Surface Waves

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Medium’s properties for the propagation
of the waves
1) The medium should be able to return to its
original condition after being disturbed, i.e.
the medium must possess elasticity.
2) The medium must be capable of storing energy.
3) The frictional resistance must be negligible, so
as not to damp the oscillatory movement.
 These are the waves also observed in the electrons and
particles.
.

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Electromagnetic Waves
Definition
 Disturbance through any medium of substance.
 Generated by coupling of magnetic with electric
field.
 Waves are in perpendicular direction to both the
electric and magnetic and also perpendicular to each
other.
 Maxwell discovered that changing electric field
induced magnetic field and also vice-versa.
 These waves are existed due to change in these fields.
These are continued till it is not absorbed by matter.

.
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Perpendicularity of
Electric and Magnetic
Field Electromagnetic Spectrum

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Wave equation

𝜕𝐷
 𝛻𝑋𝐻=𝐽 +
𝜕𝑡
𝜕𝐷
 𝛻𝑋𝛻𝑋𝐻 =𝛻𝑋𝐽+𝛻𝑋
𝜕𝑡
Putting D=ɛE and J=gE and assuming ɛ and g are constant,
𝜕
we obtain 𝛻 𝑋 𝛻 𝑋 𝐻 = 𝑔𝛻 𝑋 𝐸 + ɛ 𝛻𝑋𝐸
𝜕𝑡

 The order of time and space differentiation can be


interchanged if E is sufficiently well behaved function as,
we assume to be the case.
𝜕𝐵
 Equation 𝛻 𝑋 𝐸 = − can now be used to eliminate
𝜕𝑡
𝜕𝐻 𝜕2 𝐻
∇ X E, yielding 𝛻 𝑋 𝛻 𝑋 𝐻 = −𝑔𝜇
𝜕𝑡
− ɛ𝜇
𝜕𝑡 2
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CONTD
Where B=𝛍H, with a 𝛍 a constant, has been used . The
operator identity
Ax(BxC)=(A.C)B-(A.B)C
Is now used to obtain
𝜕𝐻 𝜕2 𝐻
𝛻𝛻. 𝐻 − 𝛻2 𝐻= −𝑔𝜇 − ɛ𝜇
𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡 2
1
Since μ is constant, 𝛻. 𝐻 = 𝛻. 𝐵 = 0
μ
Consequently the first term on the left side of eq vanishes
,the final wave equation is
2
2
𝜕 𝐻 𝜕𝐻
𝛻 𝐻 − ɛ𝜇 2
− 𝑔𝜇 =0
𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡

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Condt
 The vector E. satisfies the same wave equation as is
readily seen by first taking the curl of eq

𝜕𝐵 𝜕𝐵
𝛻𝑋𝐸=− 𝛻 𝑋 𝛻 𝑋 𝐸 = −𝛻 𝑋
𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡

𝜕𝐷
 Using eq 𝛻 𝑋 𝐻 = 𝐽 + to eliminate the magnetic
𝜕𝑡
field and treating g, μ and ε as constant yields

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Condt
 Applying the vector quantity and restricting the
application of the equation to a charge free medium so
that 𝛻. 𝐷 = 0 gives
2
2
𝜕 𝐸 𝜕𝐸
𝛻 𝐸 − ɛ𝜇 2
− 𝑔𝜇 =0
𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡
 The wave equations derived above govern the EM field
in homogeneous , linear medium in which the charge
density is zero.
 whether these mediums is conducting or non-
conducting . However it is not enough that these
equations be satisfied
 Maxwell equations must also be satisfied.

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Monochromatic Waves
 Monochromatic waves are waves in which all the fields are
characterized by a single frequency.
 In this case, we can solve fol Eq to find the E
𝜕 2𝐸 𝜕𝐸
2
𝛻 𝐸 − ɛ𝜇 − 𝑔𝜇 =0
𝜕𝑡 2 𝜕𝑡

 Use Maxwell’s eqs and the constitutive relations to find the


other fields. This obviously guarantees that Maxwell’s
equation will be satisfied
 The methods of complex analysis provide a convenient way
of implementing this procedure. The time dependence of
the field (for definiteness we take the vector E ) is taken to
be as 𝑒 −𝑖𝑤𝑡 , so that
𝐸 𝑟, 𝑡 = 𝐸(𝑟)𝑒 −𝑖𝑤𝑡

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 It must be remembered that the physical EF is
obtained by taking the real part of previous Eq.
 E(r) is in general complex, so that the actual EF field
is proportional to cos(𝑤𝑡 + 𝜙)
 where ϕ is the phase of E(r) Using eq 11 in Eq (10)
gives
𝑒 −𝑖𝑤𝑡 𝛻 2 𝐸 + 𝑤 2 𝜇𝐸 + 𝑖𝑤𝑔𝜇𝐸 = 0
• for the eq governing the spatial variation of the EF
( the common factor 𝑒 −𝑖𝑤𝑡 can be dropped ).
• The next task is to solve Eq 11 in various special cases of
interest to determine the spatial variation of the EM
field

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 First, suppose that “ medium” is empty space, so that g = 0, ℰ = ℰ0, μ =
μ0. Further, suppose E(r) varies in only one dimension, say the z-
direction, and is independent of x and y. Then Eq (12) becomes
𝑑 2 𝐸(𝑧) 𝑤 2
+ 𝑬=0
𝑑𝑧 2 𝑐
where ℰ0 𝜇0 = 1/𝑐 2 , c has the dimensions of a velocity.
 This equation (Helmboltz Equation) is mathematically the same as the
harmonic oscillator equation and has solutions
𝐸 𝑧 = 𝐸0 𝑒 ±𝑖𝑘𝑧
Where E0 is constant vector and
𝑘 = 𝑤/𝑐
 Putting this E(r) into the eq 11, we get the full solution
𝐸 𝑟, 𝑡 = 𝑬0 𝑒 −𝑖(𝑤𝑡±𝑘𝑧)
 Or taking the real part,
𝐸 𝑟, 𝑡 = 𝑬0 cos(𝑤𝑡 ± 𝑘𝑧)
 An equivalent form is

𝐸 𝑟, 𝑡 = 𝑬0 cos w(𝑡 ± 𝑧/𝑐)

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BOUNDARY CONDITION
 The BC that must be satisfied by the electric and
magnetic fields at an interface between two media are
deduced from Maxwell’s equations
 The most straight forward and universal BC applies to
the magnetic induction B, which satisfies the Maxwell
equations 𝛻. 𝐵 = 0
A pillbox-shaped surface at the
interface between two media may be
used to obtain boundary conditions on
the field vectors

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 At any interface between two media a pillbox-like surface may be constructed as
shown in Fig 8 . The divergence theorem may be applied to the divergence
applied to the divergence of B over the volume enclosed by this surface, to obtain

 If B is bounded, letting h approach zero causes the last term to vanish and S1 to
approach S2 geometrically. Taking account of the opposite directions of n1 and n2
it is quickly concluded that 𝐵1𝑛 = 𝐵2𝑛
 exactly as in the static case.

 The tangential component of the EF can be treated in as equally simple way. The
basic eq is again one of Maxwell’s equation
𝜕𝐁
𝛻 𝑋 𝐸 + 𝜕𝑡 = 0
 Integration of this eq over the surface bounded by a rectangular loop such as that
shown in fig yields and applying Stokes theorem to the left side gives

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 If the loop is now shrunk by letting h1 and h2 go to zero, the last four terms on
the left vanish, as does the right hand side’
𝜕𝐁
 provided only that is bounded. The resulting eq contains l as common factor
𝜕𝑡
that can be dropped, giving
𝐸1𝑡 = 𝐸2𝑡
 Thus the tangential component of E must be continuous across the interface.
 The BC on the normal component of the electric displacement is more
complex; however, it too is derived from one of the Maxwell’s equations.
 The appropriate eq in this case is 𝛻. 𝐷 = 𝜌
 If we construct a pillbox-shaped volume, shown in fig and integrate eq over
this volume, we obtain

 Applying the divergence theorem and letting h go to zero, we find


(𝐷1𝑛 − 𝐷2𝑛 ) = 𝜎

 Where σ is the surface density on the interface.


 The fact that, in general, σ is not zero introduces some complexity in this BC;
however by noting that charge must be conserved that is
𝜕𝑐
𝐽1𝑛− 𝐽2𝑛 = 𝜕𝑡

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 Fot monochromatic radiation, the surface charge density must vary as 𝑒 −𝑖𝑤𝑡 ;
therefore the right side of eq 38 can be written as 𝑖𝑤𝜎. Using the constitutive
relations 𝐷 = 𝜀𝐸 , 𝐽 = 𝑔𝐸 puts eq 37- 38 in the form 𝜀1 𝐸1𝑛 − 𝜀2 𝐸2𝑛 = 𝜎
 𝑔1 𝐸1𝑛 − 𝑔2 𝐸2𝑛 = 𝑖𝑤𝜎
 40
𝜀 𝜀
 Several cases of practical interest may be noted, if σ is zero then 1 = 2
𝑔1 𝑔2
 41
 Which can be true for appropriately chosen materials or alternatively, if 𝑔1 =
𝑔2 = 0 𝑜𝑟 
 43
 42
 The case where both conductivities are infinite is not of great interest; however,
the case where both conductivities vanish is approximately realized at the
boundary between two good dielectrics. If σ is not zero which is perhaps a
more common case, them it may be eliminated from eq 39 -40 . The result of
𝑔 𝑔
this elimination is 𝜀1 + 𝑖 𝑤1 𝐸1𝑛 − 𝜀2 + 𝑖 𝑤2 𝐸2𝑛 = 0
 A final interesting case occurs when one conductivity, say g2 , is infinite . In this
case𝐸2𝑛

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 A final interesting case occurs when one conductivity,
say g2 , is infinite . In this case𝐸2𝑛
 must vanish and 𝐸1𝑛 must equal 𝜎/𝜀1 in order for eq
40 and eq 39 to be satisfied.
 44
 The final boundary condition is that imposed on the
tangential component of the magnetic intensity H.
This boundary condition is obtained by integrating the
𝜕𝐷
Maxwell equation 𝛻 𝑋 𝐻 = + 𝐽
𝜕𝑡

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The rectangular path shown at the
interface between the two media may
be used to obtain boundary conditions
on the field vector

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Reflection And Refraction
 Laws of reflection
 Laws of refractions

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Reflection and Transmission at
normal incidence

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 E1 = iE1x 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘1 𝑧−ω𝑡) , E′1 = −iE′1x 𝑒 −𝑖(𝑘1 𝑧+ω𝑡) , E2 = iE2x 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘2 𝑧−ω𝑡)

ω ω
κ1 = n1 and κ2 = n2
c c
 Where n1 and n2 are indices of refraction of the two media
n
෡=
B 𝐮 × 𝐄෠
c
 𝐮 = 𝐤 for the incident and transmitted waves and 𝐮 = −𝐤 for the
reflected wave, the magnetic fields associated with the electric fields
of above eqs are given by
cB1 = 𝐣n1 E1x 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘1 𝑧−ω𝑡)
cB′1 = 𝐣n1 E′1x 𝑒 −𝑖(𝑘1 𝑧+ω𝑡) ,
cB2 = 𝐣n2 E2x 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘2 𝑧−ω𝑡)

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 The E-field must be cont at the boundary, so from
above Eqs at 𝐳 = 𝟎,
E1x − E′1x = E2x
 The H-field must also be continuous, and for non
magnetic media (μ1 = μ2 = μ0 ) so must the B-field
n1 (E1x − E ′1x ) = n2 E2x
 Solved simultaneously for the amplitudes E ′1x and
E2x in terms of the given amplitude E1x of the incident
wave:
n2 −n1 2n1
E′ 1x = E , E2x = E
n2 +n1 1x n2 +n1 1x

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E′ 1x E2x
 Special notation used = r12 , = t12 for
E1x E1x
determination of field ratios
 r12 and t12 are called Fersnel coefficients for normal
incidence for reflection and transmission, resp.
 waves incident 1 on 2 medium
 The Solution is given by
n2 −n1 2n1
r12 = , t12 =
n2 +n1 n2 +n1

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Reflection and Refraction at the boundary of
Two Non-conducting Media: Oblique Incidence
෡1p 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘1 𝑧−ω𝑡)
 E1 = E
෡′1p 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘1 𝑧+ω𝑡)
 E′1 = E
෡2x 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘2 𝑧−ω𝑡)
 E2 = E
where E ෡1p = E ෡ 1p = E′
෡1p P1, E′ ෡ 1p P′1 , E
෡2p =
෡2p P2 .
E
 The propagation vectors are
κ1 = κl 𝐮1 ,and so on, and the unit
normal to the boundary is n = k.
 The plane defined by κ1 and n is called
the plane of incidence, and its normal is
in direction of 𝐧 × κ1 .In fact,
(n × κ1 ) ∕ |n × κ1 | = 𝐣,
 unit vector in the y direction
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 The p-component of polarization has been chosen to
lie parallel to the plane of incidence (p for
"parallel").In general there is also an s-component (not
shown in Fig. 12) of the amplitude of each wave, E ෡1s =
E ෡ 1s = E′
෡1s s1 , E′ ෡ 1s s′1 ,E
෡2s = E
෡2s s2 .For each of the three
waves s = 𝐮 × 𝐩and p = 𝐬 × 𝐮 ,so that
 s1 = s′1 = s2 = j

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Reflection and Refraction at the boundary of Two Non-
conducting Media: Oblique Incidence condt
 With oblique incidence, it is clear from Eqs that not
only must the reflected and transmitted waves have
the same frequency as the incidence wave, but also the
phases must match everywhere on the boundary
κ′1 . r0 = κ1 . r0 = κ2 . r0
 The first of these is that the four vectorsκ1 , κ′1 , κ2 and
n are all coplanar. To prove this statement, we use the
vector identity
 𝑛 × 𝑛 × 𝑅 = 𝑛 𝑛. 𝑅 − 𝑅(𝑛. 𝑛)

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 which holds for any two vectors. If n is a unit vector and
R ┴ n, as is the case for normal to the boundary plane and r0
𝑛 × 𝑛 × r0 = −r0
 Writing r0 in this form in Eq.75 and interchanging the scalar
multiplication with the first vector multiplication gives
 κ1 × 𝑛 . 𝑛 × r0 = κ′1 × 𝑛 . 𝑛 × r0 = κ2 × 𝑛 . (𝑛 × r0 )
 r0 is an arbitrary vector in the boundary plane, 𝑛 × r0 is
also arbitrary (it is the same length as r0 but is
perpendicular to it).Consequently
𝑛 × κ1 = 𝑛 × κ′1 = 𝑛 × κ2
 plane containing n and κ1 . By using 𝐴. (𝐴 × 𝐵) = 0,it
follows in turn ,that
 κ1 . κ1 × 𝑛 = κ′1 κ1 × 𝑛 = κ2 κ1 × 𝑛 = 𝑛. (κ1 × 𝑛) = 0
 Thus κ, κ′1 , κ2 and n 𝑛′ .Consequently all four vectors lie

in the plane of incidence and are coplanar

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 The second consequence of Eq.75 is that the angle of incidence is equal
to the angle of reflection. The angle of incidence 𝜃1 is given by
 κ1 . 𝑛 = κ1 cos 𝜃1
 κ′1 . 𝑛 = −κ′1 cos 𝜃′1
 κ2 . 𝑛 = κ2 cos 𝜃2
 |κ1 × 𝑛| = κ1 sin 𝜃1
 κ′1 × 𝑛 = κ′1 sin 𝜃 ′1
 κ2 × 𝑛 = κ2 sin 𝜃2
 then requires that κ′1 sin 𝜃 ′1 = κ1 sin 𝜃1 = κ2 sin 𝜃2
 The magnitude κ′1 of the reflected wave equals κ1 of the incident wave,
since they are propagating with the same frequency in the same
medium. Thus sin 𝜃1 = sin 𝜃 ′1 , 𝜃1 = 𝜃 ′1
 The third consequence is Snell's law. It too follows from the preceding
argument and use of the dispersion relation, Eq.55,to change the κ′s to
𝑛′𝑠.The result n1 sin 𝜃1 = n2 sin 𝜃2 is Snell’s law
 None of these three consequences depends on the B.C for the E and H
derived from Maxwell's equations.

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Fresnel coefficients (F.C)
 It is the ratios of the field amp for oblique incidence, Need the B.C on the tangential
components of the fields.
 To express it in vector form, consider the vector identity
𝑛 × 𝑛 × 𝐸෠ = 𝑛. 𝐸෠ 𝑛 − 𝐸෠ 𝐸෠ = 𝑛. 𝐸෠ 𝑛 − 𝑛 × (𝑛 × 𝐸)

෠ is just the normal component of 𝐸,


 Since (n.𝐸)n ෠ the remainder has to be the tangential
component, −𝑛 × (𝑛 × 𝐸),෠ for any vector 𝐸.Then
෠ the B.C on the E-field becomes 𝑛 ×
෠ ෠ ෠
𝐸1 + 𝐸′1 = 𝑛 × 𝐸2

𝑛 × 𝐵෠1 + 𝐵′
෠ 1 = 𝑛 × 𝐵෠2

 The Maxwell curl eq relate 𝐸෠ and 𝐵෠ to each other in each medium. With the dispersion
𝑛
relations these take the form 𝐵෠ = 𝑢 × 𝐸෠
𝑐
𝑛
 its equivalent 𝐸෠ = − 𝑢 × 𝐵෠ , on substitution
𝑐
෢′1 = n2 𝑛 × (u2 × 𝐸෠2 )
n1 𝑛 × u1 × 𝐸෠1 + u′1 × 𝐸

෢′1 and 𝐸෠2 in terms of 𝐸෠1 .We can expand the vector triple Products:
 solved for 𝐸
 𝑛 ×(u1 × 𝐸෠1 ) = 𝑢. 𝐸෠1 u1 − (𝑛. u1 )𝐸෠1

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 For the s-component ෡
𝐸1𝑠 , for which 𝑛. 𝐸෠1𝑠 = 0, this
expression simplifies considerably:
 𝑛 ×(u1 × 𝐸෠1𝑠 ) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 𝐸෠2𝑠
 Since n.u1= 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 from eq 81-83.
 Thus for s-component , Eq 97 becomes
𝑛1 (𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 𝐸෠1𝑠 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1′ 𝐸෠1𝑠

) = 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2 . 𝐸෠2𝑠
 since 𝛳1′ = 𝛳1 𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 (𝐸෠1𝑠 − 𝐸෠1𝑠′
) = 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2 . 𝐸෠2𝑠
 Taking the cross product of eq 93 with n gives for the s-
component 𝐸෠1𝑠 + 𝐸෠1𝑠 ′
= 𝐸෠2𝑠
 No such simplification occurs for the p-component and so
we are led to consider the two polarization components
separately. put Eq 96 into eq 93 will make a corresponding
simplification for the p-polarized case

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 S-polarization. Eq 101 and 102 are easily solved simultaneously, we get 𝐸෠1𝑠

= 𝑟12𝑠 𝐸෠1𝑠 ,
෠ ෠
𝐸2𝑠 = 𝑡12𝑠 𝐸1𝑠
𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 − 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2
𝑟12𝑠 =
𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 + 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2
2𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1
𝑡12𝑠 =
𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 + 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2

 P-polarization. When the E-vectors all lie in the plane of incidence eq 95 shows that the
corresponding B-vectors all lie along the s-direction. The choice of E-vectors in fig 12 was made
so that all the corresponding B-vectors point in the +j direction. This time we substitute eq 96 into
93. since 𝑛. 𝐵෠1𝑠 = 0 = 𝑛. 𝐵෠1𝑠′
= 𝑛. 𝐵෠2𝑠 the result simplifies to
1 1
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 (𝐵෠1𝑠 − 𝐵෠1𝑠

)= 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2 . 𝐵෠2𝑠
𝑛1 𝑛2
 Also eq 94 simplifies to 𝐵෠1𝑠 + 𝐵෠1𝑠′
= 𝐵෠2𝑠
 We can write the solution of Eq 107 and 108 as 𝐵෠1𝑠 ′
= 𝑟12𝑝 𝐵෠1𝑠
𝑛 𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 −𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2
𝐵෠2𝑠 = 2 𝑡12𝑝 𝐵෠1𝑠 𝑟12𝑝 = 1
𝑛1 𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 +𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2
2𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1
𝑡12𝑝 =
𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 + 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2
𝐸෠1𝑝

= 𝑟12𝑝 𝐸෠1𝑝 ,
𝐸෠2𝑝 = 𝑡12 𝐸෠1𝑝

 For normal incidence 𝛳1 = 0 and according to the Snell’s law𝛳12 = 0 as well. Thus Eq 111 to 113-
114 reduce to eq 63 and 64 for normal incidence .Eq 106 becomes identical to eq 112, but from eq
105, we find that 𝑟12𝑠 = 𝑟12𝑝

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 For normal incidence, the plane of incidence is undefined, and so the physical result has to be
independent of polarization.

 The difference arises only because 𝐸1𝑝 and 𝐸1𝑠 point in opposite directions in fig 12 when 𝛳1 goes to

zero, whereas 𝐸1𝑠 and 𝐸1𝑠 point in the same direction. For s-polarization, the F.C are relations b/w
the E-vectors. Eq 103-104
 For p-polarization, they are relations only between their magnitudes, Eq 113-114, since the E-vectors
all point in different directions with oblique incidence. Using Snell’s law, we could write
𝑛1 2
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2 = 1 − ( ) 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛳1
𝑛2
 And thereby express the F.C entirely in terms of material parameters n1,n2 and the given incident
angle 𝛳1 .

 Relations b/w the intensities can again be obtained from the F.C, treating each polarization direction
separately.
 We define the reflectance and transmittance as the component of the respective time-averaged
Poynting vectors that is normal to the boundary, relative to the normal component of the incident
𝒏.Ŝ′𝟏𝒔 𝒏.Ŝ𝟐𝒔
Poynting vector. 𝑹𝒔 = ,𝑻𝒔 =
𝒏.Ŝ𝟏𝒔 𝒏.Ŝ𝟏𝒔
𝒏.Ŝ′𝟏𝒑 𝒏.Ŝ𝟐𝒑
 𝑹𝒑 = , 𝑻𝒑 =
𝒏.Ŝ𝟏𝒑 𝒏.Ŝ𝟏𝒑

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2 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2 2
 In terms of the .F.C ,we have 𝑅𝑠 = 𝑟12𝑠 , 𝑇𝑠 = 𝑡12𝑠
𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1
2 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2 2
 𝑅𝑝 = 𝑟12𝑝 , 𝑇𝑝 = 𝑡12𝑝
𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1
 The identities 𝑅𝑠 + 𝑇𝑆 = 1 , 𝑅𝑝 + 𝑇𝑝 = 1
 Hold for oblique incidence on a non-conductor.
 For certain purposes, it is more convenient to have the F.C in the
following forms:-
sin(𝛳2 −𝛳1 )
 𝑟12𝑠 =
𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝛳2 +𝛳1 )
2 cos 𝛳1 sin𝛳2
 𝑡12𝑠 =
𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝛳2 +𝛳1 )
𝑡𝑎𝑛(𝛳1 −𝛳2 )
 𝑟12𝑝 =
𝑡𝑎𝑛(𝛳1 +𝛳2 )
2 cos 𝛳1 sin𝛳2
 𝑡12𝑝 =
𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝛳1 +𝛳2 )𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝛳1 −𝛳2 )
 These are easily seen to be equivalent to the above forms by
using trigonometric identities and Snell’s law

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BREWSTER’S ANGLE: CRITICAL ANGLE
 consider the dependence of R and T on the angle of
incidence for the case of two no conducting media, using
the Fresnel coefficient derived in the preceding section. In
every case, T=1 – R, so we will discuss only R. We have
already examined the case of normal incidence θ1= 0; The
polarization does not matter, and R is greater the more the
ratio n2/n1 differs from unity. For grazing incidence θ1=π/2,
cos θ1=0 and Rs =1=Rp , as can be seen most easily from
Eqs 105 and 111. Near grading incidence and reflectance is
large; this high reflectance is the reason a calm lake is like a
mirror. For intermediate angles of incidence, there are two
particularly interesting angles.

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 Can there be a case of zero reflectance? Eq.121 and
eq.123 show that there can. If θ1= θ2, Snell’s law
requires that n2= n1 that is, two media are optically
indistinguishable. If, on the other hand, θ1+ θ2=π/2,
then tan (θ1+ θ2) is infinite and the amplitude of the p-
polarized reflected wave is again zero. In this case the
media are optically distinguishable. Since the s-
polarization, E perpendicular to the plane of
incidence, is partially reflected, unpolarised by
reflection. Snell’s law
n1Sin θ1 = n2 Sin θ2

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 provides a means for determining the value of θ1,
Using θ2 = π/2 θ1 in Snell’s law gives
𝜋
 𝑛1 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃𝐵 = 𝑛2 𝑆𝑖𝑛 − 𝜃𝐵 = 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝐵
2
𝑛2
 Or 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃𝐵 =
𝑛1
 The quantity 𝜃𝐵 is known as Brewster’s angle;
relationship between it and the indices of refraction as
given in Eq 127 is known as Brewster’s Law

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𝑛2
 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑐 =
𝑛1
 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃𝐵 = 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑐
 For incidence from the glass
side θB = 34o and θc= 42o.
 For incident angles greater than
the critical angle
θ1 > θ2 , Snell’s law given
𝑛1 𝑛1 Reflectance for s’ and p-polarization at
 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃2 = 𝑆𝑖𝑛 θ1 > 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑐 an air-glass interface, Brewster’s angle
𝑛2 𝑛2
is θB = 56o
𝑛2
 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑐 =
𝑛1
 s𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑐 > 1

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 There is, of course, no real angle whose sine is greater
than one, The result is that
Rs=Rp = 1 for all θ1≥ θc . This perfect reflection is called
total internal reflection. It is easily observed by liking
into a glass prism or an aquarium or by looking up
when swimming under water. It has a very important
practical application in the optical fibre, a fine glass
fibre through which a light beam is transmitted as in a
waveguide for microwaves.

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For non polar materials
 For non polar materials, the same relations hold at all
lower frequencies (but not in the =ultraviolet and
higher frequencies ranges). They do not hold at all
lower frequencies for optically transparent polar
materials made of polar molecules (e.g water) or ions
(e.g rocksalt).Since K is frequency dependent

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