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Capacity Building for

EFA Monitoring
and Assessment
Ko-Chih R. Tung
UIS Regional Advisor for Asia and Pacific
UNESCO, Bangkok

National Systèmes
Education d’Informations
Statistical Statistiques
Information sur
Systems l’Education
Unit 1: Preparing
for the EFA
Reporting requirements as
member of international
 UN: Demographic census
 IMF: National accounts
 UN specialised agencies
– UIS/WEI Questionnaires
 Development agencies:
– SWAP, PRSP, bilateral baseline &
progress reports
Lessons learnt from the
first Jomtien decade:
 EFA Mid-Decade Review fiasco
 EFA monitoring
– > regular UIS and national data
collection systems.
 EFA assessment
– > a continuous process
– > early warning mechanisms.
Expanded EFA: data gaps
and indicators inadequacies
Vital areas not yet clearly defined and codified,
absence of standards like the ISCED
with a standardized data collection
– Early Childhood,
– Literacy,
– Non-formal education for adults and youth
– General skills and essential life skills
Post Dakar Condition:
Quantitative Information
and Analysis for EFA NAP
 Credible national action plan = ?
 Realistic, feasible & cost-effective actions
Depends on:
– Quality of information and
– Quality of analysis &
Opportunity: demand statistical CB
EFA NAP: design strategies for
un-reached groups
 EFA strategy focus is, not on simply improving more of
the same, but how to reach the non-achieved targets
and neglected groups

 Increasing marginal cost for more inaccessible

population targets (eg. cost of providing education to
1000 in city versus linguistic minorities in remote

 More of standard “success” formula will not be effective

in non-standard environment

 Need innovative, non-conventional approach, cost-

effective in the context of the target environment
Questions to be answered
Education for whom & why?
 Who are neglected, disadvantaged?
 What knowledge and skills?
 How to increase access?
 Cost-effective delivery?
 How to decrease disparities?
 Contextual indicators analysis – type of
environment of the target groups
 Contextual gender analysis
Sub-national Analysis of Disparities
Who are neglected? What knowledge, Early Formal NFE Out-of-
skills? How to increase access? Cost- childhood Basic school youth
effective delivery? How to decrease education & adults
disparities? Contextual indicators
analysis. Contextual gender analysis.
Urban poor & homeless ? ? ?
Remote isolated communities ? ? ?
Minority language groups ? ? ?
Subsistence farming/ fishery areas ? ? ?
Physically handicapped ? ? ?
Seasonal itinerant workers ? ? ?
Rehabilitation of prisoners ? ? ?
Refugees & displaced population ? ? ?
Etc. list relevant neglected groups ? ? ?
Unit 3: EFA / MDG
Monitoring and
Monitoring and Assessment
improve improve policies
Purpose implementation and strategies
operations and policymaking and
Aimed at management leadership
account of what evaluation of
have been policies and
implemented strategies vs goals
& targets
inputs and process outcomes and
Information impact
resource input, achievements,
Indicators efficiency, quality socio-economic
of delivery changes, reduction
in disparities
Monitor & Evaluate EFA Objectives
1. ECD: Expand & improve ECD
2. Access: Ensure all to have access and complete
education that is free, compulsory and of good quality
3. Life Skills: Ensure learning needs of all youth and
adults are met through equitable access to appropriate
learning and life skills prgrammes
4. Literacy: Achieve 50% improvement in adult literacy
5. Gender: Eliminate gender disparities in primary and
secondary education by 2005 and achieving gender
equality in education by 2015
6. Quality: Improve quality of education and ensure
excellence, so that all learners achieve recognized and
measurable learning outcomes
Global EFA Monitoring Indicators:
Dakar objective 1:
Expand & improve ECD

1. GER in ECD, age 3-5 (public/private;

pupil/teacher ratio)
2. Proportion of grade 1 who attended ECD
Dakar objective 2:
Ensure all to have access and complete
education that is free, compulsory and of good

Access and participation/ coverage

3. Gross intake rate,
4. Net intake rate (private, public)
5. GER.
6. NER (by grade, gender, public/private; out-of-school
children by age, gender, etc.)
Dakar objective 2, cont’d
Resource Input
7. Public current expenditure on primary ed as % of GNP, as % of
GNP per capita (expenditure on teacher salary, expenditure by
family and by private sector)
8. Ditto as % of total public expenditure on education
Quality of delivery
9. % primary teachers with required academic qualifications
10. % primary teachers who are certified (or trained) to teach
according to national standards (curriculum)
11. Pupil/teacher ratio
Internal efficiecy
12. Repetition rate, 13. Survival rate to grade 5
14. coefficient of efficiency (to be dropped)
Dakar objective 3:
Ensure learning needs of all youth and adults are
met through equitable access to appropriate
learning and life skills prgrammes
16. Literacy rate, age 15-24 (Achievement of life
(+ life-skills case studies in SE Asia)

Dakar objective 4:
Achieve 50% improvement in adult literacy
17. Adult literacy, age 15+
18. Literacy gender parity index
Dakar objective 5:
Eliminate gender disparities in primary
and secondary education by 2005 and
achieving gender equality in education by

+ Gender parity index F/M in

 AIR and NIR,
 repetition, survival rate, transition rates
Dakar objective 6:
Improve quality of education and ensure
excellence, so that all learners achieve
recognized and measurable learning

15. % of grade 5+ who have mastered

nationally defined basic learning
competencies (problem: identify cost-
effective method)
Questions about the EFA
national action plan
 Did you help in preparing the national action plan
or an EFA progress report? Only a few
 What statistics/indicators were used? Enrolment
rates, pupil/teacher ratio, finance-expenditure, etc.,
 Who are the main target groups in your national
action plan?
 Contextual analysis of the target groups?
 New strategies for delivering education and
 Is the national action plan is credible and realistic
about reaching the goals and targets of the EFA?
Pacific MOE able to produce EFA indicators
(out of 10 respondents)
% yes of total Qs

9. %primary teachers acad qualified

11. Pupil/teacher ratio
12. Repetition rate, by type of school
10. %primary teachers certified
8.Public expenditure as %of total public expenditure on education
6. NER
5. Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER)
4. Net intake rate (NIR, by private/public)
3. Gross intake rate (GIR)
21. GPI repetition, survival rate, transition rates
20. GPI in GER, NER
2. Proportion of grade 1who attended ECD
13. Survival rate to grade 5
7. Public current expenditure%of GNP, as %of GNP per capita
19. GPI GIR and NIR
1. GER in ECD
18. Literacy gender parity index F/M
17. Adult literacy, age 15+
16.b. Life-skills case studies
16.a. Literacy rate, age 15-24
15. %of grade 5+ mastered learning competencies
14. Coefficient of efficiency (optional)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Unit 4:
Capacity Building
Pre-NESIS Capacity Building
 Dieu Ex Machina - the external help
 ‘TTC syndrome’: technological solution
 Increased dependency: need for rare skills &
hard currency for imports
 Fragmented training workshops/seminars
 Quality of output changed little
 Individuals changed, but no systemic change
 “30 years of failure”, Edward Heneveld, The
World Bank
Who decides relevant information?
Diagnosis of information needs
and technical feasibility

“Consumer survey” of information needs

– Users – education planners, analysts, journalists
– Consumers – policy makers, decision makers,
teachers, public,
Feasibility and capacity needs analysis
– Suppliers – schools, administrators
– Producers – MOE Statistics, Personnel, Finance &
accounting, NSO, etc.
Education Issues and Information
Needs for Policy & Management
Policies & Access & Knowledge
resources Participation & Skills


Quality Social-Econo-
Standards mic Impact

NESIS Indicators Model

Information need in LL Learning perspective
Indicator areas Early Formal NFE Out-of-
childhood Basic school youth
education & adults
Demand for education and training
Input of resources and policies
Quality of education delivery process
Access and participation/coverage
Output of knowledge and skills
Impact on individual welfare & health
Impact on gender & social disparities
Impact on community development
Impact on socio-economic systems
Capacity for policy formulation and management
Information flow in policy cycle
Policy formulation Administration

Evaluation Mobilization

Monitoring Implementation

T-L Impact
Policy Capacity =
ability to …
 Formulation – defining goals, identifying target
groups and setting targets
 Decision – “authoritative allocation of values”
 Mobilization – resources delivered to system
 Implementation – systems development
benchmark indicators
 Monitoring – systems performance benchmark
 Assessment – systems outputs and outcomes
POLICY Goals & Objectives, Standards,
MAKING Strategic Planning

Systems, Processes:
MANAGEMENT & Planning, Budgeting
ADMINISTRATION Monitoring & Evaluation

Operational Tasks

Hierarchy and functions

Ministry of Education

Regional Education Offices

District Education Offices
District Assemblies

Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools


Information integrates levels and functions

Building capacity in strategic functions

Directive Executive Reproductive

advisory Training
Institutional council Task force institutes

Diagnosis & Systems Staff

action plan development development
Traditional centralised data collection system
NSO Yearbook

NSO/MOE Data tabulation

MOE National Aggregation

Provincial EO

District EO

School tallies

School records
& head counts
Decentralised/Distributed System
Data proessing

Provincial EO Provincial EO
Application Application
Analysis Analysis
Data proessing Data proessing
Districtl EO Districtl EO Districtl EO Districtl EO
Application Application Application Application
Analysis Analysis Analysis Analysis
Data proessing Data proessing Data proessing Data proessing

School School School School School School School School

Application Application Application Application Application Application Application Application
Analysis Analysis Analysis Analysis Analysis Analysis Analysis Analysis
Data proessing Data proessing Data proessing Data proessing Data proessing Data proessing Data proessing Data proessing
Questions about capacity of your
statistics function in the MOE

1. In what areas are

capacity inadequate?
2. How and why the
capacity is
3. What can be done to
raise the capacity?
Unit 5: National
Capacity Building
Participating countries to identify regional and
national Capacity Building priorities
Capacity Factors
 Resources
– Human: manpower and skills
– Material, facilities and logistical support
– Capital investment in infrastructure & equipment
– Recurrent cost budget for operations
 Institutional Development
– Leadership, management, operations
– systems development & maintenance
– Administrative structures
– System of rules, regulations, laws
– Working procedure and task management
Pacific Capacity Building Priorities
Average number of countries response Essential & Urgent

Finance & Material


Human Resources



EFA Data Modules

Core Data modules

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
EFA National Action Plans
should contain
 Realisticmonitoring
strategy closely related to
national EFA priorities
 EFA monitoring and
assessment work plan
 Capacity building for EFA
monitoring and assessment
Develop capacity for EFA
Mid-Decade Assessment
 Lack capacity in EFA monitoring indicators and
assessment analysis of goals attainment.
 2-4 years to revise poorly designed or to develop new
national statistical systems
 Need analytical capacity: concepts and analytical
models, skills, tools.
– EFA national coordinators and statisticians
– UNESCO programme specialists in the field offices
 Need regional and sub-regional CB partnerships
National Capacity Development
1. National diagnostic survey
2. Formation of management committees
3. Re-defining the key role of information
4. Stakeholder participation-- networking
5. Development of national systems
6. Institutionalization of NESIS
7. Creation of permanent structures
From Diagnosis to Full Implementation


Diagnosis WGES Pilot

program project

Full imple- Project
mentation proposal
Process Overview: from pilot to scale
Country level
Technical meeting for peer • National CB task force
review of core data modules
• Diagnosis: needs & feasibility
• Policy anchor national action plan
• Pilot projects & national products
• Full scale national implementation
Regional level
• Peer review for generalization &
Tegegn Nuresu Wako and NESIS members
from Ethiopia, Zambia and Zimbabwe
quality assurance
• Generic modules with tools
• Test application thru mutual tech.
• Dissemination & applications
National Task Force for
NESIS Development
Organization Functions and Levels

National Policy Council NESIS

Policy, advice & support Coordination & execution
Development agencies Technical Agencies
& MOEs & NESIS experts

National Technical Committee NESIS ImplementaionTeams

Major consumers MOE specialists
& producers of universities &
education statistics training institutes
Framework for org info

 DQAF: data quality assessment framework

 Harvard EMIS matrix
 Tech issues – systems, hardware, software, forms
 Training issues – concepts, knowledge, skills
 Organizational – mgt support, mgt capacity,
structures, processes, resources, org culture
 Institutional issues – structures, processes,
regulations, contracts, terms of services,
 Specs of info needs – goals, objectives,
political, function needs (mgt, SM, RWxh),
curr policy and prog concerns (politics),
theoretical frameworks/ research (standards)
 Prioritization (valuing and negotiation)
 Integration (coordination, horizontal &
 Synchronization (timing, school, budget,
resource & decision cycles)
Rows (cont’d)
 Organization & design (strategies &
– Reports & query structures
– Forms definition
– Data collection, gathering, follow-up
– Data entry & updating
– Verification & validations
Rows (cont’d)
 Computerization
– Database structures
– Report formats
– Applications
– Language utilities
 Data collection & gathering
 Verifications & follow-up
Rows (cont’d)
 Data entry
 Validation: Sequential, Logical, Contextual
 Data cleaning
 Storage & maintenance
 Dissemination & access
– Informatin policy
– Communication systems
– Distribution systems
 Denial & reconciliation
Rows cont’d
 Utilization
– Administration management
– Planning monitoring
– Research policy analysis
– Policy dialogue political
Unit 6: Regional
CB Strategy and
Technical Support
Regional Strategic Alliance for
Country-led Capacity Building
Sustainable institutional capacity to provide statistical
services and information systems for national policy
development, planning & management

Catalytic role in building a network of institutions,
agencies and experts in joint ventures and networks as
agents of change.

Guiding principles:
Strengthen country leadership, ownership, partnership
and implementation through national education
sector-wide development programme
Capacity Building through
Strategic Alliance
 Pre-requisite: shared goals and mutual benefit
 Resource sharing, joint and coordinated
 enhance synergy, cohesion, synchronization,
cost-effectiveness and mutual support
 optimal use of available resources and
structures for
 maximum impact in both the short and the
long term throughout the region
Mobilising regional networks
for EFA 2005 assessment

• Organizing Regional Technical

Support Programme &
Mid-decade conference

• Building capacity of country teams:

guidelines, tools, training, TA

• Tech. support to national & regional

assessment process & reports
EFA technical support to
countries in the region
UNESCO Regional
Bureau for Education
• Ministries and national
organizations /
stakeholder groups
• national EFA sector
review, plan formulation
and implementation.

UIS with Regional, Cluster and Field Offices

• UIS EFA Observatory, EFA Monitoring Group and High Level Group.
• Regional Sub-Regional EFA coordinators and statisticians
• Technical support to EFA Monitoring and Assessment
UIS AP Regional technical support services
 Organise network of specialists and institutions
 Capacity building programs with regional institutions
 Technical modules for systems dev. with regional
based experts
 TA to nat’l implementation with agencies
 Application for priority issues (e.g.. EFA, MDG and
 Joint & coordinated activities with other agencies
 Internet/Web for MOE’s & Publications, info.
services, clearing house & exchange forum.
Framework for Partnership:
within UNESCO
 UNESCO HQ and Institutes
– UIS re. EFA monitoring & UIS regional workshops
– UNESCO HQ EFA and other relevant sub-sectors with
regard to EFA Mid-Decade Review
 Regional: Regional Office, UISAP, PSA, APPEAL,
APEID, ICT units.
 Field offices: ed. specialists trained as task
 UNESCO Inter-Regional
– NESIS-Africa Regional Centre at UNESCO Harare and
Sub-Regional Office at UNESCO Dakar,
– Other UNESCO regional initiatives
Partnership: external partners
 UN agencies, bilateral donors, and NGOs
 UN Thematic Working Group on EFA and the Sub-
Regional EFA Forums/Fora in Asia and the Pacific
Region, involving
the UN agencies - FAO, ILO, UNDP, UNICEF,
UNFPA, World Bank
 Regional organizations -ADB, ESCAP, SEAMEO,
NGOs - Save the Children, SIL Asia, ASPBAE
 Bilaterals - Japan,, France, Australia, the
Netherlands, DFID
 Regional and national institutes
Sub-regional working groups
• Need collaboration, methods and
tools and demonstration effect

• Regional and Subregional CB

working groups
• Pilot/lead country teams/ institutes/
• 4-5 participating country teams/
institutes/ individuals per group
Strategy: first-year objectives
 Establish management / coordination at regional,
cluster and field office levels
 Mobilise pilot countries with their experiences,
strategies, methods, tools and resources to lead
 produce strategies, guidelines, good practice
methodologies and tools for policy analysis
 Empower national leadership and ownership:
national advisory council and technical teams
 Initiate CB for filling in data and analytical gaps in
Unit 7: Application
for Capacity
Modules for systems and
human resources development
Type of Technical Training module
modules for for human
output systems resources
development development

Appli- System software, Teaching-learning

tools, manuals & materials &
cation good practice guidelines for
tools guidelines course-
Experienced Trainers,
Impact/ improved
outcome products,
services, case
studies and qualified
examples graduates
Available modules, assistance and training
From diagnosis to action plan

Records management

Annual school survey design

Database development

Education indicators -> EFA2000 Assessment template

Education finance & expenditure

Data collection and processing - an integrated approach

How to communicate education statistics

Publishing on the Internet Web

Communicating in CyberSpace
Module development initiated
 Core data module - data collection, processing and
analysis (see NESIS & SISED versions)
 Training in ed. statistics for ed. journalists
 Use of population census and household survey: why
are children not in school?
 Publications & info. services, Internet publication
 NFE information systems and ed. Statistics
 Financial stats: school revenue & expenditure
 Statistics on textbooks and learning materials
 Teachers and personnel information system
 (Multivariate analysis)
Tools developed

•National Reports (pilot project reports and tools)

•Application software

•Technical reference manuals

•Training and learning manuals and tools

•Clearinghouse database on experts and information systems in

countries (see UNESCO Bangkok Questionnaire on institutions
for educational statistics and management information system)

•Brochures and posters

•NESIS Web-site:

UNESCO AP Regional Bureau
Training Course on Analytical Tools for
Educational Planning and Management
 Sprague Multipliers for age disaggregation
 Cohort Analysis of flow efficiency
 Enrolment Projection
 Gini Coefficient for summary measure of
EFA Planning Guide (CD ROM)
UNESCO AP Regional Bureau
 Fundamentals of education planning
 Planning for EFA
 EFA Planning for Formal Basic Education (Target
Group 2)
– Adults below literacy level (target group 4)
 EFA Planning for
– ECCD & pre-school (target group 1)
– Out-of-School children and youth (target group 3)
 Cost and financing considerations
 Analysis, Projection and Simulation for EFA
EFA mid-decade assessment
 2003:
– Organise EFA coordinators and statisticians collaboration
as a country team (done by NESIS in Africa, but disbanded)
– Update EFA2000 guidelines and templates for 2005
– Update, adapt, develop application and training modules
– Design & initiate data collection in data-gap areas
 2004:
– NESIS capacity building projects and workshops
– Apply EFA Planning Guidebook and tools
– Training in EFA PM
 2005:
– Production workshop in EFAPM
– Stakeholders & policy anchoring
– Regional assessment review
Appendix C – Application
Tools, Technical and
Training Modules
The following application tools, technical guides and
training modules have been assembled for review,
selection, adaptation, update and revision:
 EFA Planning Guide
1. Fundamentals of education planning
2. Planning for EFA
3. EFA Planning for Formal Basic Education (Target
Group 2)
4. Adults below literacy level (target group 4)
5. EFA Planning for
6. ECCD & pre-school (target group 1)
Asia-Pacific Network of Statisticians and
Information Specialists (NESIS)
 Fill-in the forms
A. Institutional profiles
B. Systems CB profile
C. CB priorities
D. Individual role as team members and
trainers, developers and project