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Hydrocarbon Source

Rocks
Hydrocarbon Source Rocks
• As sediments which are or were capable of generating oil or gas.
• To formed a commercial accumulation depends:
(a) Largerly on the Volume and Richness
of the source rocks.
(b) Maturity history.
(c) The Geological framework in which it
occur.
• Oil and Gas derive from the organic remains
incorporated in, and burried with sedimentary
rocks.
• The classical hydrocarbon source rock in a
clastic environment is an organic rich, dark
olive grey to black laminated mudstone, shale,
clay.
• The organic matter (OM) in the source rock is
broadly term “kerogen” if solid or insoluble,
“bitumen” if fluid or solvent extractable, and
gas if gasseous.
Source Rocks
 Fine grained sediments –
thinly laminated containing
Organic Matters (OM)
 Anaerobic – oxygen level <
0.5 mL/L – lack of
bioturbation
 Deposited in low energy
environments (swamp, lake,
delta, lagoon, deep marine)
Source Rock Geochemistry

(a) . Organic matter, source, kerogen, and


preservation in sediments.
(b). Source rock depositional environments.
(c). Source rock characterization.
(d). Evaluating source rocks from wireline
logs.
Organic Matter in
Sediments
 Organic matter is usually a minor constituent in most
sedimentary rocks. The amount of organic matter varies from
almost 100 % in some peat and coal deposits, to little more than a
few ppm in some limestone and sandstone.
 Generally, the organic contents of sediments is between 0.1 and
5 %; deep-sea sediments average about 0.2 % organic carbon;
sediments in sedimentary basins about 2 %; and shelf sediments
between 1 and 5 %.
 The main contributors of organic matter to sediments are
bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton and higher plants.
SHALE

MINERAL MATTER (99%) ORGANIC MATTTER (1%)

BITUMEN (10%) KEROGEN (90%)

- Bitumen : composed principally of the elements carbon and hydrogen;


sometimes
associated with mineral matter; migratable hydrocarbon
formed from
thermal alteration of kerogen.
- Kerogen : an intermediate stage of thermally altered organic material
between
unaltered material and the migratable hydrocarbon, bitumen.
KEROGEN & BITUMEN IN AVERAGE SHALES
(Brook, 1987)
(Hunt, 1996)
Carbon Cycle
• Carbon is present in sedimentary rocks in two forms : as
reduced carbon in biologically produced organic matter over
geological time (18 %), and as oxidized carbon mainly in the
form of carbonate (82 %).

• The major process for production of organic matter is


photo synthesis and this is primarily responsible for the
occurrence of reduced carbon in sediments.

• Carbon is recycled through the biosphere by photo


synthesis and oxidation.
(Clayton and Fleet, 1991)
Roles of Source Rocks

(a). Petroleum is generated from organic-rich sediments


as source rocks containing organic matter originating
from biological materials.
(b). During burial of sediments, the increase in temperature
results in a series of geochemical reactions which
change biopolymers to geopolymers, often collectively
called kerogen, which are precursors of petroleum.
(c). The amount, type and composition of petroleum
generated is depend upon the nature of the organic
matter in the source rock and its maturity governed by its
time and temperature history.
(Clayton and Fleet,1991)
Type of Source Rocks

(a). Active source rocks

(b). Spent source rocks

(c). Potential source rocks


Type of Source Rocks
(a). Active source rocks :
A volume of rock that has generated or is
generating and expelling hydrocarbons in sufficient
quantities to form commercial oil and gas
accumulations. The contained sedimentary organic
matter must meet minimum requirement of organic
richness, kerogen-type and organic maturity.

(b). Spent source rocks :


A volume of rock that had generated, possibly a
long time ago, its hydrocarbons and now contains
thermally altered organic matter.
(c). Potential source rocks :
A volume of rock that has the capacity
to generate hydrocarbons in
sufficient
quantities to form commercial oil and
gas
accumulations, but has not yet
reached
the state of minimum hydrocarbon
generation because of insufficient
organic
maturation.
Kerogen

(a). Is defined as the organic component of source rocks


that is insoluble in common organic solvents and
aqueous alkali (NaOH solution). The soluble portion of
the organic matter is termed bitumen or Total
Soluble Extract (TSE).

(b). Is of complex biological origin, it is derived from


dead organisms whose organic remains survive the
early stages of diagenesis and lithification. This
biological origin is frequently apparent when
kerogen is analysed by microscopic or chemical
techniques. It is derived from the lipid, lignin,
protein, and carbohydrate portions of organisms.
Classification of Kerogen
Classification of Kerogen Based on:

(a). Microscopic analysis of organic remains


(palynological or coal petrography):
alginite, exinite, vitrinite, inertinite.
(b). Chemical (elemental) analysis of the
kerogen : types I, II, III, IV.
(c). The products of kerogen breakdown :
oil-prone, gas-prone, inert kerogen
Type of Kerogen
(a). Alginite group (oil prone) :
Alginite, fresh-water algae.

(b). Exinite group (oil & gas prone) :


Exinite (polen, spores), cutinite (land-plant cuticle),
resinite (land-plant resins), liptinite (all land-plant lipids,
marine algae).

(c). Vitrinite group (gas prone):


Vitrinite (woodyland cellulosic material from land
plants).
(d). Inertinite group (none):
Charcoal, highly oxidised or reworked material of any
origin.
Types of Kerogen

(a).Type I:
Relatively rare, they frequently correspond
to lacustrine oil shales where much of the
organic matter has been derived from green
algae (e.g. Botryococcus and related genera).
(b).Type II:
May be derived from algae, this time generally
deposited in marine environments. Other
sources of this type of kerogen include the
more hydrogen rich components of higher plants
(cuticle, resin, spores and pollen).
(c).Type III:
They are derived largely from the lignin
components of higher plants with only
minor amounts of cuticle, resin or spores;
low hydrogen contents.
(d).Type IV:
It comprises plant tissue that has been
oxidised. It has little potential to generate
petroleum.
Kerogen Type
Kerogen: insoluble; preserved in sedimentary rocks.
Type I : Amorphous
Type I (very oil prone):
amorphous, hydrogen-rich, algal in anaerobic,
especially lacustrine.
Type II (oil prone):
herbaceous, comparatively hydrogen-rich,
phytoplankton in suboxic; especially marine.
Type II : Amorphous and
Herbaceous
Type III (gas prone):
woody and coaly; hydrogen-poor and poly-
aromatic; higher plants.
Type IV (inertinite): woody and coaly,
oxidized and hydrogen-very poor.
Type II – S: amorphous, unusually high organic
Type III : Woody and Coaly
sulfur about 8 – 14% (atomic S/C > 0.04, and
appear to begin to generate oil at lower thermal
exposure.
Types of Kerogen
(a). Oil-prone kerogen (labile kerogen) :
Components which are lipid-and hydrogen-
rich and yield predominantly oil
(C6+molecules) but also some gas (C1-5
molecules) typically between 100º and 150º
C in the subsurface.

(b). Gas-prone kerogen (refractory kerogen) :


components which are lignin-derived and
hydrogen- poor and yield gas typically
between 150º and 230º C in the
subsurface.
Kerogen Classification
Kerogen Types and Hydrocarbon
Potential
Questions???
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