You are on page 1of 29

Discuss potential effects of

deprivation or trauma in childhood
on later development

What makes up a healthy
development?
• Loving Caregivers
• Good Nutrition
• Cognitive Stimulation
• Linguistic input (talking
to them)

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.

.What could happen if a child is reared in an environment without these factors? Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.

Deprivation and Trauma Trauma Deprivation • experiencing a powerful • living in a state of various shock (e. Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. natural disasters. physical or sexual basic needs abuse. alcoholism or mental illness.g. divorce. • Deprivation is often related to institutionalization. . or war. and long-lasting effects on parental problems (e. development. • Such experiences may have growing up in poverty. death of forms of neglect to provide a parent.g.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.It is not possible to make a clear-cut distinction between effects of deprivation or trauma: they are much the same Experiences of deprivation can also be traumatizing for the child. .

First let's look at Trauma • Potential effect of trauma: PTSD • Children who have experienced severe and repeated trauma may develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). . which could interfere with normal development. Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.

hyper-vigilance. agitation. and emotional numbness. . avoidance behavior. Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. PTSD in Childhood • If left untreated children may exhibit impulsivity.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. (2009) • performed fMRI scans and found that children suffering from PTSD after experiencing extreme stressors such as abuse or witnessing violence performed worse on a simple verbal memory test and showed less hippocampal activity compared to a control group. . Carrion et al.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. • They also had difficulties remembering the trauma. and showed lack of emotion. . felt cut off from others. (2009) • The participants who performed worst on the test were those who also showed specific PTSD symptoms such as withdrawal from those who wanted to help them. Carrion et al.

. Now let's look at Deprivation Potential effects of deprivation: • cognitive impairment • attachment disorder Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.

The Romanian Orphans • In 1989 Nicolae Ceaușescu regime was overthrown in Romania. Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. • the world became aware of thousands of children who were warehoused in Romanian orphanages. .

The Romanian Orphans • between 100.000 and 300.000 children lived in these baby homes or orphanages for the school- aged or in institutions for persons considered to be "irrecuperable" (unrecoverable). . Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. • Most children experienced severe emotional and physical deprivation.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. . The Romanian Orphans • When Westerners saw television documentaries of the appalling conditions. many were eager to adopt and rushed to take action. • thousands of adoptive parents from the United States. Canada and other countries ultimately succeeded in adopting children.

The Romanian Orphans • The simultaneous adoptions of so many Romanian orphans provided researchers with a unique opportunity to view the impact of adoption on primarily institutionalized babies and young children. . Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.The English and Romanian adoptees study • This is a longitudinal study of 324 Romanian adoptees that entered the UK between February 1990 and September 1992. • The aim was to investigate potential long-term effects of severe deprivation in childhood. .

The English and Romanian adoptees study • All the children had been reared from infancy in very deprived institutions in Romania and adopted into UK families at various ages up to 42 months. . Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.

Michael Rutter • Michael Rutter was one of the lead researchers with the English and Romanian adoptees study • Side note… he criticized Bowlby Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. .

(2004) • investigated a sample of 144 children who were. • The parents were interviewed at home and answered questionnaires on the family and the child’s behavior. Rutter et al. Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. at that time. six years of age. .

. Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. (2004) • Three months later the child was assessed using observations and standard cognitive and developmental measures including tests on general cognitive functioning and attachment behavior. Rutter et al.

. (2004) • The focus was on cognitive impairment and attachment disturbance in children who had spent more than six months in the institutions. Rutter et al. • The study found no major deficits in children who had spent less than six months there. Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.

(2004) Cognitive impairment • Cognitive impairment was found in 15.3% of the adoptees from the UK. Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.4% of the adoptees from Romania but in only 2. Rutter et al. . • There was a persistent cognitive deficit at age six in the children who remained longest in the deprived Romanian institutions before being adopted. • This was particularly the case for those children who had also suffered from severe malnutrition.

. • This could suggest neural damage. Rutter et al. (2004) • These children also had a much smaller head circumference at the time they entered the UK and this could also be observed at age six. Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.

Rutter et al. (2004) Attachment disorder • Data was collected in semi-structured interviews with parents to assess the child’s behavior toward the parent and other adults in both novel and familiar situations. . Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.

. Rutter et al. • No significant deficits were found in the children who entered the UK below the age of six months. (2004) • There was a relationship between length of institutional deprivation and attachment disorders. Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.

(2004) • A number of children showed an insecure attachment pattern called disinhibited attachment disorder/ reactive attachment disorder Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. Rutter et al. .

Reactive Attachment Disorder Characterized by • lack of preference for contact with caregivers versus relative strangers • definite lack of checking back with the parent in anxiety provoking situations Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. .

. hurting the ability to establish future relationships. • This may permanently change the child's growing brain. affection and nurturing aren't met and loving. caring attachments with others are never established. Reactive Attachment Disorder • Reactive attachment disorder develops because the child's basic needs for comfort. Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.

.Reactive Attachment Disorder Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. . • Generally the data revealed a major degree of recovery in children suffering from profound institutional deprivation: the effects were not fixed and irreversible. Conclusion according Rutter et al (2004) • lack of personalized care giving may well be the key factor that puts children’s social development at risk.