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ANATOMY OF JOINT/ARTICULATI

ON
I Nyoman Mangku Karmaya

Tujuan
• Memahami jenis, struktur dan fungsi tulang
• Memahami persendian, jenis, contoh dan maca
m gerakannya
• Menggambarkan skema synovial joint/diarthrosi
s dan menunjukkan bagian-bagiannya
• Menjelaskan dan membedakan antara fascia, te
ndon, aponeurosis, ligamen, bursae dan tendon
sheath

The Human Skeletal System
22 bones in skull
6 in middle ears
1 hyoid bone
26 in vertebral column
25 in thoracic cage

4 in pectoral girdle
60 in upper limbs
60 in lower limbs
2 in pelvic girdle

206 bones in all Department of Anatomy, Medical 3
Faculty Udayana University

Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton Ventral view Dorsal view .

Human skeleton Axial skeleton – consist of 80 bones cranium spine /columna vertebralis ribs sternum Appendicular skeleton – consist of 126 bones shoulder arm elbow hand TOTAL: 206 BONES pelvis leg knee ankle foot .

206 tulang manusia dewasa mempunyai 5 fungsi utama • Menyangga tubuh • Deposit mineral dan lemak • Produksi sel-sel darah • Melindungi organ • Memungkinkan melakukan gerakan mengu ngkit dan gerakan umumnya .

Jenis tulang a. Tulang pendek. Tulang tidak berat uran. . co ntoh: femur. c ontoh: tulang carpa l c. b. Tulang panjang. conto h: tulang atap tengk orak d. contoh tulan g vertebra. Tulang pipih.

Metaphysial and epiphysia l aa Vena: Mengikuti perjalanan a.Arteri : Periosteal a. Nutrient a.nut ricia Lymphatics (vessels) sa ngat banyak dalam per iosteum Nerves: Periosteal nerves (serat sy araf nyeri) .

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Bone Marks • crest : a sharp prominent bony ridge • condyle : a rounded prominence that articulates with another bone • epicondyle : a small projection located on or above a condyle • facet : a smooth. nearly flat articular surface • fissure : a narrow cleft-like passage • foramen (foramina) : a hole • fovea : a pit. often set off from shaft from neck . generally used for attachment rather than for joint • head : larger end of long bone.

Bone Marks • line : a slight bony ridge • meatus : a canal or tube-like structure • process : a prominence or projection • spine : a slender pointed projection • sulcus : a groove • trochanter : a large. larger than a tu bercle • . somewhat blunt process • tubercle : a nodule or small rounded process • tuberosity : a broad process.

no movement. This fluid helps lubricate and pro tect the bones.Immovable:connect bones. ( skull and pelvis).slightly movable. bones are attached by cartilage. The type depend on the structure in between • Fibrous. much more movement tha n cartilaginous joints.freely movable. Cavities between bones are fille d with synovial fluid. . • Cartilaginous. or articulation. Joints/Articulation A joint. is the place where two bones come together. • Synovial. a little movement (spine or ribs).

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Describe the name of all su tures at cranium .

Fontanela anterior Fontanela posterior .

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Intervertebral disc .

Medulla spinalis Medulla spina lis/spinal cord goes through vertebral can al which is for med by verte bral foramen .

INTERVERTEBRAL DISC .

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LOAD Hernia Nucle us Pulposus ( HNP) push th e spinal cord .

• Most common joints in b ody Synovial Joints • Most mobile joints • Have – Articular surfaces o n bone with hyaline c artilage – Completely enclosed joint capsule formed from ligamentous con nective tissue – Synovial fluid within capsule lubricates joi nt – Some have meniscu s or articular disc(e. jaw joint) . g. knee.

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inter-phalangeal • Pivot joints--radio-ulnar joint.ankle. in part. determines the ran ge and direction of movement . shoulder The type of joint. atlas-dens joint • Condyloid joints (egg into oval)--metacarpo-p halangeal • Saddle joints--carpo-metacarpal joint of thumb • Ball-and-socket--hip. Synovial Joint Shape Types • Plane joints--intercarpal joints • Hinge joints--elbow.

Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape Figure 5. Inc.52 .29a–c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 5.

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PIVOT JOIN T BETWEEN C1 AND C2 .

Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape Figure 5. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 5.52 . Inc.29d–f Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.

A hinge joint allows extension and r etraction of an appendage. Types of Joints Hinge. Knee) . (Elbow.

They are found in the hips a nd shoulders. (Hip. Shoulder) .Ball and Socket.A ball and socket joint allows for radial movement in almost an y direction.

Mid-carpal and mid-ta rsal joints are gliding joints. (Hands.In a gliding or plane joint bones sli de past each other.Gliding. Feet) .

(Thumb) .Saddle.This type of joint occurs when the t ouching surfaces of two bones have both concave and convex regions with the sha pes of the two bones complementing one other and allowing a wide range of move ment.

moving leg away from body adduction.swinging arms in circles inversion.straightening the leg abduction.palm down circumduction.rotation of arm to palm-up position pronation.sole is out .move lower leg toward upper extension.Types of movement and examples (with muscles) flexion.around its axis supination.movong leg toward the body rotation.turning foot so sole is inward eversion.

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Shoulder Joint .

Shoulder Joint .

Knee Joint

1. Intra and extra articular ligament; 2. meniscus, 3. sesamoid bone (patella)

What is • Fascia • Tendon • Ligament • Bursae .

SKIN .

OUR BODY IS COVERED BY • Skin • Fascia superficialis (subcutaneous tissue) • Fascia profundus = fascia=fibrous membra ne between more specialized tissue such as muscles – More or less continues over the entire body a nd commonly named according to region eg. Fascia pectoralis. fascia lata etc. .

Epidermis Dermis .

Function of the fascia • Provide muscles origins and insertions • Serving as an elastic sheath for muscles • Forming specialized retaining band (retinacula) and fibrous sheaths for tendons • Provides pathways for the passage of vessels a nd nerves (neurovascular sheath) • Aided the venous return in lower limb by muscul ar action • May limit or control the spread of pus • Strips of fascia are sometimes used for the repai r of the tendinous or aponeurotic defects .

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g.Tendons are str uctures that connect b one to muscle and are made up of tendon tiss ue Can have various shap es Typical is cord-like ten don of biceps Sheeths are common-- ”aponeuroses” e. osis of abdominal w all muscles . acr omiotrapezius origin fr om thoracic vertebral s Aponeur pines.

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reduce the friction during the motion between or gans • Exp: bursa.Serous Cavities of the Human Body • serous = watery. pericardial. • Serous cavities = s acs lined with sero us membranes. • serve as lubricating devices.ty pe fluid. per itoneal cavities . pleur al.

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Bursae vs Synovial Tendon Sheath .

. ankle. fingers an d toes.•Tendon Sheaths: tubelike bursae that wrap a round tendons. Found at the wrist.

. ligaments shortens and lose flexibility. Aging and Joints • Decreased production of synovial fluid • Articular cartilage becomes thinner with ag e. • Genetic factors • Males commonly develop degenerative ch anges in the vertebral column-hunched. • Osteoarthritis-occurs over age 70.

Joint Diseases .

Arthritis .

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When cryst als form in the joints it causes recurring at tacks of joint inflammation (arthritis). This overloa d of uric acid leads to the formation of tiny crystals of urate that deposit in tissues of the body. especially the joints. . decre ased kidney function. Gout • Gout is a disease that results from an ove rload of uric acid in the body. Chr onic gout can also lead to deposits of har d lumps of uric acid in and around the join ts and may cause joint destruction. and kidney stones.

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X-ray of hand affected by arthritis .

Bursitis
• Inflammation of the Bursa (fluid fille
d sac surrounding the joint).
• A bursa can become inflamed from i
njury, infection (rare in the shoulder)
, or due to an underlying rheumatic c
ondition.
• Bursitis is typically identified by loca
lized pain or swelling, tenderness, a
nd pain with motion of the tissues in
the affected area.

. and the action of pulling the muscle becomes irritating. This is called tendonitis. • The most common cause of tendonitis is o veruse. Tendonitis • Sometimes the tendons become inflamed for a variety of reasons. and literally m eans inflammation of the tendon. the tendon will become i nflamed and movement will become painf ul. If th e normal smooth gliding motion of your te ndon is impaired.

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Artificial Hip Joint .

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TRAUMA !!! .

C.R. E. I. : • REST • ICE • COMPRESS • ELEVATE .

TERIMAKASIH .