Presentation on Waves

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Presentation on Waves

© All Rights Reserved

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wave

Disturbance that travels through a medium from one location to another location

TECHNOLOGY, ISLAMABAD

Waves Properties

Reflection

Interference

Absorption

Refraction

Diffraction

Polarization

Dispersion

TECHNOLOGY, ISLAMABAD

Wave Theory

All the particles exhibit both wave and particle

nature.

The photoelectric effect,

Heisenberg principle of uncertainty,

Concept of quantum or packet of light and the

wave nature are all the part of the developments

in wave theory

TECHNOLOGY, ISLAMABAD

Types of Wave

Waves come in many shapes and forms.

All waves share some basic characteristic properties and

behaviours,

Some waves can be distinguished from others based on

some characteristics.

Differentiating it by the means of the medium in which

they travel.

Waves can be classified into:

1) Mechanical Waves

2) Electromagnetic Waves

3) Matter Waves

Mechanical Waves

Not capable of transmitting its energy through a vacuum.

Transmitted by intermolecular forces and collisions b/w

the molecules.

Periodic disturbance,

Energy and momentum propagates by motion of

particles of medium but medium remains at previous

position.

Elastic waves because their propagation depends upon

the elastic properties of the medium

Medium particles vibrate to and fro about their mean

position

Examples & Types

Sound waves, water waves, ocean waves, vibration of

string, earthquake waves, ultra sounds, vibrations in

gas, and oscillations in spring, internal water waves,

and waves in slink etc.

Mechanical waves can be classified into three types:

1. Transverse waves

2. Longitudinal Waves

3. Surface Waves

Medium’s properties for the propagation

of the waves

1) The medium should be able to return to its

original condition after being disturbed, i.e.

the medium must possess elasticity.

2) The medium must be capable of storing energy.

3) The frictional resistance must be negligible, so

as not to damp the oscillatory movement.

These are the waves also observed in the electrons and

particles.

.

Electromagnetic Waves

Definition

Disturbance through any medium of substance.

Generated by coupling of magnetic with electric

field.

Waves are in perpendicular direction to both the

electric and magnetic and also perpendicular to each

other.

Maxwell discovered that changing electric field

induced magnetic field and also vice-versa.

These waves are existed due to change in these fields.

These are continued till it is not absorbed by matter.

.

COMSATS INSTITUE OF INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY, ISLAMABAD

Perpendicularity of

Electric and Magnetic

Field Electromagnetic Spectrum

Wave equation

𝜕𝐷

𝛻𝑋𝐻=𝐽 +

𝜕𝑡

𝜕𝐷

𝛻𝑋𝛻𝑋𝐻 =𝛻𝑋𝐽+𝛻𝑋

𝜕𝑡

Putting D=ɛE and J=gE and assuming ɛ and g are constant,

𝜕

we obtain 𝛻 𝑋 𝛻 𝑋 𝐻 = 𝑔𝛻 𝑋 𝐸 + ɛ 𝛻𝑋𝐸

𝜕𝑡

interchanged if E is sufficiently well behaved function as,

we assume to be the case.

𝜕𝐵

Equation 𝛻 𝑋 𝐸 = − can now be used to eliminate

𝜕𝑡

𝜕𝐻 𝜕2 𝐻

∇ X E, yielding 𝛻 𝑋 𝛻 𝑋 𝐻 = −𝑔𝜇

𝜕𝑡

− ɛ𝜇

𝜕𝑡 2

COMSATS INSTITUE OF INFORMATION AND

TECHNOLOGY, ISLAMABAD

CONTD

Where B=𝛍H, with a 𝛍 a constant, has been used . The

operator identity

Ax(BxC)=(A.C)B-(A.B)C

Is now used to obtain

𝜕𝐻 𝜕2 𝐻

𝛻𝛻. 𝐻 − 𝛻2 𝐻= −𝑔𝜇 − ɛ𝜇

𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡 2

1

Since μ is constant, 𝛻. 𝐻 = 𝛻. 𝐵 = 0

μ

Consequently the first term on the left side of eq vanishes

,the final wave equation is

2

2

𝜕 𝐻 𝜕𝐻

𝛻 𝐻 − ɛ𝜇 2

− 𝑔𝜇 =0

𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡

Condt

The vector E. satisfies the same wave equation as is

readily seen by first taking the curl of eq

𝜕𝐵 𝜕𝐵

𝛻𝑋𝐸=− 𝛻 𝑋 𝛻 𝑋 𝐸 = −𝛻 𝑋

𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡

𝜕𝐷

Using eq 𝛻 𝑋 𝐻 = 𝐽 + to eliminate the magnetic

𝜕𝑡

field and treating g, μ and ε as constant yields

Condt

Applying the vector quantity and restricting the

application of the equation to a charge free medium so

that 𝛻. 𝐷 = 0 gives

2

2

𝜕 𝐸 𝜕𝐸

𝛻 𝐸 − ɛ𝜇 2

− 𝑔𝜇 =0

𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡

The wave equations derived above govern the EM field

in homogeneous , linear medium in which the charge

density is zero.

whether these mediums is conducting or non-

conducting . However it is not enough that these

equations be satisfied

Maxwell equations must also be satisfied.

Monochromatic Waves

Monochromatic waves are waves in which all the fields are

characterized by a single frequency.

In this case, we can solve fol Eq to find the E

𝜕 2𝐸 𝜕𝐸

2

𝛻 𝐸 − ɛ𝜇 − 𝑔𝜇 =0

𝜕𝑡 2 𝜕𝑡

other fields. This obviously guarantees that Maxwell’s

equation will be satisfied

The methods of complex analysis provide a convenient way

of implementing this procedure. The time dependence of

the field (for definiteness we take the vector E ) is taken to

be as 𝑒 −𝑖𝑤𝑡 , so that

𝐸 𝑟, 𝑡 = 𝐸(𝑟)𝑒 −𝑖𝑤𝑡

It must be remembered that the physical EF is

obtained by taking the real part of previous Eq.

E(r) is in general complex, so that the actual EF field

is proportional to cos(𝑤𝑡 + 𝜙)

where ϕ is the phase of E(r) Using eq 11 in Eq (10)

gives

𝑒 −𝑖𝑤𝑡 𝛻 2 𝐸 + 𝑤 2 𝜇𝐸 + 𝑖𝑤𝑔𝜇𝐸 = 0

• for the eq governing the spatial variation of the EF

( the common factor 𝑒 −𝑖𝑤𝑡 can be dropped ).

• The next task is to solve Eq 11 in various special cases of

interest to determine the spatial variation of the EM

field

First, suppose that “ medium” is empty space, so that g = 0, ℰ = ℰ0, μ =

μ0. Further, suppose E(r) varies in only one dimension, say the z-

direction, and is independent of x and y. Then Eq (12) becomes

𝑑 2 𝐸(𝑧) 𝑤 2

+ 𝑬=0

𝑑𝑧 2 𝑐

where ℰ0 𝜇0 = 1/𝑐 2 , c has the dimensions of a velocity.

This equation (Helmboltz Equation) is mathematically the same as the

harmonic oscillator equation and has solutions

𝐸 𝑧 = 𝐸0 𝑒 ±𝑖𝑘𝑧

Where E0 is constant vector and

𝑘 = 𝑤/𝑐

Putting this E(r) into the eq 11, we get the full solution

𝐸 𝑟, 𝑡 = 𝑬0 𝑒 −𝑖(𝑤𝑡±𝑘𝑧)

Or taking the real part,

𝐸 𝑟, 𝑡 = 𝑬0 cos(𝑤𝑡 ± 𝑘𝑧)

An equivalent form is

𝐸 𝑟, 𝑡 = 𝑬0 cos w(𝑡 ± 𝑧/𝑐)

BOUNDARY CONDITION

The BC that must be satisfied by the electric and

magnetic fields at an interface between two media are

deduced from Maxwell’s equations

The most straight forward and universal BC applies to

the magnetic induction B, which satisfies the Maxwell

equations 𝛻. 𝐵 = 0

A pillbox-shaped surface at the

interface between two media may be

used to obtain boundary conditions on

the field vectors

At any interface between two media a pillbox-like surface may be constructed as

shown in Fig 8 . The divergence theorem may be applied to the divergence

applied to the divergence of B over the volume enclosed by this surface, to obtain

If B is bounded, letting h approach zero causes the last term to vanish and S1 to

approach S2 geometrically. Taking account of the opposite directions of n1 and n2

it is quickly concluded that 𝐵1𝑛 = 𝐵2𝑛

exactly as in the static case.

The tangential component of the EF can be treated in as equally simple way. The

basic eq is again one of Maxwell’s equation

𝜕𝐁

𝛻 𝑋 𝐸 + 𝜕𝑡 = 0

Integration of this eq over the surface bounded by a rectangular loop such as that

shown in fig yields and applying Stokes theorem to the left side gives

If the loop is now shrunk by letting h1 and h2 go to zero, the last four terms on

the left vanish, as does the right hand side’

𝜕𝐁

provided only that is bounded. The resulting eq contains l as common factor

𝜕𝑡

that can be dropped, giving

𝐸1𝑡 = 𝐸2𝑡

Thus the tangential component of E must be continuous across the interface.

The BC on the normal component of the electric displacement is more

complex; however, it too is derived from one of the Maxwell’s equations.

The appropriate eq in this case is 𝛻. 𝐷 = 𝜌

If we construct a pillbox-shaped volume, shown in fig and integrate eq over

this volume, we obtain

(𝐷1𝑛 − 𝐷2𝑛 ) = 𝜎

The fact that, in general, σ is not zero introduces some complexity in this BC;

however by noting that charge must be conserved that is

𝜕𝑐

𝐽1𝑛− 𝐽2𝑛 = 𝜕𝑡

Fot monochromatic radiation, the surface charge density must vary as 𝑒 −𝑖𝑤𝑡 ;

therefore the right side of eq 38 can be written as 𝑖𝑤𝜎. Using the constitutive

relations 𝐷 = 𝜀𝐸 , 𝐽 = 𝑔𝐸 puts eq 37- 38 in the form 𝜀1 𝐸1𝑛 − 𝜀2 𝐸2𝑛 = 𝜎

𝑔1 𝐸1𝑛 − 𝑔2 𝐸2𝑛 = 𝑖𝑤𝜎

40

𝜀 𝜀

Several cases of practical interest may be noted, if σ is zero then 1 = 2

𝑔1 𝑔2

41

Which can be true for appropriately chosen materials or alternatively, if 𝑔1 =

𝑔2 = 0 𝑜𝑟

43

42

The case where both conductivities are infinite is not of great interest; however,

the case where both conductivities vanish is approximately realized at the

boundary between two good dielectrics. If σ is not zero which is perhaps a

more common case, them it may be eliminated from eq 39 -40 . The result of

𝑔 𝑔

this elimination is 𝜀1 + 𝑖 𝑤1 𝐸1𝑛 − 𝜀2 + 𝑖 𝑤2 𝐸2𝑛 = 0

A final interesting case occurs when one conductivity, say g2 , is infinite . In this

case𝐸2𝑛

A final interesting case occurs when one conductivity,

say g2 , is infinite . In this case𝐸2𝑛

must vanish and 𝐸1𝑛 must equal 𝜎/𝜀1 in order for eq

40 and eq 39 to be satisfied.

44

The final boundary condition is that imposed on the

tangential component of the magnetic intensity H.

This boundary condition is obtained by integrating the

𝜕𝐷

Maxwell equation 𝛻 𝑋 𝐻 = + 𝐽

𝜕𝑡

The rectangular path shown at the

interface between the two media may

be used to obtain boundary conditions

on the field vector

COMSATS INSTITUE OF INFORMATION AND

TECHNOLOGY, ISLAMABAD

Reflection And Refraction

Laws of reflection

Laws of refractions

Reflection and Transmission at

normal incidence

E1 = iE1x 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘1 𝑧−ω𝑡) , E′1 = −iE′1x 𝑒 −𝑖(𝑘1 𝑧+ω𝑡) , E2 = iE2x 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘2 𝑧−ω𝑡)

ω ω

κ1 = n1 and κ2 = n2

c c

Where n1 and n2 are indices of refraction of the two media

n

=

B 𝐮 × 𝐄

c

𝐮 = 𝐤 for the incident and transmitted waves and 𝐮 = −𝐤 for the

reflected wave, the magnetic fields associated with the electric fields

of above eqs are given by

cB1 = 𝐣n1 E1x 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘1 𝑧−ω𝑡)

cB′1 = 𝐣n1 E′1x 𝑒 −𝑖(𝑘1 𝑧+ω𝑡) ,

cB2 = 𝐣n2 E2x 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘2 𝑧−ω𝑡)

The E-field must be cont at the boundary, so from

above Eqs at 𝐳 = 𝟎,

E1x − E′1x = E2x

The H-field must also be continuous, and for non

magnetic media (μ1 = μ2 = μ0 ) so must the B-field

n1 (E1x − E ′1x ) = n2 E2x

Solved simultaneously for the amplitudes E ′1x and

E2x in terms of the given amplitude E1x of the incident

wave:

n2 −n1 2n1

E′ 1x = E , E2x = E

n2 +n1 1x n2 +n1 1x

E′ 1x E2x

Special notation used = r12 , = t12 for

E1x E1x

determination of field ratios

r12 and t12 are called Fersnel coefficients for normal

incidence for reflection and transmission, resp.

waves incident 1 on 2 medium

The Solution is given by

n2 −n1 2n1

r12 = , t12 =

n2 +n1 n2 +n1

Reflection and Refraction at the boundary of

Two Non-conducting Media: Oblique Incidence

1p 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘1 𝑧−ω𝑡)

E1 = E

′1p 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘1 𝑧+ω𝑡)

E′1 = E

2x 𝑒 𝑖(𝑘2 𝑧−ω𝑡)

E2 = E

where E 1p = E 1p = E′

1p P1, E′ 1p P′1 , E

2p =

2p P2 .

E

The propagation vectors are

κ1 = κl 𝐮1 ,and so on, and the unit

normal to the boundary is n = k.

The plane defined by κ1 and n is called

the plane of incidence, and its normal is

in direction of 𝐧 × κ1 .In fact,

(n × κ1 ) ∕ |n × κ1 | = 𝐣,

unit vector in the y direction

COMSATS INSTITUE OF INFORMATION AND

TECHNOLOGY, ISLAMABAD

The p-component of polarization has been chosen to

lie parallel to the plane of incidence (p for

"parallel").In general there is also an s-component (not

shown in Fig. 12) of the amplitude of each wave, E 1s =

E 1s = E′

1s s1 , E′ 1s s′1 ,E

2s = E

2s s2 .For each of the three

waves s = 𝐮 × 𝐩and p = 𝐬 × 𝐮 ,so that

s1 = s′1 = s2 = j

Reflection and Refraction at the boundary of Two Non-

conducting Media: Oblique Incidence condt

With oblique incidence, it is clear from Eqs that not

only must the reflected and transmitted waves have

the same frequency as the incidence wave, but also the

phases must match everywhere on the boundary

κ′1 . r0 = κ1 . r0 = κ2 . r0

The first of these is that the four vectorsκ1 , κ′1 , κ2 and

n are all coplanar. To prove this statement, we use the

vector identity

𝑛 × 𝑛 × 𝑅 = 𝑛 𝑛. 𝑅 − 𝑅(𝑛. 𝑛)

which holds for any two vectors. If n is a unit vector and

R ┴ n, as is the case for normal to the boundary plane and r0

𝑛 × 𝑛 × r0 = −r0

Writing r0 in this form in Eq.75 and interchanging the scalar

multiplication with the first vector multiplication gives

κ1 × 𝑛 . 𝑛 × r0 = κ′1 × 𝑛 . 𝑛 × r0 = κ2 × 𝑛 . (𝑛 × r0 )

r0 is an arbitrary vector in the boundary plane, 𝑛 × r0 is

also arbitrary (it is the same length as r0 but is

perpendicular to it).Consequently

𝑛 × κ1 = 𝑛 × κ′1 = 𝑛 × κ2

plane containing n and κ1 . By using 𝐴. (𝐴 × 𝐵) = 0,it

follows in turn ,that

κ1 . κ1 × 𝑛 = κ′1 κ1 × 𝑛 = κ2 κ1 × 𝑛 = 𝑛. (κ1 × 𝑛) = 0

Thus κ, κ′1 , κ2 and n 𝑛′ .Consequently all four vectors lie

┴

in the plane of incidence and are coplanar

The second consequence of Eq.75 is that the angle of incidence is equal

to the angle of reflection. The angle of incidence 𝜃1 is given by

κ1 . 𝑛 = κ1 cos 𝜃1

κ′1 . 𝑛 = −κ′1 cos 𝜃′1

κ2 . 𝑛 = κ2 cos 𝜃2

|κ1 × 𝑛| = κ1 sin 𝜃1

κ′1 × 𝑛 = κ′1 sin 𝜃 ′1

κ2 × 𝑛 = κ2 sin 𝜃2

then requires that κ′1 sin 𝜃 ′1 = κ1 sin 𝜃1 = κ2 sin 𝜃2

The magnitude κ′1 of the reflected wave equals κ1 of the incident wave,

since they are propagating with the same frequency in the same

medium. Thus sin 𝜃1 = sin 𝜃 ′1 , 𝜃1 = 𝜃 ′1

The third consequence is Snell's law. It too follows from the preceding

argument and use of the dispersion relation, Eq.55,to change the κ′s to

𝑛′𝑠.The result n1 sin 𝜃1 = n2 sin 𝜃2 is Snell’s law

None of these three consequences depends on the B.C for the E and H

derived from Maxwell's equations.

TECHNOLOGY, ISLAMABAD

Fresnel coefficients (F.C)

It is the ratios of the field amp for oblique incidence, Need the B.C on the tangential

components of the fields.

To express it in vector form, consider the vector identity

𝑛 × 𝑛 × 𝐸 = 𝑛. 𝐸 𝑛 − 𝐸 𝐸 = 𝑛. 𝐸 𝑛 − 𝑛 × (𝑛 × 𝐸)

Since (n.𝐸)n the remainder has to be the tangential

component, −𝑛 × (𝑛 × 𝐸), for any vector 𝐸.Then

the B.C on the E-field becomes 𝑛 ×

𝐸1 + 𝐸′1 = 𝑛 × 𝐸2

𝑛 × 𝐵1 + 𝐵′

1 = 𝑛 × 𝐵2

The Maxwell curl eq relate 𝐸 and 𝐵 to each other in each medium. With the dispersion

𝑛

relations these take the form 𝐵 = 𝑢 × 𝐸

𝑐

𝑛

its equivalent 𝐸 = − 𝑢 × 𝐵 , on substitution

𝑐

′1 = n2 𝑛 × (u2 × 𝐸2 )

n1 𝑛 × u1 × 𝐸1 + u′1 × 𝐸

′1 and 𝐸2 in terms of 𝐸1 .We can expand the vector triple Products:

solved for 𝐸

𝑛 ×(u1 × 𝐸1 ) = 𝑢. 𝐸1 u1 − (𝑛. u1 )𝐸1

For the s-component

𝐸1𝑠 , for which 𝑛. 𝐸1𝑠 = 0, this

expression simplifies considerably:

𝑛 ×(u1 × 𝐸1𝑠 ) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 𝐸2𝑠

Since n.u1= 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 from eq 81-83.

Thus for s-component , Eq 97 becomes

𝑛1 (𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 𝐸1𝑠 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1′ 𝐸1𝑠

′

) = 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2 . 𝐸2𝑠

since 𝛳1′ = 𝛳1 𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 (𝐸1𝑠 − 𝐸1𝑠′

) = 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2 . 𝐸2𝑠

Taking the cross product of eq 93 with n gives for the s-

component 𝐸1𝑠 + 𝐸1𝑠 ′

= 𝐸2𝑠

No such simplification occurs for the p-component and so

we are led to consider the two polarization components

separately. put Eq 96 into eq 93 will make a corresponding

simplification for the p-polarized case

S-polarization. Eq 101 and 102 are easily solved simultaneously, we get 𝐸1𝑠

′

= 𝑟12𝑠 𝐸1𝑠 ,

𝐸2𝑠 = 𝑡12𝑠 𝐸1𝑠

𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 − 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2

𝑟12𝑠 =

𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 + 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2

2𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1

𝑡12𝑠 =

𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 + 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2

P-polarization. When the E-vectors all lie in the plane of incidence eq 95 shows that the

corresponding B-vectors all lie along the s-direction. The choice of E-vectors in fig 12 was made

so that all the corresponding B-vectors point in the +j direction. This time we substitute eq 96 into

93. since 𝑛. 𝐵1𝑠 = 0 = 𝑛. 𝐵1𝑠′

= 𝑛. 𝐵2𝑠 the result simplifies to

1 1

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 (𝐵1𝑠 − 𝐵1𝑠

′

)= 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2 . 𝐵2𝑠

𝑛1 𝑛2

Also eq 94 simplifies to 𝐵1𝑠 + 𝐵1𝑠′

= 𝐵2𝑠

We can write the solution of Eq 107 and 108 as 𝐵1𝑠 ′

= 𝑟12𝑝 𝐵1𝑠

𝑛 𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 −𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2

𝐵2𝑠 = 2 𝑡12𝑝 𝐵1𝑠 𝑟12𝑝 = 1

𝑛1 𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 +𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2

2𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1

𝑡12𝑝 =

𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1 + 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2

𝐸1𝑝

′

= 𝑟12𝑝 𝐸1𝑝 ,

𝐸2𝑝 = 𝑡12 𝐸1𝑝

For normal incidence 𝛳1 = 0 and according to the Snell’s law𝛳12 = 0 as well. Thus Eq 111 to 113-

114 reduce to eq 63 and 64 for normal incidence .Eq 106 becomes identical to eq 112, but from eq

105, we find that 𝑟12𝑠 = 𝑟12𝑝

For normal incidence, the plane of incidence is undefined, and so the physical result has to be

independent of polarization.

′

The difference arises only because 𝐸1𝑝 and 𝐸1𝑠 point in opposite directions in fig 12 when 𝛳1 goes to

′

zero, whereas 𝐸1𝑠 and 𝐸1𝑠 point in the same direction. For s-polarization, the F.C are relations b/w

the E-vectors. Eq 103-104

For p-polarization, they are relations only between their magnitudes, Eq 113-114, since the E-vectors

all point in different directions with oblique incidence. Using Snell’s law, we could write

𝑛1 2

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2 = 1 − ( ) 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛳1

𝑛2

And thereby express the F.C entirely in terms of material parameters n1,n2 and the given incident

angle 𝛳1 .

Relations b/w the intensities can again be obtained from the F.C, treating each polarization direction

separately.

We define the reflectance and transmittance as the component of the respective time-averaged

Poynting vectors that is normal to the boundary, relative to the normal component of the incident

𝒏.Ŝ′𝟏𝒔 𝒏.Ŝ𝟐𝒔

Poynting vector. 𝑹𝒔 = ,𝑻𝒔 =

𝒏.Ŝ𝟏𝒔 𝒏.Ŝ𝟏𝒔

𝒏.Ŝ′𝟏𝒑 𝒏.Ŝ𝟐𝒑

𝑹𝒑 = , 𝑻𝒑 =

𝒏.Ŝ𝟏𝒑 𝒏.Ŝ𝟏𝒑

2 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2 2

In terms of the .F.C ,we have 𝑅𝑠 = 𝑟12𝑠 , 𝑇𝑠 = 𝑡12𝑠

𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1

2 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳2 2

𝑅𝑝 = 𝑟12𝑝 , 𝑇𝑝 = 𝑡12𝑝

𝑛1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳1

The identities 𝑅𝑠 + 𝑇𝑆 = 1 , 𝑅𝑝 + 𝑇𝑝 = 1

Hold for oblique incidence on a non-conductor.

For certain purposes, it is more convenient to have the F.C in the

following forms:-

sin(𝛳2 −𝛳1 )

𝑟12𝑠 =

𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝛳2 +𝛳1 )

2 cos 𝛳1 sin𝛳2

𝑡12𝑠 =

𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝛳2 +𝛳1 )

𝑡𝑎𝑛(𝛳1 −𝛳2 )

𝑟12𝑝 =

𝑡𝑎𝑛(𝛳1 +𝛳2 )

2 cos 𝛳1 sin𝛳2

𝑡12𝑝 =

𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝛳1 +𝛳2 )𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝛳1 −𝛳2 )

These are easily seen to be equivalent to the above forms by

using trigonometric identities and Snell’s law

BREWSTER’S ANGLE: CRITICAL ANGLE

consider the dependence of R and T on the angle of

incidence for the case of two no conducting media, using

the Fresnel coefficient derived in the preceding section. In

every case, T=1 – R, so we will discuss only R. We have

already examined the case of normal incidence θ1= 0; The

polarization does not matter, and R is greater the more the

ratio n2/n1 differs from unity. For grazing incidence θ1=π/2,

cos θ1=0 and Rs =1=Rp , as can be seen most easily from

Eqs 105 and 111. Near grading incidence and reflectance is

large; this high reflectance is the reason a calm lake is like a

mirror. For intermediate angles of incidence, there are two

particularly interesting angles.

Can there be a case of zero reflectance? Eq.121 and

eq.123 show that there can. If θ1= θ2, Snell’s law

requires that n2= n1 that is, two media are optically

indistinguishable. If, on the other hand, θ1+ θ2=π/2,

then tan (θ1+ θ2) is infinite and the amplitude of the p-

polarized reflected wave is again zero. In this case the

media are optically distinguishable. Since the s-

polarization, E perpendicular to the plane of

incidence, is partially reflected, unpolarised by

reflection. Snell’s law

n1Sin θ1 = n2 Sin θ2

provides a means for determining the value of θ1,

Using θ2 = π/2 θ1 in Snell’s law gives

𝜋

𝑛1 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃𝐵 = 𝑛2 𝑆𝑖𝑛 − 𝜃𝐵 = 𝑛2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝐵

2

𝑛2

Or 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃𝐵 =

𝑛1

The quantity 𝜃𝐵 is known as Brewster’s angle;

relationship between it and the indices of refraction as

given in Eq 127 is known as Brewster’s Law

𝑛2

𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑐 =

𝑛1

𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃𝐵 = 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑐

For incidence from the glass

side θB = 34o and θc= 42o.

For incident angles greater than

the critical angle

θ1 > θ2 , Snell’s law given

𝑛1 𝑛1 Reflectance for s’ and p-polarization at

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃2 = 𝑆𝑖𝑛 θ1 > 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑐 an air-glass interface, Brewster’s angle

𝑛2 𝑛2

is θB = 56o

𝑛2

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑐 =

𝑛1

s𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑐 > 1

There is, of course, no real angle whose sine is greater

than one, The result is that

Rs=Rp = 1 for all θ1≥ θc . This perfect reflection is called

total internal reflection. It is easily observed by liking

into a glass prism or an aquarium or by looking up

when swimming under water. It has a very important

practical application in the optical fibre, a fine glass

fibre through which a light beam is transmitted as in a

waveguide for microwaves.

For non polar materials

For non polar materials, the same relations hold at all

lower frequencies (but not in the =ultraviolet and

higher frequencies ranges). They do not hold at all

lower frequencies for optically transparent polar

materials made of polar molecules (e.g water) or ions

(e.g rocksalt).Since K is frequency dependent

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