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• Introduction
• Structure of wind tunnel
• Types of wind tunnel
• Design
• Advantages
• Disadvantages
• Applications
• Conclusion
 Three conditions are present in
anemology (study of winds):
1.Specimen is in stationary, wind is in
Example: civil structures.
2. Specimen is in motion, wind is
Example: An athlete, ships, high speed
3.Both the specimen and wind is stationary
Two kinds of forces develop when the
above actions take place, drag and lift
 Two kinds of forces develop
when the above actions take
place, drag and lift force.
 Drag: Force which act on a solid
object in the direction of the
relative flow velocity.
DF= 0.5 CD ρA V
 Lift: Force which acts on a solid
in a direction perpendicular to the
relative flow velocity direction
LF= 0.5 CL ρA V
FD=drag force
LF=lift force
ρ=mass density of the flow
A=reference area
v=velocity of object
CD=coefficient of drag
CL=coefficient of lift
 Testing of scaled down
building in a wind tunnel.

 A bicycler subjected to
test conditions in a wind
Pressure distribution:
Wind tunnel: A wind tunnel is a
machine which can simulate the
movement of air around an aircraft in
flight. In the wind tunnel, the aeronautical
engineer can control the conditions that
affect the forces and motion of the

1. HONEY COMB: Outside air enters

through the vent.
moves from wider area into narrow
area. Air moves faster here.
3. Test section: It provides desirable flow
condition and spacefor model testing
or experiment, where the
instrumentation are situated.
4. Guide vanes: To guide the flow through
the turning duct, and reduce the
extent of secondary flows.
5. Diffuser: A device to lower the air flow
speed, consequently reduce the
pressure loss due to friction.

 Wind tunnels are classified based

according to the following parameters:on

1. Based on type of loop

2.Based on flow Speed

 Based on type of loop

1.Open loop wind tunnel: This type of wind

tunnel is open at both ends. The chances
of dirt particles entering with air are more
so more honeycombs (mesh to clean
incoming air) are required.
2.Closed loop wind tunnel: Outlet of such wind
tunnel is connected to inlet so the same air
circulates in the system in a regulated way.
The chances of dirt entering the system are
also very low. closed wind tunnels have more
uniform flow than open type. This is usually a
choice for large wind tunnels as these are
more costlier than open type wind tunnels.
 Based on flow speed

1. Transonic wind tunnels:

Maximum velocity in test section of
transonic wind tunnels can reach upto
speed of sound i.e 340m/s or Mach number
of 1. These wind tunnels are very common
in aircraft industry as most aircrafts
operate around this speed.

2. Supersonic wind tunnels:

Velocity of air in test section of such wind
tunnels can be upto Mach 5. This is
accomplished using convergent - divergent
nozzles. Power requirements for such wind
tunnels are very high.
3. Hypersonic wind tunnels:
Wind velocity in test section of such type
of wind tunnels can measure between
Mach 5 and Mach 15. This is also achieved
using convergent - divergent nozzles.

4. Subsonic or low speed wind tunnels:

Maximum flow speed in this type of wind
tunnels can be 135m/s. Flow speed in wind
tunnels is generally preferred in terms of
Mach number which comes out to be
around 0.4 for this case. This type of wind
tunnels are most cost effective due to the
simplicity of the design and low wind
The first step in the design of a tunnel
is to determine the size and shape of the
test section ba.sed on the intended uses.

It is also assumed that a major part

of the testing will be force testing,
where information is sought for
performance, fue1 efficiency, stability, or
control of a vehicle that may be an
aircraft, an automobile, a submarine, a
racing yacht, or possibly others.

The air density remains nearly constant

and decreasing the cross-sectional area
causes the flow to increase velocity and
decrease wind pressure.
Increasing the area causes the velocity
to decrease and the pressure to increase.
We want the highest possible velocity in
the test section.

We can design the test section to

produce a desired velocity or Mach
number since the velocity is a function of
the cross-sectional area.

We can design the test section to

produce a desired velocity or Mach
number since the velocity is a function of
the cross-sectional area.
For subsonic wind tunnels
Mach number <1

The plenum is the settling chamber on

a closed return tunnel, or the open room
of an open return design.
Today’s architects and engineers
challenge the traditional boundaries of
their to create buildings and structures as
true art expressions.

Progressive designers and engineers

understand that significant savings incost
of structure and cladding can be obtained
by completing a wind tunnel test in the
early stage of the design.

Accurate conditions required by the

object is achieved.
If located in a room, depending on the
size of the tunnel to the room.

For a given size and speed the tunnel will

require more energy to run.

In general, a tunnel is noisy. For larger

tunnels (test sections of 70 sq.ft. and
more) noise may cause environmental
problems and limits on hours of operation.

Aerospace: Wind tunnel is utilized to study

aircrafts in free flight.
Automotive: In the automotive industry,
wind tunnels are used to study the effects
of moving air on the drag forces and energy
consumption of a vehicle moving on the
Architecture: The structural stability of a
tall/large building might be compromised if
the forces of the wind are
not taken into consideration. Often, wind
tunnels are used to test those structures on
a scaled down model.
Sporting goods: Several applications are
found in field of sporting goods, from
bicycles, through the design of swimming
suites, game balls that are affected by wind.

Thus a wind tunnel is one of the main

tools in aerospace and automotive industry.

It is used to determine the coefficients of

drag and lift which cannot be determined