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MINING SAFETY – FOCUSING ON OHS AND TECHNOLOGICAL

INNOVATIONS

A PRESENTATION BY

B. KISHAN RAO, GENERAL MANAGER (Corp.Safety)

Dr. V. KALYAN CHAKRAVARTHY, Sr. Medical Officer, OHS


CONTENT
1. ABOUT SCCL

2. FOCUS ON THE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH


HAZARDS

3. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF
OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS IN MINES

4. CONTROL MEASURES

5. MONITORING THROUGH OHS

6. RESULTS

7. CONCLUSIONS
ABOUT SCCL

Coal - Most abundant, safe, secure, clean and cost effective


fossil fuel.

SCCL - A Government coal mining company jointly owned


by the Government of Telangana and Government
of India on a 51:49 equity basis

 A pioneer in exploiting this fossil fuel for the energy needs


of the country since 1889

 Has a proven geological reserves aggregating to 8791


million tonnes

 Currently operating 15 opencast and 34 underground


mines in 4 districts of Telangana

 Manpower - around 59,833


SCCL -
 Coal production in 2013-14 - 50.47 M. tones

 OB removal in 2013-14 - 170.29 m .cu. Mts

 Has to its credit, more than 20 excellence


awards in various fields, the latest being the
Best Management Award from the newly
formed Govt. of Telangana.

 New state-of-the-art technologies are


deployed with innovative management
practices and eco-friendly measures
aimed at the production with safety and
welfare of the workmen.
Employees are an important and valued
part of the mining sector and hence the
vision of SCCL as regards to Safety &
Occupational Health

is

Zero Occupation Related Harm


FOCUS ON THE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS
AND THEIR REMEDIAL MEASURES

Work related illness affects not just workers, but also


directly impact on the productivity through:
• higher absenteeism
• under-utilization of expensive production
plants
• loss of investment in training and development
• loss of skilled and experienced workers
• difficulties in recruiting new high-quality workers

Hence, a focus on the Occupational health hazards


and their remedies, is very important
Focus on the Occupational health hazards - cont…

In addition, the company has to bear the costs


towards:

• Health care for the affected workers


• Compensation to sick or disabled workers.
• Disputes and protracted negotiations with trade
unions,
• Loss of reputation
IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF OCCUPATIONAL
HAZARDS IN MINES
1. Dust
 Dust is the major hazard in any type of mining operation.
 The production, transportation and processing of coal
generates tiny respirable dust particles that become
airborne and invisible to the naked eye.
 An occupational disease, ‘Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis”
is caused due to inhalation of coal dust.
 Exposure to 0.5 to 5 microns size coal dust for a period of
12 yrs and above may cause coal workers pneumoconiosis.
IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF OCCUPATIONAL
HAZARDS IN MINES
2. Noise
 Hearing defects may be caused due to exposure to
excess noise (above 90dB) during work in the long
run.
 The disease is called Noise Induced Hearing Loss
(NIHL) which does not affect the normal speech
range initially.
 The person gradually becomes deaf; irritable, talks in
a loud voice, develop sleeplessness and high blood
pressure.
 The hearing impairment can be detected early by
audiometric test.
IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF OCCUPATIONAL
HEALTH HAZARDS IN MINES

3. Ergonomic Hazards
• Miners who have poor health conditions, suffer
from fatigue, back pain, and joint pain and
work stress due to operation of various
machinery.
• Hot and humid work environment, arduous
travel, vibrations, etc. results in Physiological,
mental stress,& musculoskeletal disorders
ultimately leading to OHD
CONTROL MEASURES
1. DUST CONTROL MEASURES
Under ground:

While coal production:

 Introduction of mechanical and Pneumatic roof bolters with


wet drilling for roof bolting,

 Introduction of jumbo drills with wet drilling in BG panels for


coal production

 Introduction of shearers, continuous miners and road headers


with wet drilling for coal cutting operations.

While loading:

 To reduce exposure of more workers to dust at faces,


manual loading operations are replaced by SDLs and LHDs.

While transportation:

 Water sprinkling arrangements at stage loader, crusher, feeder


breaker, transfer points of belts
CONTROL MEASURES
Opencast:

 All HEMM are provided with AC cabins to prevent operators


exposure to dust.

 Drills are provided with wet drilling/dust extractors arrangements.

 Introduction of surface miner for coal cutting operations with wet


cutting arrangements.

 Regular Water sprinkling on haul roads, water spraying


arrangements at feeder breakers, conveyor transfer points in pit
head CHPs.

 Other measures:

 Improved ventilation in terms of both quantity and velocity to


reduce airborne dust concentration at working places of
underground mines.

 Automatic water sprinklers/mist sprayers on conveyor belts,


feeder breakers and lorry unloading points at CHPs.

 Plantation in and around open cast mines.


CONTROL MEASURES

NOISE CONTROL MEASURES

Hearing conservation program is being adopted in every


mine in noisy areas to reduce noise hazard.
This program consists of:
i. Noise measurement at the work place and noise
mapping.
ii. Control of noise level at the source, on the pathway
and at the miner’s ear level,
iii. Use of ear protective equipment (ear plugs and ear
muffs),
CONTROL MEASURES
OTHERS

 Work places are being designed to have proper


comforts

 Competent workers are selected to operate Heavy


Earth Moving equipment,

 Periodic medical examination to assess fitness for


the job

 Conducting ambient air quality measurements with


the help of high volume dust samplers at strategic
locations on fortnightly basis to detect Suspended
Particulate Matter (SPM), Respirable Particulate
Matter (RPM), SO2, NOx etc., in all areas of SCCL.

.
Occupational Health Services
HOSPITALS IN SCCL
 SCCL is having 6 Area Hospitals, 1
Main Hospital and 25 Dispensaries
having 845 beds
 10 Occupational Health Centers.
- Previously it was Periodical Medical Examination.

A Step ahead in preventive Methodology:

- Now it is Preventive Periodical Medical Examination

Established 10 Occupational Health Service centers in all its


areas of production to promote and maintain the social well
being of all its employees.
Health Is a state of
complete Physical, Industries
Mental, And Social Well- Production
Being and Not merely the Safety
Absence of diseases or
Productivity
infirmity
OCCUPATIONA
Health Deviation Non-Communicable
L HEALTH
diseases (NCD)
DISEASES
Changing Life
Styles
Pneumoconiosis Industrializatio Hypertension
Silicosis n Diabetes
Urbanization Cardiovascular
NIHL diseases
Asbestosis Sedentary Life
Stroke
Cancer Stomach style Musculoskeletal
Lack of Disorders
Physical Cancer
Exercise Renal Failure
Lack of Social Liver Disorders
Chronic non specific
Life Psychosomatic
Food Habits disorders
Isolation
Habits etc
Why do we diagnose OHD ?

 CWP

 NIHL

 VIBRATION SYNDROME
Methods to detect CWP

 15/12 size CXR film

 Pulmonory function test

 HRCT- for confirmation


Pneumoconiosis
PMF

• Macules may arrest or


may continue to
enlarge and form
Nodules
• When they coalesce
produce PMF
1/1ILO

1/1 ILO Category


Why diagnose CWP ?
 Simple CWP if diagnosed early will not progress to
PMF .
 It is a Notifiable disease as per Mines Act / Rules .
 It is a Compensable disease as per Workmens’
Compensation Act .
NOISE

4 Ps
Noise induced hearing loss is:

 Painless
 Progress over a time
 Permanent
 Preventable
Characteristics of NIHL

• Bilateral
• Gradual
• Painless
• Characteristic DIP in 4000 Hz
• Speech Range Affected Very Late
• Hearing Loss can be Measured
• Easy to Control But there is no Cure.
METHODS TO DETECT NIHL

1.Tuning Fork Test

2.Pure Tone Audiometry

3.Brain Evoked Response Audiogram (BERA) - SOS


Permissible Limits of Exposure
Intensity Level Duration of Exposure
(dBA) (Hrs)
90 8
95 4
100 2
105 1
110 1/2
115 1/4
120 x
SOUND RECEPTORS
DAMAGED HAIR CELLS
Audiograph

20
Hearing Threshold

0 Normal
-20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
(dBA)

Aging
-40
-60 Conduction
-80 deafness
-100 Occupational
Deafness
Frequency (Hz)
Preventive Measures

 Personal Hearing Protectors

Earplugs Earmuffs Canal Caps


HAND-ARM VIBRATION SYNDROME: (VIBRATION
Syndrome )

Caused by - Use of vibrating tools

Symptoms

a. Loss of sensation in the fingers

a. Tingling and numbness

a. White chalky nails and fingers tips


MEDICAL &
HEALTH

PREVENTIVE THERAPEUTIC

MOBILE GENERAL SUPER-


OHS SPECIALIST
CAMPS OP SPECIALIST
MONITORING HEALTH OP
HTN/DM OP SERVICES
CELL EDUCATION
ETC
PME-
5YRS
PME-
DPC
3YRS

EXEC
SPE-
AUDIO
UTIVE

OHS S

(Occupational
EYE- CON-
REF Health IME
Services)
Records to
maintain
for 15 years CON-
MRS
after PME
Superannua
-tion SME PRME
SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMMES AT SCCL AIMING ON OHD

1.CWP
a. THERA PEUTIC SURVEILLANCE – 3 Weeks Treatment
b. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE- Review patient with CXR once in a
year

2.NIHL
a.TEMPORARY HEARING LOSS
b.PERMANENT HEARING LOSS

3.HIGH RISK AUDIOMETRY – Once in a year for Pump and Fan


operators.
SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMMES AT SCCL AIMING ON OHD

4. REFRACTION TEST - Once in a year for operators of


HEMM and motor vehicle drivers

 Test for visual acuity, colour blindness,

 Fundus examination

 Recommending glasses - SOS


Occupational Diseases Board

 The ODB reviews all suspected cases of OHD from time to


time periodically.
 Conduct, meetings with PME medical Officers regularly.
 Issues guidelines on surveillance of confirmed cases of
Pneumoconiosis.
 Issues guidelines for referrals, re-evaluation of suspected
cases of CWP, NIHL
 Suggests appropriate medial measures at work place

 Interacts with mine authorities from time to time on follow-


up of cases of chronic diseases which need continuous
monitoring.
Categorization for the Purpose of Medical Surveillance
sccl

Category Chest Radiograph Lung Functions

Category 0 0 / -, 0 / 0, 0 / 1 Normal

Category 1a 1 / 0, 1 / 1, 1 / 2 Normal

Category 1b 1 / 0, 1 / 1, 1 / 2 Mild Decrease

Category 2a 2 / 1, 2 / 2, 2 / 3 Normal

Category 2b 2 / 1, 2 / 2, 2 / 3 Moderate
Decrease
Category 3 3 / 2, 3 / 3, 3 / + or With or without
A, B, C Lung Function
Changes or
Disability
Action for Medical Surveillance

Category Further Action

Category “0”  Routine medical examination every 5 years


Category “1a”  Routine medical examination every 2 years
 Alternate job placement if dust exposure >
Prescribed Limit
Category “1b & 2a”  Medical examination every 2 years
 Alternate job placement in less dusty area
Category “2b”  Medical examination every 2 years
 Alternate job placement in non-dusty area
 Evaluation by Disability Board
 Option of Voluntary retirement with full
benefits
Category “3”  Medical examination every 1 year
 No further exposure to dust
 Evaluation by Disability Board
 Option of voluntary retirement with full
benefits
ON GOING ACTION PLAN

The occupational health physician of every area:

 shall visit Underground, opencast mines& CHPs etc.,


periodically & inspects working conditions

 shall also attend Area level Safety Committee Meetings


invariably and Mine level Safety Committee Meeting regularly.

46
REGISTERI
NG

MONITOR ANALYZIN
ING G

FOLLOW
THE SINGARENI COLLIRIES
UP
COMPANY LTD
• Employees coming for PME from
Mines/Dept/MVTC who were identified

Hospital Management
chronic diseases were sent to concerned
OPs.
• When specialists advised treatment,
there was no subsequent follow up of
same.

system
• There was no data of such employees in
OHS centres.
• So, Pts were taking drugs irregularly

Increased incidence of Morbidity

More number of complications

Mortality rate is increased


Mine Management Interfacing Hospital
System Bridging Management System
Mine Accident Mus
Opencast Underground PME musters
PME due data
Departments Incomplete PME
Unfit-Fit
Chronic diseases da
Musters Defaulters
Payments System Application
Bonus etc Products
Absenteeism
Quarter allocation etc SCCL has been Awarded SAP-ACE
2010 for BEST RUN SAP in Metals &
Mining Category
Due date inform two days Employee-Chronic disease data
Not taken in
before
due date
Still not attended Muster
will be blocked

Due date inform 15 days Not Attended in due OHS centre


before date
Still not attended Muster
will be blocked
Medicines due date
ALERTS OHS attendance
Health tips
e-India 2013 has conferred on SCCL Certificate of Excellence
in "ERP Implementation - Innovative Use of SAP-ERP System
- OLTP Data". Award has been received by Director
(Operations) in a function held on 23/07/2013
HMS
MONITORING CELL

Establishment of the monitoring cells in three areas of the company


which are headed by I/C Physicians to Monitor and regular follow up of
cases which are registered in the concerned hospital

 Detailed medical examination with all necessary investigations


once in
a year.

 Follow-up of all cases of chronic diseases with the mine


authorities

 Identification of defaulters who were under medication

 Organizing counseling sessions to the patients along with families


once
in a month.

 Referral of cases of chronic diseases to higher centers as per the


need.
Attendance is
improved Decreased Morbidity
Confidence levels Zero Mortality
improved Reduced Accidents
Faith in the
Life style modification
hospitals increased
Increased Life
Health expenditure
expectancy
reduced to the Reduced complications
employees from
their pockets.
Union leaders
having the
confidence towards
hospitals.
No. OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS CASES REPORTED FROM
1965 TO 2012
No.OF
S.No. YEAR PNEUMOCONIOSIS
CASES REPORTED

1 1965 to 1974 88

2 1975 to 1984 16

3 1985 to 1994 19

4 1995 to 2004 4

5 2005 to 2013 3

Total 131
OTHERS

Recommendations of Safety conferences are


complied which are as follows:
 All Medical Officers working PME centers are qualified with
AFIH and training in classification of reading x-rays as per
ILO classification.
 Computerization of all PME records started since 2003 /
2004.
 Occupational Diseases Board was established in the year
2006 as per the recommendations with one Occupational
Physician, one Radiologist and one General Physician as
members with C.M.O as Chairman.
 Spirometry, Audiometry were made mandatory for all PME
and other medical examinations.
 Detailed cardiovascular examination including 12 lead ECG,
complete Neurological examinations are carried out.
 All Blood Examination recommended i.e., Hb, TC, DC, ESR,
FBS,PLBS, Bl.Urea, Creatinine, Lipid Profile etc., are
carried out.
Conclusions
 Work should be given depending upon the two
principles, which are, ‘Miner fit for job’ and ‘fit the
job for Miner’ so that the employee generates interest
on the work and avoids lack of attention.
 Every organisation should formulate a
comprehensive OHS programme suitable to its
specific occupational health problems for prevention
of occupational diseases.
 Improvement of occupational health requires
strengthened organization and appropriate
leadership in trade unions, conscious miners, who
are able to control the work process, and the
generation of unbiased information about
occupational health hazard.