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The Growing Threat of the

Agriculture Workplace
Pacific Avian Influenza Training Workshop

Carter Davis
Pacific EMPRINTS Program
Threats & Problems
• Farm Chemicals
• Industrial Chemicals
• Biological
• Terrorism
• Storage
• Transportation
• Proper Use
Chemicals
Hazard Class 1: Explosives

• Background color:
– Orange
• Symbol:
– Exploding ball
Hazard Class 2: Gases
• Background color:
– Varies
• Symbol:
– Varies
• Non-flammable gases, flammable
gases, poisonous gases

INHALATION
HAZARD
Hazard Class 3: Flammable Liquids

• Background color:
– Red
• Symbol:
– Flame
• Flammable & combustible liquids
Hazard Class 4: Flammable Solids

• Background color:
– Red & white candy striped
– Blue if reacts with water
• Flammable solids, spontaneously
combustibles, dangerous when wet
Hazard Class 5:
Oxidizers & Organic Peroxides

• Background color:
– Yellow
• Symbol:
– Flaming ball
Hazard Class 6:
Poisons & Etiologic Materials

• Background color:
– White, with black lettering for
poisons

INHALATION
HAZARD
Hazard Class 7:
Radioactive Materials

• Background color:
– White on the bottom, yellow on
the top
• Symbol:
– Trefoil
Hazard Class 8: Corrosives
• Background color:
– Black on the bottom, white on
the top
• Symbol:
– Piece of metal and a hand
damaged by liquid
• Acids and bases
Hazard Class 9: Miscellaneous

• Hazardous materials not


specified in other classes
Facility Markings
• NFPA 704 Marking System
• Hazardous Materials
Identification System
(HMIS)
• Generally used on
smaller transfer
containers
Farm Chemicals
• Pesticides
– Insecticides
– Rodenticides
– Fungicides
– Herbicides
• Fertilizers
• Animal Medications
• Cleaning Agents and Solvents
Pesticide Safety
• Reduce risk to exposure and injury
– Follow labels and MSDS
– Wear appropriate PPE
– Use the least hazardous chemicals at the recommended rate and
concentration
– Prepare only enough for immediate use
– Verify application equipment is working properly and does not
leak
– Don’t eat, drink or smoke while pouring, mixing or applying
– Work in pairs
– Clean all equipment thoroughly and without contaminating the
environment
– Wash work clothes separately
– Wash hands thoroughly after handling
Pesticide Safety
• Take Additional Precautions
– Have a first aid kit nearby and include resuscitation
mask, eye wash solution, soap
– Have fresh water available
– Have all workers take first aid training
– Check labels and MSDS for proper handling,
application,
– Check with nearby health care facilities for proper
stock of antidotes and emergency supplies
– Stop work and seek medical attention if there is any
sign of muscular spasms, blurred vision, excessive
saliva, or difficulty breathing
Pesticide Storage
• Store chemicals in a well-ventilated area
• Store in shed with good lighting and has impervious floor
and shelving
• Use secondary containment
• Store chemicals in original containers
• Place an external sign indicating chemical storage
• Keep incompatible materials separate
• Keep a spill kit nearby
• Keep away from food, animal feed, fertilizers and seeds
• Have access to an emergency shower nearby
Pesticide Transport
• Avoid transporting with food, water, animal feed,
fertilizers, seeds and reactive substances
• Secure in or on vehicle to prevent movement and
change in orientation.
• Keep shipping documents or records of the items
you are carrying
• Carry a spill kit and appropriate personal
protective equipment with the vehicle
Pesticide Disposal
• Take notice of warnings on the labels regarding
toxicity to non-target areas
• Check label/MSDS for advice on disposal
• Triple rinse empty containers
• Uncap, puncture and crush all rinsed containers
• When possible return containers to supplier or
manufacture
• Check with local government authority for
information on safe disposal
FIFRA Label Requirements
• Front Panel
– Restricted Use Pesticide Statement (if applicable)
– Product Name, Brand, Trademark
– Ingredient Statement
– Keep out of Reach of Children (KOOROC Statement)
– Signal Word (Caution, Warning, Danger)
– First Aid (Statement of Practical Treatment)
– Skull & Crossbones “POISON” for high toxicity
– Net Contents/Net Weight
FIFRA Label Requirements
• Front or Back Panel
– EPA Registration Number & Establishment Number
– Company Name and Address
• Back Panel
– Precautionary Statements (Hazards to Humans and Animals,
Environmental Hazards, Physical and Chemical Hazards)
– Directions for Use
– Storage and Disposal
– Warranty Statement
– Worker Protection Labeling
C.B.R.N.E Terrorism

Chemical Biological Radiological

Nuclear Explosive
Toxicology
• What's Toxic? How is it determined?
• Physical Hazards - Mechanical
– Fire, Heat, Explosions, Falling Objects
• Health Hazards - Biological
– Bodily Contact
– Immediate and/or Delayed Reactions
Dose
• Concentration
– percent,
– PPMs, PPBs, Mg/Kg
Concentration
• 1,000,000 ppm = % • 10 ppm = 0.001%
– 100%
• 1 ppm = 0.0001%
• 100,000 ppm = %
– 10% • 1 ppb = 0.0000001%
• 10,000 ppm = % • 1 ppt= 0.0000000001%
– 1%
• 1,000 ppm = 0.1%
• 100 ppm = 0.01%
Concentration
Which one is more toxic?
Product A Product B

Toxic effect when Toxic effect when


exposed to exposed to
9,000 ppm 90 ppm
Industrial Toxic Thresholds
• By Inhalation
– TLV/TWA - Threshold Limit Value-Time
Weighted, day to day exposure without adverse
health effects (ACGIH)
– STEL - Short Term Exposure Limit - may
exceed TLV/TWA for up to 15 minutes but not
to occur more than 4 times per day
– TLV-C - should never exceed (ACGIH)
– REL- Recommended Exposure Limit (NIOSH)
Industrial Toxic Thresholds
(continue)
• By Inhalation
– PEL - Permissible Exposure Limit (OSHA)
– IDLH - Immediately Dangerous to Life or
Health (NIOSH)
– LC50 - Lethal Concentration by inhalation
(animal) anything less than 200 mg/kg is
considered a poison
Industrial Toxic Thresholds
(continue)
• By Ingestion
– LD50 - Lethal Dose by ingestion or skin
absorption (animal) less than 200 mg/kg is
considered a poison.
– Carcinogens - cancer causing (N/A or no
exposure)
Industrial Substances
PEL TWA (8 hrs & STEL)

• Acetone – 750 ppm, 1,000 ppm


• Unleaded Gasoline – 300 ppm, 500 ppm
• Carbon Monoxide – 35 ppm, 400 ppm
• Ammonia – 25 ppm, 35 ppm
• Hydrogen Sulfide – 9.9 ppm, 15 ppm
• Hydrogen Cyanide – 10 ppm
• Chlorine – 1 ppm
• Hydrazine – 0.1 ppm
Chemical Substances
PEL TWA (8 hrs & STEL)

• Phosgene – 0.099 ppm


• 2-chloroethyl sulfide – 0.0005 ppm
• Lewisite – 0.0004 ppm
• Tabun – 0.000017 ppm
• Somin – 0.000004 ppm
• VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylamino)ethyl
methylphosphonothiolate – 0.0000009 ppm
Relative Toxicity by Inhalation
• >500 ppm - Toxic
• 101-500 ppm - Moderately Toxic
• 1-100 ppm - Highly Toxic
• <1 ppm - Super Toxic
– Based upon the lowest value listed for the
substance, usually TLV/TWA, STEL or PEL
Relative Toxicity by Ingestion
• >5 gm/kg - Toxic
• .5 gm-5gm/kg - Moderately Toxic
• 50 mg-500 mg/kg - Highly Toxic
• 1 mg-50mg/kg - Super Toxic
– Based upon animal LD50
– gm of product per kg of body weight of target
organism
Dose
• Concentration
– percent, PPMs, PPBs, Mg/Kg
• Duration of Exposure
– Acute Vs Chronic, Sensitization
• Routes
– Inhalation, Ingestion, Absorption, Injection
Dose (continued)
• Susceptible Target Organs
– Nervous System, Skeleton & Marrow, Thyroid,
Lungs, Heart, Blood, Veins, Liver, Kidneys,
Intestines, Skin
• Health Variables
– body weight, age, physical condition, gender
• Dose/Response
Physical Properties
• Vapor Pressure - Rate of Evaporation
• Vapor Density - wt of vapor Vs wt of air
• Specific Gravity - wt of liquid Vs wt of
water
• Solubility - mixes with water
• Flash Point - min temp to produce enough
vapors to cause ignition but not sustain
combustion.
Physical Properties
• Fire Point - min temp to produce enough
vapors to sustain combustion
• Boiling Point - temp at which liquid
changes to gas at it’s maximum rate
• Flammable Range - the percent of vapor in
air that is able to burn
• Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) - max
percentage of vapor in air that will burn
Physical Properties
• Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) - min
percentage of vapor in air that will burn
• Expansion Ration - ratio of gas volume
compared to liquid volume
• pH - scale used to measure how corrosive
• Ionizing radiation
– alpha, beta, gamma, neutron
– time, distance, shielding, quantity
Reference Resources
• Emergency Response Guidebook
• NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
• Internet
• Farm Safety Handbook by Rick Kubick
• MeisterPro Crop Protection Handbook
• Jane’s Chem-Bio Handbook
• InterNet Search Tools
The Growing Threat of the
Agriculture Workplace
Pacific Avian Influenza Training Workshop
Carter Davis
Pacific EMPRINTS Program
hazmat@hawaii.rr.com