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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SUBJECT :

ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTAL 2
(AAB10402)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :1 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TABLE OF CONTENT
Page
SUBJECT 01

TABLE OF CONTENT 02
REFERENCES 03
TOPIC 1 : CIRCUIT PROTECTION AND CONTROL DEVICES 04
TOPIC 2 : THREE PHASE SYSTEMS 31
TOPIC 3 : TRANSFORMERS 41

TOPIC 4 : FILTERS 76
TOPIC 5 : AC GENERATORS 94

TOPIC 6 : AC MOTOR 122


TOPIC 7 : DC MOTOR / GENERATORS THEORY 137

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :2 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TABLE OF CONTENT (CONT’D)


Page
TOPIC 9 : DC ALTERNATOR 231

TOPIC 10 : INVERTER AND RECTIFIER 256


TOPIC 11 : POWER DISTRIBUTION 335
TOPIC 12 : EMERGENCY POWER GENERATION 344
TOPIC 13 : AIRCRAFT LIGHTING 351

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :3 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

REFERENCES
 JEPPESEN Sanderson Training Product
A& P Technician General Textbook.
 JEPPESEN Sanderson Training Product
A& P Technician Airframe Textbook.
 GLENCOE Aviation Technology Series –
Aircraft Electricity & Electronics.
 E.H.J Pallet (1987) 3rd Edition. Aircraft
Electrical System. Pearson Prentice Hall.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :4 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TOPIC 1 :
CIRCUIT PROTECTION
AND
CONTROL DEVICES

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :5 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 Developed to protect personnel and electrical circuits
from currents and voltages outside their normal
operating range.
 used to stop current flow by opening the circuit.
 must always be connected in series with the circuit.
 when open, indicate problem exist in the circuit.
 should isolate the faulty circuit from the other unaffected
circuit.
 problems should be corrected before restoring the circuit
current.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :6 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 Circuit conditions requiring protection devices.
 Direct short or Short circuit – a path of current that bypass
the load to directly flow to the return side of the circuit
Caused excessive current flow and heat.
 Excessive current – caused by the decrease in resistance
or total circuit impedance.
Examples: Change in Ohmic value; Capacitor’s dielectric
leakage; Partial short of Inductor’s winding.
 Excessive heat – generated by higher current or
temperature.
• Examples: Overheat of the motor or generator due to bearing
failure; Rise in temperature around an electrical or electronic
circuit due to failure of a cooling system.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :7 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


Two types circuit protection device:
1. Fuse:-
 Made of low melting point alloy.
 Made of lead; lead and tin; tin and bismuth.
 When current flow becomes excessive, the
metal alloy melts and open the circuit.
 Not resettable and when blown must be
replaced with new one.
 Rated according to the maximum continuous
amperage they can carry.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :8 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 Fast blow fuse for general purpose use.
 Has narrow link of metal strip encased in a
tubular glass.

 Slow blow fuse is used in power


surge area.
 Larger fusible link held under tension by a
small spring.
 Accept a momentary surge of current.
 A short delay before the metal link melts.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :9 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


For certification of a normal, utility, acrobatic or
commuter category aircraft.
 CFR 14 Part 23 Requirement -
 1 spare fuse of each rating; or
 50% of each rating whichever is greater.

 CFR 14 Part 91 Requirement – Aircraft flying at night:


 must carry a spare set which may consists of a complete
replacement set of fuses; or
 A quantity of 3 replacement fuse for each kind.
All spare fuses must be accessible to the pilot in flight.
Note: CFR = Code of Federal Regulation.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :10 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 CIRCUIT BREAKER
 Automatically open the circuit when
excessive current flow.
 Work on the principle of heat
(bimetallic) or magnetic field.
 Have some mean to show it opened
the circuit.
 Can be reset to restore the circuit
after the fault corrected.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :11 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 CIRCUIT BREAKER (cont)
 Type
 Push to reset
Pop out when overload occur.
Cannot manually open the circuit
Cannot be used as a switch.
 Push-pull
• Pop out when overload – normally
identified by white band.
• Can be manually pulled out to open
the circuit.
• As switches for maintenance purpose
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :12 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


CIRCUIT BREAKER (Cont.)
 Toggle
 Use as control switch and circuit breaker.
 Toggle up when the circuit is closed.
 Pop partially down (center position) when
overloaded.
 Restore circuit by moving toggle switch all
the way down and then toggle up

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :13 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


CIRCUIT BREAKER (Cont.)
 Automatic CB
 Not permitted for aircraft used.
 Function:-
• In the closed position the conductive snap–
acting disc bridges the terminal contacts.
• At predetermined overloads, the resistance
heated up due to current passing through
the disc and snaps the disc into reverse
position.
• This opens the contacts and breaks the
circuit. After a short cooling time the disc
automatically closes and re–establishes the
circuit.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :14 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


CIRCUIT BREAKER (Cont.)
 Electronic Circuit Breaker –
 use on large commercial aircraft to control overloaded power
distribution circuits.
 Using inductive pickups called current transformer.
 Control Unit Computer monitor the pickups signals and opens the
circuit breaker if overcurrent condition exist.
 All aircraft CB is trip-free type –
 Breaker contacts remain open as long as fault exists irregardless of
the actuating control position.
 Allowed to cool before reset.
 Location - install as close as possible to the source – bus
bar.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :15 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 DC Circuit Protector Chart WIRE AN CIRCUIT FUSE
 Use as a guide for the selection of circuit GAUGE BREAKER AMP.
breaker and fuse rating to protect copper COPPER AMP.
conductor wire. 22 5 5
20 7.5 5
 Basis of Chart 18 10 10
 Wire bundles in 135°F ambient and altitudes 16 15 10
up to 30, 000 feet. 14 20 15
 Wire bundles of 15 or more wire, with wires 12 30 20
carrying no more than 20% of the total 10 40 30
carrying capacity of the bundle as given in 8 50 50
Spec. MIL-W-5088 (ASG) 6 80 70
 Protectors in 75 to 85 °F ambient. 4 100 70
 Copper wire Spec. MIL-W-5088. 2 125 100
1 150
 Circuit breakers to Spec. MIL-C-5809 or
0 150
equivalent.
 Fuses to Spec. MIL-F-15160 or equivalent
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :16 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 The device that turn a circuit ‘on’ and ‘off’ or
‘open’ and ‘close’.
 Types:
 Switches – can be operated manually with a lever, button or
electronically using transistor or integrated circuit (IC) .
 Solenoids
 Relays } - operated electrically

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :17 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 SWITCHES
 Purpose – to interrupt the flow of current to the component
 Rated
• ampere and voltage, stamped on the switch housing / case.
• if missing, use reference manual for part number.

 Toggle Switch
• used on older aircraft electrical
system.
• operated using a lever.
• replaced due the design that can
be inadvertently operated.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :18 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 SWITCHES (cont.)

 Rocker Switch – replaced toggle


switch for easier operations, more
attractive and safer installation.
• available with a number of different
contact arrangements.
• named according to the number of
circuits it control and the number of
sets of poles it have.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :19 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


The switches are designed in
different contact arrangements.
a) Single pole, single throw (SPST)
• Has 2 contacts and control only one
circuit – either ‘on’ or ‘off’.

b) Single pole, double throw (SPDT)


• Select 2 conditions for a single circuit.
• Example: Flap motor switch which has
2 positions of either to raise or lower
flaps.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :20 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


c) Double pole, single throw (DPST)
• Control two circuits with only an ‘open’
and ‘close’ position.
• Advantage: both circuits are controlled
together but are fused separately.

d) Double pole, double throw (DPDT)


• Control 2 circuits in 2 conditions.
• May have 2 or 3 positions.
o 2 positions – “on” and “off” conditions.
o 3 positions – 3 conditions with centre “off”.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :21 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 Switches (cont.)
 Momentary Switches
Held in a particular position to actuate a
circuit.
 Rotary or Wafer Switches
• To select several conditions for a circuit.
• made up of wafers with contacts arrange
radially around the central shaft and
contact arm.
• may control as many circuits as are
needed.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :22 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 Switches (cont.)
 Precision (Micro) Switches
• Known by its trade name as
Microswitches.
• Operate by actuating the plunger to
cause the internal spring to snap the
contacts open or close.
• When used to limit the movement of a
mechanism, they are typically called
Limit Switch.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :23 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 Relays and Solenoids
 Used to remotely control components which are
located in places on the aircraft away from the
control device.
A small switch can be used to control a large amount of
current needed to operate high current device.
 Magnetically activated.
 Sometimes referred as contactors by aircraft
manufacturers.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :24 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 Relays
 Categorized by either normally
opened or closed.
 Has a fixed soft-iron core around
which an electromagnetic coil is
wound.
 Depending on the category, the movable contacts are closed or
opened by the magnetic pull exerted by the core when the coil is
energized or de-energized.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :25 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 Solenoids
 A movable core that is pulled into
the center of an electromagnetic
coil when the coil is energized.

 Respond quicker and stronger


than relays.
 Typically used for high current application such as starter
contactors.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :26 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 Switch Derating
 means that a switch must be rated to sustain more
voltage and current than what the circuit normally carries
continuously.
 due to the switch’s contacts may be subjected to high
voltage spike as switch is turned off or high current flow
through the contacts when the switch is initially closed.
 Circuits that need to have their switch derated are lamp,
inductive (relay/solenoid), resistive (heater) and motor.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :27 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


SWITCH DERATING FACTOR CHART Nominal Derating
System Type of Load Factor
 To determine the proper nominal switch Voltage (DF)
rating so as to obtain reasonable switch
efficiency and service life. 28VDC Lamp 8
• E.g. lamp operated continuously at 5A in 28VDC Inductive (relay-solenoid) 4
28V system . The nominal capacity of a
switch = 5A X 8 = 40 A ( nominal Rating) 28VDC Resistive (Heater) 2
• Aircraft toggle switch rated at 12V for 35
28VDC Motor 3
A is to be installed in lamp circuit. The
continuous current flow = 35A ÷ 5 = 7A. 12VDC Lamp 5
Therefore, continuous current should
not more than 7A. 12VDC Inductive (relay-solenoid) 2
 Switch contact – the material is carefully 12VDC Resistive (Heater) 1
selected to avoid failure
 DO NOT use AC derated switches in DC 12VDC Motor 2
cct, since the amperage capacity is To find nominal rating – continuous current x DF
different.
To find continuous rating – nominal rating ÷ DF

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :28 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

1. Circuit Protection and Control Devices (cont’d)


 Switch Installation
 Two position switch – should be mounted with the
upward or forward movement of the switch obtains
the “on” position.
 Component control switch – installed so that the
switch moved in the same direction as the desired
motion of the component.
 Emergency circuit switch – enclosed in a guard cover
which can lifted up before the switch can be
actuated.
• If the switch can be operated inadvertently, the guard cover
may be wired with a lightweight safety wire that can be broken
to gain access to the switch.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :29 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC 1
Circuit Protection and Control Devices

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :30 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TOPIC 2 :
THREE PHASE SYSTEMS

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :31 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

2. Three Phase Systems


AC generation on aircraft is a three phase system

 In (a) the single phase generator has one


rotating coil (wound many times). One
cable going to the consumer units.
 In (b) there are two coils on the same
armature at 90° to each other and there
would be two cables going to the
consumer units.
 In (c) there are three coils on the same armature at 120° to each other
producing three outputs at 120° phase difference. Three supply cables
would be used - one for each phase, each going to its own bus on the
aircraft.
 The phases is usually connected together either a STAR ()
configuration or DELTA () configuration.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :32 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

2. Three Phase Systems (cont’d)


Star Connected Generator
 Each winding is connected to a
common point called the
NEUTRAL or STAR point. The
three LINES are taken from the
start of each phase winding

LINE Current and PHASE Current are the same , IL = Iph


 LINE Voltage is derived from the two phases that are connected
across each pair of lines. Because the phase voltages are 120° out of
phase with each other, the LINE voltage is found by multiplying the
PHASE Voltage by √3, VL = √3 x Vph
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :33 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

2. Three Phase Systems (cont’d)


Delta Connected Generator
 LINE voltage (VL) and PHASE
voltage (Vph) is the same (VL =
Vph)

 LINE current is derived from the currents that are flowing in the two
windings that are connected to that particular line. As the phases are
120° out-of-phase with each other the LINE current (IL) is found by
multiplying PHASE current (Iph) by √3 , IL = √3 Iph
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :34 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

2. Three Phase Systems (cont’d)


Three Phase Voltages
 As the output windings of the generator are
identical, their outputs will be winding of
equal amplitude. These outputs are
represented both graphically and as phasors

 If the values above zero are called ‘+’ and


those below zero are called ‘-‘, the sum of
the voltages at any instant in time is always
zero.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :35 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

2. Three Phase Systems (cont’d)


A Symmetrical Three-Phase System
 The phase voltages are of the
same magnitude and of the same
phase displacement.

 The phase currents may have


differ magnitudes and phase
displacements, depending upon
the type and magnitude of the
phase loads.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :36 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

2. Three Phase Systems (cont’d)


Balanced Three-Phase System
 The phase loads are equal and,
therefore, the phase currents are
equal in magnitude and are operating
at the same phase angle.

 The sum of the instantaneous currents


(a current at an instant in time) in a
BALANCED system always equals
zero.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :37 Date : 14/01/ 08
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

2. Three Phase Systems (cont’d)


The relationships Between LINE and PHASE Voltages
 If the instantaneous values of two
phases (say, A and B) are added
together, the result will be a third
waveform (line AB).

 To do this with phasors, it is necessary


to reverse one of the two (say B) and
then add the two phasors.

 If this process is repeated in the same


order for the other two pairs of phases,
the result will be as shown.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :38 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

2. Three Phase Systems (cont’d)


Power in a Balanced Three-Phase System
 In the Star and Delta connected loads, the True Power in each phase is
given by: P = Vph Iph cos Ø Watts
 In a symmetrical and balanced system, the True Power is given by the
sum of the phase powers.: P = 3 Vph Iph cos Ø Watts
 It is however, usual to express True Power in terms of line values, in
which case it is given by: P = √3 VL IL cos Ø Watts

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :39 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC 2
THREE PHASE SYSTEMS

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :40 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TOPIC 3 :
TRANSFORMERS

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :41 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers
 A transformer consists of two coils
adjacent to each other

 AC supply is applied to one coil


known as the PRIMARY.

 The other coil is known as the


SECONDARY.

 The changing current in the primary


creates a fluctuating magnetic field
that induces changing a voltage in
the secondary coil (mutual)
inductance.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :42 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :43 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
 For efficient transformer, all the lines
of flux created by the current in the
primary should link with the
secondary by a laminated iron
core.
 Laminated iron core is to reduce
eddy current losses, because of its
high permeability the iron
concentrates, and increases the
lines of flux, and flux loss is small.
 If the secondary is connected to a load, a secondary (AC) current flows
and power is developed in the load. A transformer does not generate
power it merely transfers power from the primary to the secondary.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :44 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
 Source voltage is applied to the primary winding.
 The load is connected to the secondary winding.

 The core provides a physical structure for placement of windings and


a magnetic path so that the magnetic flux lines are concentrated close
to the coils.
 Typical core materials are: air, ferrite, and iron.

 Air and ferrite cores are used at high frequencies.

 Iron cores are used for low frequencies transformers and power
applications
- laminated to reduce eddy current losses
- high permeability  increase the lines flux and flux loss is small

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :45 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Turn Ratio
 Turns ratio (n) is defined as the ratio of the number of turns in the
secondary winding (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary winding
(Np)
n = Ns/Np
 With the turns ratio, the secondary voltage can be determined with the
following formula:
Vs = n x Vp
 The ratio of Vs to Vp or Ns to Np is known as the Transformation
Ratio.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :46 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Directions of Winding
 The direction of the windings
determines the polarity of the
voltage across the secondary
winding with respect to the
voltage across the primary.
 Phase dots are used to
indicate polarities.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :47 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Step-Up Transformers
 A transformer in which the secondary voltage is greater than the
primary voltage is called a step-up transformer
 The ratio of secondary voltage (Vs) to primary voltage (Vp) is equal to
the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary winding (Ns) to the
number of turns in the primary winding (Np)
Where T is the TURNS RATIO
= Number of turns on the secondary (NS)
Number of turns on the primary (NP)
VS = NS x VP
NP
or VS = NS
VP NP
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :48 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Step-Down Transformers
 A transformer in which the secondary voltage is less than the
primary voltage is called a step-down transformer
 The amount by which the voltage is stepped down depends on the
turns ratio
 The turns ratio of a step-down transformer is always less than 1

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :49 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Current and Power
 When a load resistor is connected to the secondary winding, there is
a current through the resulting secondary circuit because of the
voltage induced in the secondary coil.

 This results in current in both the primary and secondary coils which
is also effected by the turns ratio.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :50 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Primary Power equal Load Power
 For an ideal transformer, the power delivered in the secondary
(Vs x Is) equals the power in the primary (Vp x Ip)

 Therefore:
– voltage is stepped up in the secondary, the current is stepped down by
the same amount.
– voltage is stepped down in the secondary, the current is stepped up by
the same amount

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :51 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Transformer Losses
 Iron losses (also known mechanical loss)
- eddy currents and hysteresis

 Copper losses (also known electrical loss)


- the resistive losses in the wires, I2R

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :52 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Transformer on No Load
 When a voltage is applied to the primary but no load is connected to the
secondary.
 The very small current that flows in the primary is that current which is
necessary to overcome losses and to magnetize the core.
 Vp and Vs are in anti phase.
 Off load primary current will lag behind the primary voltage (inductive)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :53 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Transformer on Load
 Secondary currents provide a flux in the core which opposes the
primary flux – reduces the total flux in core – the primary back emf is
reduced – the primary current is reduced

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :54 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Transformer Connections
 A transformer can have a secondary winding with various tappings to
give differing output voltages, or it can have a combination of both.
 It is therefore a very versatile piece of equipment. It must be realised
that the individual loads on all these secondaries will all combine to be
effectively one load as far as the primary winding is concerned.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :55 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Phasing Dots
 The dots at the ends of the windings are
called phasing dots, shows that the
polarity at those points will be the same at
the same moment in time, i.e. points A, D
and E will all be positive together and all
negative together.
 The centre winding is therefore of opposite
polarity to the other two secondary
windings. That is winding 1 and 3 will have
a 180° phase shift from the input while
winding 2 will be in phase with the input. It
will of course be wounding the opposite
sense.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :56 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Efficiency
 The efficiency of a transformer is Output power x 100%
Input power
 As the input is equal to the output + losses, so efficiency may be
expressed as Output power x 100%
Output power + copper losses + iron losses
 Iron losses are reasonably constant, but copper losses vary as the
square of the currents flowing. Efficiency is greatest when copper
losses are equal to iron losses.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :57 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Regulation

(NO LOAD VOLTAGE – FULL LOAD VOLTAGE) X 100 %


FULL LOAD VOLTAGE

Typically the value is 1 to 2%

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :58 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Low Frequency Transformer
 Used within the audio frequency range.

 Core type – the laminations are either U and L shaped. They are
staggered when assembled to provide a single magnetic circuit. The
winding can be on limb or split between the two limbs.
 Shell type – The laminations are usually T and U shaped and are
staggered when assembled to give a three limbed former.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :59 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
High Frequency Transformer
 Radio frequency transformer are used in radio transmitters and
receivers (100 kHz to 100 MHz)
 Do not have iron cores because iron losses would be high at high
frequency.
 Have ferrite cores which are used to adjust the coil inductance or
modify the coupling effect between the two coils.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :60 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Auto Transformer
 One winding serves
as both the primary
and the secondary.
The winding is tapped
at the proper points to
achieve the desired
turns ratio for
stepping up or down
the voltage.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :61 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
The Quadrature (Mutual Reactor)
 A device was required that gave a phase angle of 90° between the
current in one circuit and a signal being put into another circuit.
 The angle between the primary current in a quadrature transformer
and its secondary voltage is 90°.
 If an air gap is cut in the former of the transformer, more current will be
required to magnetise the core to overcome the increased reluctance.
As the magnetising element of the primary current is at 90° to the
applied voltage, the primary current is increased and at the same time
moved around until it is almost 90° behind the applied voltage.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :62 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
 It also follows that the primary current is almost at 90° ahead of the
secondary emf.

 The air gap has an optimum size and is usually beneath the
windings, so it looks just like any other small transformer. It is only
used to obtain signal voltages and cannot be loaded to any great
extent.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :63 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Current Transformer
 Designed to enable circuit currents to be measured without breaking
into the circuit
 Works on the principle of mutual inductance.
 Has a step up turns ratio with the primary being the load supply cable.
 The secondary winding is wound on a non laminated toroidal core of
silicon iron

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :64 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Operation
 When fitting a current transformer make sure it is fitted the correct way
round
 When connecting the secondary to its load, make sure it is correctly
fitted.
 Never operate the primary circuit with the secondary open circuited.
Short it out.
 Never operate a current transformer on anything other than its
designed load
 In some cases, the current transformer and its load are a matched
pair. (They may even carry the same serial numbers). If one is
changed, then the other must also be changed.
 When they are used in control circuitry, remember that the secondary
output is a supply source proportional to the primary current flow.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :65 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Impedence Matching Transformer
 Impedence Z=V/I

 The impedance Zs of the secondary is the ratio of secondary voltage


to secondary current and the impedance Zp of the primary is the
ratio of the primary voltage to the primary current.

 The primary and secondary voltages and currents are related to


each other by the turns ratio (T) of the transformer
Zp = Zs/T2
 Maximum power is transferred from a source of supply to a load
circuit only when the load impedance is equal to the internal
impedance of the source of supply.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :66 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :67 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)
Three Phase Transformer
 3 interconnected single phase
transformer with their windings
combined on a single magnetic circuit.

 Four combination for three phase


transformer:
- Star-star
- Delta-delta
- Delta-star
- Star-delta
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :68 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)

STAR-STAR THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :69 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)

DELTA-DELTA THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :70 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)

 Star-star transformer power


Power = √3 VL IL cos θ

 Delta-delta transformer power


Power = √3 VL IL cos θ

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :71 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)

STAR-DELTA THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :72 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)

DELTA-STAR THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER


Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :73 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

3. Transformers (cont’d)

 The STAR-DELTA transformer has a √3 : 1 step down ratio in


addition to the effect of the turns ratio.

 The DELTA-STAR transformer has a 1 : √3 step up ratio in


addition to the effect of the turns ratio.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :74 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC 3
TRANSFORMERS

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :75 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TOPIC 4 :
FILTERS

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :76 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters

 Applications
- communication transceivers
- radio, marker beacon and ILS receivers
- engine vibration monitoring systems
- automatic flight control systems (AFCS)
- flight director systems (FDS)
- voice recorders

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :77 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)
Low Pass Filter
 Passes all frequencies from zero up to some value fC
and block all those above this value
 Capacitor, XC = 1/2fC
Very low frequency – open circuit
High frequency – short circuit
 Inductor, XL =2fL

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :78 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)

GRAPH OF LOW PASS FILTER CHARACTERISTICS

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :79 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)

LOW PASS FILTER CIRCUIT

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :80 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)
 Design impedence Ro =√(L/C)
 fc = 1/√(LC)
 L= Ro/fc
 C= 1/Rofc

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :81 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)
High Pass Filter
 Attenuates (blocks) all frequencies up to the cut off frequency
 Passes all frequencies above the cut off frequency

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :82 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)
 Allows current flow at high frequencies but acts as an open circuit
at low frequencies – series capacitor
 A short circuit at low frequencies but have a large impedence at
high frequencies - inductor

HIGH PASS FILTER CIRCUIT


Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :83 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)

 Design impedence Ro =√(L/C)


 fc = 1/4√(LC)
 L = Ro/4fc
 C = 1/4Rofc

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :84 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)
Band Pass Filter
 Passes all frequency components between some low cut off
frequency fc1 and some high cut off frequency fc2
 Blocks all frequencies below fc1 and above fc2

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :85 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)
 Series resonant circuit where
fo = 1/2√(LC)
 Acts as capacitance – low frequency
Acts as inductance – high frequency

BAND PASS FILTER CIRCUIT


Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :86 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)
Stop Band Filter
 Stops the transmission of frequencies between fc1 and fc2

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :87 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)
 Low frequency
- Series resonant circuit impedance is high
- Parallel resonant circuit impedance is low
 Resonant frequency
- Series resonant circuit impedance is low
- Parallel resonant circuit impedance is high

BAND STOP FILTER CIRCUIT


Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :88 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)

Differentiators
 A simple differentiator circuit
consisting of a resistor (R) and a
capacitor (C). This circuit could be
used as a high pass filter,
however, with a square wave input
and a short time constant compared
to the input pulse, it can be used as
a differentiating circuit
(i,e supplying an output proportional to
the derivative of the input with respect to
one or more variables.)
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :89 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)
Figure shows the input pulse (V) and the
voltages across C (VC) and R (VR). Note that:
a) The voltage output across C is a very close approximation to the
shape of the input pulse, the shorter the time constant (CR) the
better the approximation.
b) The output across R consists of two very narrow pulses of opposite
sign, one coinciding with the start, the other with the end of the
pulse.
c) VR = VO

The output is therefore proportional to how fast the input voltage


changes, i.e it is sensitive to rate of change on input voltage.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :90 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)
Integrators
 If the positions of C and R
are changed and we make
the time constant large
compared to the input pulse
we have an integrating
circuit. This basic circuit
could be used as a low
pass filter.
 The input pulse to a RC
circuit with a long time
constant and the resulting
output across the capacitor.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :91 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

4. Filters (cont’d)

 The integrator takes an input and produces an output across the


capacitor over a period of time depending on the values of CR, ie
the output is proportional to the time-integral of the input.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :92 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC 4
FILTERS

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :93 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TOPIC 5 :
DC GENERATORS/MOTOR THEORY

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :94 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory
 Based on Faraday’s Law
Faraday’s Law state that when a conductor (loop) cut a
magnetic field or a magnetic field cut a conductor,
electromotive force (emf) is induced into the conductor.
Mechanical energy (rotation of the loop) is converted into electrical
energy (induced emf).
The magnitude of induced emf generated depend upon:
Magnetic field’s flux density or strength (B)
Length of conductor (l)
Relative motion or speed of cutting (v)
 Formula - Induced EMF (e) = B l v

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :95 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 Principle of Operation

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :96 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 Principle of Operation
A – The loop lies at right angle/perpendicular to the magnetic field. No
voltage induced since the loop’s movement is parallel to the flux
line.
B – As loop rotates and the cut flux lines to 90 degrees, voltage is
increasingly induced to the maximum.
C – When loop rotates from 90° to 180° , the cutting of the flux line will
be gradually reduced thus the voltage induced will drop to zero.
D – As loop rotate further to 270 degrees, the voltage induced will be
maximum again at negative value.
A - As rotation continues, the number of flux line cut decreases and
induced voltage reduces to zero thus return to the first position.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :97 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 Principle of Operation
The direction of the
induced emf into the
conductor can be
determined by using:
Fleming’s Right Hand Rule –
Conventional flow (UK) .
Left Hand Rule – Electron flow
(US) .
Thumb – Motion.
1st Finger – Field.
2nd Finger – Current.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :98 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


Principle of Operation
 The output of a simple generator is alternating current (AC).

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :99 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)

 The AC is converted into direct current (DC) by a switching system known


as a commutator.
 A commutator is basically two half-cylinders and is connected to the
external circuit through stationary brushes.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :100 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)

As the loop rotate, the commutator allows one brush to contact with the
conductor that moves downward and the other brush in contact with the
conductor that moves upward as ‘B’ and ‘D’. This commutator action
produces pulsating DC voltage that varies from zero to maximum twice in
one revolution.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :101 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 To reduce the ripple of DC
voltage, more loops are
added.
 Increase in loops:
 will increase the number of
commutator segments.
 will smoothen the ripples and
generate enough DC power
supply.
 does not increase the maximum
value of the generated voltage.
 The value of the generated voltage can be increased by
increasing the number of turns in each loop.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :102 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 DC generators consists of:

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :103 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


1. Field frame or Yoke:
 made of iron, cast or rolled steel.
 highly permeable, low reluctance
and structurally strong.
 serve two purpose:
 completes the magnetic
circuit between the poles.
 acts as a mechanical
support for other parts such
as field poles, terminals,
end frames and sometimes
brush holder.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :104 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


2. Commutator and Drive End
Frames or Covers:
 made from the same material and
construction as the field frame.
 housed roller bearings at
commutator end frame and ball
bearings at drive end frame.
 also sometimes serve as
mechanical support for brush
holder.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :105 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


3. Field Poles or Shoes
 permanent magnet which made from
high quality magnetic iron or sheet
steel.
 bolted to the inside of the yoke.
 laminated to reduce eddy current losses
and concentrate the line of force.
 provide residual magnetism to initiate
generator’s operation.
 salient poles – design to project inwards
from the frame to reduce air gap
between poles and rotating armature
thus increase generator’s efficiency.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)

4. Field Coils or Windings


 pre-formed coils that are made of
many turns of insulated wire.
 securely mounted on the pole
shoes.
 used to produce magnetic field
around the shoes and increase
its strength by passing current
through the coils.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :107 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


5. Brushes
 must have low contact and electrical
resistance, low coefficient of friction
and good lubricating properties.
 made from graphite carbon or
carbon mixed with molybdenum
disulphide (lubricating ingredient)
 ride on the surface of the commutator and act as the electrical contact
between armature coils and external circuit.
 pig-tail, a flexible braided copper conductor, connect each brush to
external circuit via brush holder and generator’s main terminals.
 brush holders held the brushes in place by spring pressure to
maintain good contact on the commutator.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


6. The Armature Assembly
 The rotating part of the generator.
 Consists of a shaft, iron core, armature
or output winding and the commutator.
A. The shaft
 Rotates in bearings located in the generator’s end frame.
B. The iron core
 Provides a low reluctance path between field pole pieces.
 Increases flux density.
 Laminated to reduce eddy current.
 Provides longitudinal slots for armature winding which is kept in placed
by wooden or fiber wedges.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


C. Armature or output winding
 Generate induced e.m.f.
 Wedged in the slot of the iron core to prevent being
thrown out due to centrifugal force.
 Two type of winding configurations:
Wave windings
 Employed in high voltage, low current output
applications.
 Each coils are connected to commutator segments
separated by the distance between poles.
 Allows the addition of voltages by connecting the
winding in series between brushes.
 Requires only one pair of brushes.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)

C. Armature or output winding


(cont)
Lap windings
 Employed in high current, low
voltage output applications.
 Each coils are connected to provide
several paths in parallel for current
in the armature.
 Requires several pairs of poles and
brushes.

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5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


D. Commutator
 Located at the non drive end of the
armature.
 Consists of wedge-shaped
segments of hard-drawn copper.
 Insulated from the shaft and from
each segment by a thin sheet of
mica.
 Held in place by steel V-rings or
clamping flanges fitted with bolts.
 Some assemblies have a raised portion called riser to which
armature winding leads are soldered for each segment.
 Mica insulations between each segment are undercut to about the
same depth as the mica’s thickness or approximately 0.02 inch.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
1. Heat
 Limits the output of a generator.
 Developed in the steel or iron of the
magnetic system due to flux
changes.
 Developed at the commutator and
brush gear due to current flow.
 Dissipate by ram air using external
scoop and ducting or an integral
electrically operated fan or
combination of both method.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
2. Generator Armature Seizure
 Jamming of generator’s armature rotation due
to bearing failure.
 Generator drive system can be disconnected
from the gearbox by the use of ‘quill drive’.
 ‘ Quill drive’
 a drive shaft that has a smaller diameter
section between the spline drive that will
shear if excessive torque is applied.
 To prevent generator damage incase of
armature seizure happen.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
3. Internal Voltage Drop IA RA

 Caused by resistances from EMF TERMINAL LOAD


the armature windings and (E) G pd (V)
brushes when supplying
current to the load.
 Due to this the terminal
voltage (V) is equal to “E – IA x Generator
RA. Terminal pd
(V) IA RA
 As load increases, the terminal at Full
voltage decreases further. load

 In practice, a voltage regulator V = Generator


keeps the generator output Terminal pd at Full
Load
voltage constant under all load
conditions. Full Load Current
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
4. Reactance Voltage
 Occur when the current collapses at
the plane or point of commutation
(the brush shorting the coil) which
produces a changing field and cuts
the coil to induce back e.m.f.
(reactance voltage)
 As the armature rotate to the next
commutator segment at no. 1, the
current produced on the coil is
opposed by the reactance voltage
and cause some of the current to
flow to segment 2 and jump to the
brush.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
4. Reactance Voltage (cont.)
 This action is called reactive
sparking and occurs at each point
of commutation for every coil.
 Reactive sparking will cause brush
wear, commutator wear and
interference to radio system.
 One method to overcome this
problems is to use Interpoles.

Note: In some generator, interference with radio reception due to brush


sparking is prevented by installing suppressor, consists of capacitors
connected between generator casing and the main terminals.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
4. Reactance Voltage (cont.)
 Interpoles:
 small poles located between the
main poles.
 windings are connected in series
with the armature.
 has the same polarity as the next
main pole ahead in the direction
of rotation.
 placed at the point of
commutation and carry the same
current as the armature winding.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
4. Reactance Voltage (cont.)
 Interpoles:
 magnetic fields will attempt to
induce an e.m.f that is opposite
the magnetic fields which produce
the reactance voltage.
 Both fluxes cancel each other, thus
no reactance voltage and reactive
sparking.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
5. Armature Reaction:
 The distortion of the main field caused by the interaction between the
main field and the armature field produced when current flow in the
armature windings.
 Will cause the shifting of the brush position from Geometric Neutral
Axis (GNA) to Magnetic Neutral Axis (MNA).

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
5. Armature Reaction (cont):
 The shifting depend on the load, the higher the load the more will be
the angle of lead.
 To prevent arcing, the brush position would have to be continually
adjusted.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
5. Armature Reaction (cont):
 Methods used to overcome the problems are:
A. Compensating Windings
 placed into the slots in the main
pole faces and parallel to the
armature windings.
 connected in series with the
armature winding and its current
varies directly with load current.
 current is made to flow in the opposite direction of the armature
winding and the two magnetic fields produced will neutralize
each other thus preventing armature reaction.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
5. Armature Reaction (cont):
B. Interpoles with Auxiliary or Bias Windings
 to obtain a correct interpole strength
over all load and speed ranges.
 auxiliary windings is wound on the
interpole and connected in series with
the main field.
 at high speed and heavy load, the bias winding gave little
opposition to the strong interpole magnetic field which is needed to
suppress reactance e.m.f.
 at low speed and heavy load, the bias windings will oppose the
interpole windings in reducing its strength and increase the
efficiency of the generator.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


 DC generators are classified in accordance to the method
by which the magnetic circuit is energized.
 The methods are:
1. Permanent Magnet Generator.
 the field is provided by high grade
permanent magnets.
 the armature consists of iron core
carrying a single coil connected to 2
commutator segments.
 used in small generators and the older
type of meggar.
 characterized by a slight drop in voltage
as more load is applied due to armature
reaction and resistance losses.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


2. Separately Excited Generator.
 the field winding is connected to an
independent source of DC supply .
 the field winding has a fairly high
resistance and the current can be
regulated by a variable resistor.
 no practical application on aircraft.
 characterised by a slight drop in voltage
as load current is increased due to
resistance losses.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


3. Self Excited Generators.
 current initially obtained through residual magnetism from field poles to
start generator operation.
 further classified by the method the field winding is connected to the
armature.
A. Series wound
 field coils are wound in series with the
armature.
 consists of few turns of low resistance and
large cross sectional area copper wire.
 strength of magnetic field depends more on
current flow rather than number of turns in
the coil.
 possess poor voltage regulation capabilities.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


A. Series wound (cont) – operation.
 initial rotation of the armature cuts the
residual magnetism and induced some
output voltage which is used to increase
field voltage.
 increase field voltage will increase output
voltage further.
 when approaching saturation point of the
magnetic circuit, the rise in terminal
becomes more gradual and maximum
terminal voltage is attained when
reaching the point.
 any further increase in load current will not increase in terminal voltage
due to increase in IR drop in the armature and field winding.
 not suitable for aircraft use except in application where a constant RPM
and load is warranted.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


B. Shunt wound (most used on aircraft)
 field winding has many turns of fine high
resistance wires.
 magnetic strength is derived from large
numbers of turns rather than the amount
of current.
 field winding is connected in parallel with
the armature.
 used on aircraft with DC as its main
power source
 initial operation is similar to series
wound.
 Increase in field voltage will generate
the induced voltage further until a steady
open circuit value is attained.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


B. Shunt wound (cont) - operation
 when load is applied, the terminal
voltage tends to drop due to IR drop in
armature winding.
 the IR drop will also reduces field
excitation and cause a further fall in
terminal voltage.
 if load current is increased above the
full load, the voltage will began to drop
to zero.
 the falling voltage will not be able to supply enough current to the
field winding in sustaining the load current which lead to a condition
called ‘tuck under’ or ‘turn under’.
 to avoid ‘turn under’ condition, the generator should be allowed to
build up to its correct voltage before load is applied.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


C. Compound wound
 field windings are the combination
of series and parallel wound.
 the output voltage produced
depend on the degree of
compounding.
 degree of compounding depend on
the working relationship of both the
series and parallel winding.

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5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


C. Compound wound (cont)
 Flat or level compound
 the series wound is arranged so that
the output voltage at no- load and
full-load have the same value.
 Over-compound
 the series wound is increased so
that the full-load voltage is higher
than no-load voltage.
 Cumulative compounded generator
 the series field aids the shunt field in producing the output
voltage.
 Differential / under compounded generator
 the series field opposes the shunt field in producing output voltage.
 has a full-load voltage less than no-load voltage.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


DC Generator Maintenance
 Purpose is to keep the generator in good working order.
 Maintenance work is carried out at each check interval as
specified in the aircraft maintenance schedule.
 Inspection and servicing is carried out in accordance with
manufacturer’s instruction.
 Overhaul is often accomplished at the same time as engine
overhaul thus minimize aircraft down time.
 Routine Inspection and Servicing
 Generally, routine inspection and servicing is carried out as follows:
• Inspect for security of mounting.
• Inspect mounting flange for oil leaks.
• Inspect electrical connections for cleanliness and security of attachments.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


DC Generator Maintenance
 Routine Inspection and Servicing (cont)
• Inspect area around the commutator and brush assemblies for any
solder particles. Loose solder particles indicate generator has
overheated.
• Use compressed air to blow out accumulated dust around the brushes
and commutator.
• Inspect brushes for wear and freedom of movement.
 Troubleshooting – based on systematic analysis of the
situation to determine the cause of malfunction and remedial
action:
 Generator not charging battery:
 Check the aircraft electrical system associated with the battery and
generator such as:
• Every connection in the generator and battery circuit.
• Condition of all fuses and circuit breakers.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


DC Generator Maintenance
 Generator not charging battery: (cont)
• Condition of all ground connections for battery, battery contacts,
and the generator control unit.
• With engine cranked, check armature rotation.
 Use voltmeter to check generator output by placing the probes
between ‘G’ terminal of voltage regulator and ground.
 Accomplished with engine running or on appropriate test stand.
 Performed in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations and observe proper safety precautions.
 Check for residual voltage – around 1 or 2 volts.
 If no residual voltage – can be restored by an operation known as
‘flashing the field’.
• The operation is accomplished by momentarily passing current
through the field coils in the same way that is normally flows.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


DC Generator Maintenance
 Generator not charging battery: (cont)
 If there is residual voltage but no output voltage – the trouble
could be with the generator or the regulator.
• Operate the engine at a speed the generator can produce an
output.
• Bypass or short circuit the voltage regulator.
• If generator produced voltage, the problem is with the regulator
and vice versa.
• If the generator is the problem, send generator for overhaul or
replaced with a serviceable unit.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


DC Generator Maintenance
 Generator Overhaul
 Steps involved in the overhaul of a generator are:
Disassembly
 Follow instructions as
specified in
manufacturer’s overhaul
manual.
 Generally use proper
tools and procedures to
disassemble the parts.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


DC Generator Maintenance
 Generator Overhaul (cont)
2. Cleaning
 Proper solvent must be used as wrong solvent could remove the lacquer-
type insulation used on field and armature coils resulting in short circuit.
 Generally do not submerged parts in the solvent.
3. Inspection and Repair
 Testing for proper operation of electrical
components is accomplished using a
growler and a multimeter.
 Growler – a test unit specially design for
DC generators and motors.
 Consists of a laminated core wound with
many turns of wire and form the primary
coil of a transformer.
 Some include a test lamp which illuminates
if the circuit is complete.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


DC Generator Maintenance
 Generator Overhaul (cont)
 Armature Coil Testing - place
armature on energized growler.
 Use test lamp with probes placed
on each commutator segment to
check for open coil failure.
If test lamp fail to illuminate – coil
open.
 Open coil can also be checked
using ohmmeter which will indicate
infinity if open exists.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


DC Generator Maintenance
 Generator Overhaul (cont)
 Armature Coil Testing - place
armature on energized
growler.
 Use a thin steel strip or a
hacksaw blade and placed
slightly above the armature
and rotate armature to check
for shorting failure.
 Indicated by the blade
vibrates vigorously.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


DC Generator Maintenance
 Generator Overhaul (cont)
 Armature Coil Testing
 Use test lamp or ohmmeter with one
probe placed on each commutator
segment and the other on shaft to
check for ground failure.
 Test lamp illuminates indicate ground
exists.
 Ohmmeter indicate continuity for
ground failure.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


DC Generator Maintenance
 Generator Overhaul (cont)
 Field Coil Testing
 Use test lamp with one probe placed at field
coil and the other at generator frame to check
for shorting failure.
Test lamp illuminates indicate short exists.
 Use ohmmeter with probes placed between
field coil terminals to check for continuity.
 Shunt field – indicated by resistance
between 2 to 30 ohms.
 Series field – almost no resistance.
 Open indicated by infinity.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


DC Generator Maintenance
 Generator Overhaul (cont)
 Commutator Inspection
 Checked for irregularities and pitting.
Slight roughness can be smoothen by using number ‘000’ sandpaper.
Never use emery cloth or other conductive material as these could
cause shorting.
Mica should be undercut about the same depth as mica’s thickness or
approximately 0.002 inch.
 Brush Inspection
 Generally brushes is replaced at overhaul or when half worn.
• Ensure the new brush is seated or contoured to maximize the
contact area on the commutator.
• Accomplished by using no. 000 sandpaper inserted under the
brush between the commutator and pulled in the direction of
rotation to shape the brush contour.
 Checked spring tension using spring scale.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Generators Theory (cont’d)


DC Generator Maintenance
 Generator Overhaul (cont)
4. Reassembly
 Prior assembly, ensure exterior paintwork is restored.
 Ensure internal electrical connection is secured.
 Checked pigtails on the brushes for freedom and ensure they do
not restrict the brushes free motion.
 After assembly, run the generator for a short period and reinspect
to ensure no sands are imbedded in the brush.
5. Operational Testing
 Accomplished on test benches built for the purpose.
 Operated in accordance to manufacturer’s instruction.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory
 Principle of operation
 Converts electrical energy to mechanical energy
 When current flow through a conductor, magnetic field is set up
around the conductor.
 The direction of these magnetic field encircle the conductor
depends on the direction of current flow.

Corkscrew rule: To determine direction of


magnetic field on conventional flow current.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 When the current carrying conductor is placed
in the magnetic field, an interaction between
the conductor field and pole field occurs.
 The conductor field that is in the same direction
as the pole field will strengthen the main field
while those oppose will weaken the field.
 The resultant outcome is the stronger field will
push the conductor in the direction of the
weaker field and force out from the main field.
 This magnetic force can be calculated using
the formula F = B L I.
Note: F - Force in Newtons, B - Flux density in
Teslar, L – Length of conductor in metres, I –
Current flowing in conductor in Amperes.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 When a current- carrying coil or loop is
placed in the magnetic field, the resultant
magnetic force will produce a torque that
rotate the coil.
 The amount of torque developed
depends on:
 strength of magnetic field.
 number of turns in the coil.
 the coil’s position in the field.
 Torque (T) is directly proportional to (∝)
magnetic field strength (ϕ) and current  The Torque loss vary in
(IA). speed.
Output Torque (Shaft Torque) =
 Equation: T ∝ ϕ x IA (Nm) Armature Torque – Lost Torque
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 To determine the direction of conductor’s movement:
 UK – use Flemings Left Hand Rule
 US – use Right Hand Motor Rule

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Basic DC Motor Operation
 The coil is powered by DC supply.
 DC is supplied to the coil through
the brushes and commutator.
 Magnetic field is setup in the coil
and the interaction between the two
fields will produce a torque to turn
the motor.
 The commutator will reverse the
current at each half of the
revolution to maintain the torque
rotating the coil in the same
direction.
 In practice, motor needs a starting
circuit to start the motor turning.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 The construction of DC motor is identical to DC generator.
 Armature Assembly.
 Soft-iron core - laminated and insulated from each other to reduce
eddy current effect and excessive heat.
 Armature copper windings - larger and shorter conductors than in
a generator and connected to the commutator segment.
 commutator segment -
insulated from each other
and the shaft by mica.
 steel shaft – where the
iron core and commutator
are mounted.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Field Assembly.
 Field Frame or Case - mount for field
poles and terminals
 Pole pieces - can be permanent or
temporary magnet.
 field coils - several turns of insulated wire
fit over each pole pieces
 Brush Assembly.
 Brushes – made from graphite carbon
due to its long service life.
 Brush holders – allow the brushes to
move and utilize springs to hold them
against the commutator for better contact.
 End Frames – the parts where the armature assembly rotates in.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
 Back EMF or Voltage
 Induced in the armature when it rotates
and cuts the main magnetic fields.
Sometimes called ‘Generator action in
a motor’.
 Opposed the applied voltage to the
armature and reduces the effective or
armature voltage.
 Control the current in the motor.
 Formula:
Effective Volt. = Applied Volt. – Back EMF
IA RA = V - EB
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Issue No : 01
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Back EMF or Voltage inherently control the speed of the motor with
respect to load conditions.
 Reduce load:
 armature torque becomes greater than load torque which cause the
motor to speed up and increase back emf.
 increased back emf will reduce armature current which in turn reduce
the armature torque to eventually equal the load torque and cause the
motor speed to stabilize.
 Increase load:
 armature torque is less than load torque which cause the motor to slow
down and reduce back emf.
 less back emf will increase the armature current to cause the increase in
armature torque until both torque is balanced to stabilize the motor
speed.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
 Torque Loss
 Due to friction in the bearings and wind resistance of the armature or
fan if fitted.
 Will vary with speed.
 Formula: Output Torque (Shaft Torque) = Armature Torque – Lost Torque
 Output Power (P)
 Proportional to torque (T) and speed (N).
 Formula: P ∝ T x N
 To maintain a given power, a motor can either has a strong torque at low
speed or low torque at high speed.
 To maintain the same speed with increase torque, the motor must develop
increased power.
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 AFFECTING FACTORS
 Reactive Sparking and Armature Reaction
 Occurs in motor for the same reasons as in generator.
 Reactive sparking
 Due to the collapse of armature current at the plane of commutation
and induces an e.m.f that opposes the build up of the initial current.
 Armature Reaction
 Due to the distortion of the main field by the armature field but unlike in
the generator, the MNA is moved backwards against the direction of
rotation.
 In some larger motors interpoles are used to counteract the effect of both
Reactive Sparking and Armature Reaction.
 Motors that require a high standard of commutation use compensating winding
to counteract armature reaction.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Motors are classified:
1. By the type of connection between field and armature.
2. By the type of duty they are designed for

1. Type of Connection
 Series DC Motor
 the field windings are connected in
series with the armature.
 all current flow through both field coil and
the armature and create strong magnetic
flux in both parts (I armature = I field).
 field winding consist of heavy wires (thick)
and relatively few turns.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Series DC Motor (cont)
 high starting torque due to high starting
current that flow in both armature and
field winding.
 poor speed control - speed depends
on load applied and any changes in
load cause change in speed.
 NEVER runs ‘OFF LOAD’.
 ‘off load’ operation will cause
excessive high speed of the armature.
 often use as starters, loading gears
cowl and wing flaps.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)

 Shunt DC Motor
 the field winding are connected in
parallel with the armature.
 the field winding consist of many
turns of fine copper wires and has
higher resistance than the armature
windings.
 since the field winding is connected
directly across the supply, current
flow through the field is constant.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Shunt DC Motor (cont)
 low/medium starting torque due to only
the armature producing a strong
magnetic flux.
 self regulating machine which
automatically adjust its speed when
subjected to new load.
 as load increase:
i. motor slows down initially.
ii. back emf decreases.
iii. armature voltage and current increases.
iv. torque increases to match new load and
speed increases to its original value.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Shunt DC Motor (cont)
 as load decreases, the opposite
will happen.
 operated initially on light load or
‘off load’ condition until reaching
its full speed before the load is
applied.
 used on applications that require
constant speed, such as inverter
drives, windscreen wipers and
fuel pumps

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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Compound DC Motor
 contains both series and shunt field
winding.
 Two types:
A. Cummulative Compound Motor
 Both fields are wound to assist each other.
 Can be either series or shunt predominate.
 If series field predominate, the motor has
all the characteristic of a series motor with
the shunt field preventing any ‘off load’
speed condition.
 Used to start aircraft engine where high torque at low speed is required.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


A. Cummulative Compound Motor
(cont)
 If shunt field predominate, the
motor has all the characteristic of
a shunt motor with the series
field provide a fairly high starting
torque and allowed the motor to
be started on reasonable load
condition.
 This type of motor is also known
as a normal compound motor.
 Used on DC systems for inverter
drives and fuel pumps as well as
heavy duty actuators.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


B. Differential Compound Motor
 The shunt and series field windings
are wound to oppose one another.
 Characterized by a constant motor
speed at low and middle load but
increase in speed as load increases
further.
 Problems:
 If overloaded, the field strength of
both fields will cancel each other and
no torque is produced to rotate the
motor.
 The tendency to start in the reverse direction due to build up of
magnetic fields at series winding first before the shunt winding.
Usually avoided by short circuiting the series winding on start.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


2. Type of Duty
 Intermittent Duty
 Operated for short period only.
 Allowed to cool down before being
operated again.
 Example: Starter motor.
 Continuous Duty
 Operable at their rated power for
long period.
 Example: Hydraulic Motor

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)

 The direction of a motor can be


reverse:
 by reversing the flow of current to
either the armature winding or field
winding.
 This will reverse the magnetism of
either the armature or field poles.
 On aircraft it is normal to reverse
current flow through the armature
by means of reversing relay.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)

 by employing two field windings wound in opposite direction on


the same pole.
 This type of motor is known as split field motor.
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Split field motor – Series field
 Used extensively on aircraft.
 Operated to move an actuator up
or down; or in or out by selector
switch.
 Operation:
i. Selector switch in close position.
ii. Open limit switch will be open, close
limit switch will be closed.
iii. Current flow to the close/ccw coil to the motor and energized the
brake solenoid to free the brake.
iv. Motor starts to run until the end of its travel of which the actuator
opened the close limit switch.
v. With circuit opened, the current stopped flowing and the brake
solenoid de-energized to automatically stopped the motor
Subject Code AAB 10402
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


Energy Losses
 When energy being converted from electrical to
mechanical (motor) or mechanical to electrical
(generator), some losses occur.
 In order for the machine to be efficient, the losses must be kept
to the minimum.
 Energy losses divide into 2 classes :
 Electrical losses
 Mechanical losses

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Electrical Losses
 Copper Loss
• when electron flow through copper armature and field
winding, heat (power) is dissipated i.e. P = I²R.
• increase as current increase and heat generated,
R = Length
Area
• to minimize losses, use larger diameter wire.
 Iron Losses –
• Hysteresis losses
• result form the armature revolving in an alternating magnetic
field and becoming magnetized in 2 directions.
• Some residual magnetism remains after change in direction
• to change this residual magnetism it required energy thus
energy losses.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Eddy current losses
 occur because the armature iron core acts as conductor.
 Induced Emf cause current to flow within the core.
 the current heat the core and can damage the winding if
excessive.
 to reduce heat generation, the iron core is laminated and
insulated.
 Mechanical losses
 Friction on various moving parts.
 between commutator and carbon brush.
 between both end bearing to hold the armature.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


Starter Generator
 The combination of a starter motor and a generator.
 The starter is supplied with DC current to start an
engine.
 Once started, the motor becomes a generator and
supplies current to the operating systems via bus bars.
 Consists of self-excited compound wound machine
with low resistance series field winding and high
resistance shunt field winding.
 Compensating and interpole windings is included to
prevent armature reaction and reactance voltage.
 The machine is cooled by an integral cooling fan and when airborne cooled
by ram air.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Starter Generator Operation:
 In starting mode, the machine acts as a series
wound motor to provide the necessary torque
and acceleration to the engine.
 A speed sensor is used to signal starter cut-off
when the engine is nearing self sustaining
speed.
 At changeover, the starter drive to the engine is
disconnected and the machine becomes a
generator, self exciting its own shunt field.
 When the voltage is sufficient, it will be automatically connected to the
bus bar to power the aircraft.
 Advantage – weight saving as compare to a system having a separate
starter and generator.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


Long Shunt & Short Shunt
 Two possible connection methods
for compound generator and
motor.
 Purpose is to obtain a specific
characteristics of the machine.
 Long shunt – the shunt field
winding is parallel to both
armature and series field winding.
 Short shunt – the shunt field
winding is parallel to the armature
winding only.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


Voltage Regulation
 Generator output voltage can be
conveniently controlled by controlling
the strength of the field current that flow
to the field coils.
 To control this field current a voltage
regulator is used and is connected in
series with the field coils.
 To illustrate the working principle
of a voltage regulator, a rheostat
is installed in the field circuit of a
simple generator.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


Voltage Regulation (cont’d)
 Rheostat resistance increased
 Less current flows through the field
winding.
 The field magnetic strength is
decreased and reduces the current
induced at the armature windings.
 The generator’s voltage output is
consequently decreases.
 The opposite will happen if the rheostat resistance is decreased.
 The circuit is improved by adding a solenoid to control the field
current in order to keep the output voltage constant.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Vibrating-type :
 Consists of a voltage coil which
is in parallel to the field coil and
contact points in series with the
coil.
 When the supply is under or at
the required voltage, the
contact points remain closed as
the magnetic strength from the
voltage coil is not enough to
overcome spring tension to
open the points.
 More current will flow through the contact points rather than the resistor
to the shunt field and cause more voltage to be developed further.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 When the supply is more than the
required voltage, the voltage coil will
have enough magnetic strength to
overcome the spring tension and open
the contact points.
 The current has no choice but to flow
through the resistor and cause less
current to flow to the shunt field.
 Less voltage will be developed at the armature and the output voltage
is reduced.
 The effect of reduced voltage will cause the voltage coil magnetic
strength to be weaken and contact points are closed by spring
tension.
 This process will be repeated in keeping the output voltage constant.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Three – Unit Regulator
 consists of the following
units:
 Voltage regulator (VR) –
to maintain output voltage
constant.
 Actuated by increase in
line voltage.
 Current Limiter (CL) – to
limit the output current of
the generator.
 Actuated by increase in line current.
 Reverse Current Cutout (RCC) – to prevent the battery from discharging
through the generator if output voltage falls below the battery output.
 Employed in many light aircraft.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Operation:
 Initial starting, the
armature supply current
to:
 Field coil through VR n/c
contact points and CL n/c
contact points; and back
to the armature,
 VR voltage coil and back
to armature.
 CL current coil and RCC voltage coil and back to the armature.
 The magnetic field produced by the coils is not enough to open or
close the respective coils.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Operation:
 When the terminal voltage rise
at predetermined value, the
supply current will flow to:
 RCC current coil to close the
contact points.
 Busbar through CL current coil,
RCC current coil, RCC contact
points.

 From busbar, the current is distributed to the loads and charging the
battery .

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Overvoltage condition:
 VR voltage coil produces
enough magnetic field to open
the points.
 The current is directed to the
lower half of the VR coil and
flow to VR resistor and CL
points before flowing to the
field coil.
 The field coil will produce less magnetic field to reduce the armature
voltage and thus maintain output voltage at predetermined value.
 The cycle to maintain the output voltage occurs many times per
seconds and cause the points to open and close rapidly.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Overcurrent condition:
due to increase in load
 CL current coil produced
enough magnetic field to
open the points.
 From the VR points the
current flow to CL
resistor before flowing to
the field coil.
 The field coil will produce less magnetic field to reduce the output
current and maintain to its predetermined value.
 Similar to VR, the points will vibrate to close and open in maintaining the
generator’s output.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Undervoltage condition:
output voltage less than
battery voltage.
 Initial current from the
battery flow to the RCC
current coil and
neutralize the magnetic
field from the voltage
coil.
 The RCC contact points is opened by the spring and prevent the
battery from discharging through the armature and motor the
generator.
 The current is then routed to the generator warning light to warn the
pilot of the generator low voltage.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)


 Carbon-Pile Voltage Regulator
 Use in generators that require high
field current.
 Consists of:
 Carbon stack – a series of disks
arranged in a stack or pile.
In series with field coil.
 Rheostat - controlled the amount of
current to electromagnet coils.
 Electromagnet – exerts a pull on the carbon stack to increase
resistance thus reduce field current.
 Leaf Spring – compress the carbon stack to reduce the resistance
thus increase field current.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

5. DC Motors Theory (cont’d)

Operation:
 Overvoltage condition
 Current from the armature flow
to the electromagnet coil and
provide the magnetic field
strong enough to pull the
carbon pile against spring
tension and increase the
resistance.
 Field current passing through the carbon pile is decreased and there is
corresponding decrease in the field coil magnetic strength which result
in a drop in generator output.
 The opposite will happen if undervoltage condition exists.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC 5
DC GENERATORS/MOTORS

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TOPIC 6 :
AC GENERATORS

Subject Code AAB 10402


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6. AC Generators
 Purpose
- as a main electrical
power source in
larger aircraft.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)
Two major components of aircraft
generator.
 Rotor
- The rotating part which is turned
by aircraft engine.

 Stator
- The fixed part of generator

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)

There are three basic types of ac generator:

 Permanent Magnet Generator.


 Rotating Armature Generator.
 Rotating Field Generator.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)

 Permanent Magnet Generator.


• The rotor is a permanent
magnet.
• The magnet is rotated,
magnetic field cuts the
stationary output
windings.
• Used as type part of most
brushless ac generators.
• Common to many large
aircraft.
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)
 Rotating Armature Generator.
• Similar in construction to a dc
generator
• The rotor rotates in a fixed field with
the emf picked via slip rings.
• The rotor being windings are laid in
slots along the rotor periphery
• The armature laminated to reduce
eddy current losses.
• The stator carries the dc excitation
windings wound on the pole pieces to
create alternate North and South poles
around the stator.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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6. AC Generators (cont’d)

• A single phase 2 pole machine with


the output.

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6. AC Generators (cont’d)
• A three phase system, in which the
coils are at 120° to each other and a
3 phase output generated.
• 3 generators in one with 3 separate
outputs each one 120° out-of-phase
with the next.

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6. AC Generators (cont’d)
• One voltage cycle is induced, when the armature
windings move through 360° past one pair of poles.
• For two pairs of poles, two cycles of ac will be
produced.
• The number of cycles of induced voltage called the
frequency (f).

f = Np Hertz
60

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6. AC Generators (cont’d)
• The whole of the output consists of a single winding
with the outer ends connected to a pair of slip rings
(single phase generator).
• Two windings at different angles give two outputs (two-
phase generator).
• Armature rotates through a stationary magnetic field
• Slip rings and brushes used to collect the generated AC
voltage and caused spark occur
• Slip rings have short service life.
• For low power rating generator and generally not
used on aircraft.
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6. AC Generators (cont’d)

Disadvantages:
• As all the power is taken from the rotor, the effective
insulation and ventilation causes problems.
• All the (heavy) output is taken via slip rings and
brushes.
• Centrifugal forces are considerable on the rotor
windings.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)
 Rotating Field Generator.
• Armature stationary
and magnetic field
rotates
• Used almost
universally in
aircraft systems

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6. AC Generators (cont’d)

• A two pole single phase ac generator

• A single phase rotating field ac


generator (Note: The support
races, splined drive shaft, stator
windings with their ac output and
the rotating field windings with
their dc control supply via slip
rings and brushes.)
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)
• If another set of single phase windings at 90° is added, then a
two phase output is produced one being 90° out-of-phase with
the other.

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6. AC Generators (cont’d)
• If another set of two coils is
added and each coil in the
complete system is spaced
at 60° to each other, then a
three phase system is
created.
• Each pair of coils is spaced
at 120° to one another so
there are 3 phases where
the 3 outputs are 120° out-
of-phase with each other.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :201 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)
The advantages of the rotating field generator over the
rotating armature type are:

 Only two slip rings and brushes taking less current, i.e.
field winding current only.
 Less problems with centrifugal force effects on rotor
windings.
 The output is taken from the stator, where ventilation
and insulation of windings is less of a problem.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)

• The first ac generating systems on aircraft used


rotating field generators was called a ‘frequency wild’
system.
• 3 phase output was controlled and converted to dc
and fed to the aircraft busbar.
• The generator output voltage was controlled to 200V
but the frequency varied with engine speed.
• This frequency wild ac was fed to resistive loads such
as heater mats, where the variable frequency has no
effect.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :203 Date : 14/01/ 08
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)

Frequency Wild 3-Phase Rotating Field Generator


Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :204 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)

• The output of ac generators on most large aircraft today is


3 phase 200/115V 400Hz.
• 400Hz constant frequency with 200V and 115V supplies
available depending on how the load is connected to the
generator.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :205 Date : 14/01/ 08
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)
CONNECTION OF PHASES
 STAR CONNECTION
- The point where they meet is called the star point, and the
cable taken from the star point is called the neutral.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)

Line current = Phase current , I1 = Iph

The phase voltage (Vphase) = 115V

The line voltage (Vline) = 200V , V1 = √3Vph


(which is the sum of the two phase voltages across
two 115V phases at 120° phase angle and
mathematically is the same as multiplying the phase
voltage by √3.)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :207 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)

• The main advantage of the star connection is to provide


two voltages, 200V and 115V.
• Most aircraft ac generators are connected in star
connections.
• The voltages are easily transformed up or down using
transformers - which have high efficiency and no moving
parts.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :208 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)
 DELTA CONNECTION.
- The three windings are connected in series to form a closed
mesh, with the three output lines at the junction points.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :209 Date : 14/01/ 08
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)
Phase voltage = Line voltage , Vph = V1

• Line current is composed of two components and


mathematically it can be shown as I1 = √3Iph

• The delta connection does not have a neutral


• Cannot provide two outputs
• Must be connected to a balanced load
• Give a higher current output than a star connected
system.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :210 Date : 14/01/ 08
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)
• In three phase system the instantaneous sum of the emf’s,
or currents in a balanced three phase system is zero.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :211 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)
 Brushless Generator

• Most aircraft
used brushless
generators

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :212 Date : 14/01/ 08
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

6. AC Generators (cont’d)
POWER IN THREE PHASE SYSTEMS
The power in a single phase system is:

True Power = V x I x cos Ø Watts

True Power in a balanced three phase Star or Delta


system is three times of a single phase system,

True Power = 3 Vph x Iph x cos Ø Watts


or
True Power = √3 V1 x I1 x cos Ø Watts
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :213 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC 6
AC GENERATORS

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :214 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TOPIC 7 :
AC MOTORS

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :215 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors
The main types of ac motor are:
• Induction (single phase, two phase and three phase).
• Synchronous.
• Hysteresis.
• Shaded Pole.

All motors work on the principle that ac applied to the


stator produces a rotating magnetic field which causes
the rotor to rotate.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :216 Date : 14/01/ 08
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors (cont’d)

Typical three phase stator

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :217 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors (cont’d)
Production of Rotating
Magnetic Field (Three-
Phase)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :218 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors (cont’d)
 Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor
• Most common type used on aircraft.
• No brushes or slip rings are involved and there are
no external connections made to it.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :219 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors (cont’d)

Principle of Induction Motor

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :220 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors (cont’d)
SLIP SPEED
• Difference between the rotor speed and the rotating
magnetic field speed.
SLIP
• The ratio of the slip speed to the rotating magnetic
field speed (and is normally given as a
percentage)

Starting torque of induction motor is poor. On start, the


frequency is at its max. in the rotor and the rotor has low
resistance but high inductance.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :221 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors (cont’d)
Two-Phase Induction Motor

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :222 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors (cont’d)

Production of a Rotating
Magnetic Field (Two Phase)

Used as servo-motors in
instrumentation systems
and others systems

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :223 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors (cont’d)
Single Split Phase Reversible Motor

Used as ac actuators
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :224 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors (cont’d)
Splitting the Field

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :225 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors (cont’d)
Synchronous Motor

Motor runs at the same


speed as the rotating field
and this speed still
dependent on the supply
frequency.
Used as the motor in engine
speed indicator system

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :226 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors (cont’d)
The Hysteresis Motor
A type of synchronous
motor in which the rotor
consists of a central
nonmagnetic core around
which are rings of material
with a high degree of
magnetic hysteresis; it
generates near constant
torque at varying speeds,
even when starting.

Used as servo motors


e.g. miniature Rate Gyro
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :227 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors (cont’d)

Shaded Pole Motor

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :228 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

7. AC Motors (cont’d)
• A shaded pole motor is a type of AC single phase
induction motor.
• As in other induction motors the rotating part is a
squirrel-cage rotor.
• The shaded-pole type, a part of the face of each field
pole carries a copper ring called a shading-coil.
• Currents in this coil delay the phase of magnetic flux in
that part of the pole enough to provide a rotating field.
• The effect produces only a low starting torque
compared to other classes of single-phase motors.
• Used for light load only
• No reversal rotation unless the shading rings are
transferred to the other half of the pole which is not
practical.
• Used in some engine pressure indication instruments
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :229 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC 7
AC MOTORS

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :230 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TOPIC 8 :
DC ALTERNATOR

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :231 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator
Referred as AC generators or AC alternators.
It actually generates AC in their windings,
before leaves the housing, however, it is
converted into DC by rectifier.
In an alternator, the magnetic field moves and
the conductor is stationary.
There are two parts
a. Rotor – the rotating magnetic field
b. Stator – conductor or winding
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :232 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)

Alternators must be excited by an outside source to supplies


the initial current until the alternator supplies its own. An
external source may be from a battery or small dc generator
sometime called an exciter.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :233 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)
Brush-type Alternator
• Three-phase stator commonly
used in aircraft alternators.
• The coils in this stator are
connected as three windings,
joined together to form a Y.
• There are seven pairs of poles in
the rotor and seven coils in each
leg of the Y.
• Rotor turns within the stator, three
phases of alternating current are
generated.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :234 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)

DC Alternator Stator Assembly


Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :235 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)
• Rotor is made up of two soft iron
end pieces with intermeshing poles
pressed onto the shaft on either
side of a drum-type exciter coil.

• The ends of the coil are attached to


two slip rings, and the entire rotor
is supported in the housing with
either ball or needle bearings.

• The rotor shown has fourteen


poles, or seven pairs and, because
of their intermeshing configuration,
the poles alternate, north and
south.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :236 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)

Rotor Assembly
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :237 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)

DC Alternator Rotor Assembly

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :238 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)
• The rectifier of an alternator is made
up of six (6) silicon diodes, three
mounted in the end frame, and the
other three pressed into an insulated
heat sink.

• Figure shown the three-phase Y-


connected stator, the single-phase
rotor, and the six rectifier diodes.

• A capacitor is often placed at the


output of the rectifier to protect the
diodes from voltage surges caused
by their blocking the current.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :239 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)
Diode Bridge Rectifier – 3 phase, full wave rectifier consist
of 6 silicon diode
- each stator winding is attached to
a pair of diode to rectify the stator
output (ac to dc)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :240 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)

Diodes Assembly

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :241 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)

Diode Bridge Rectifier


Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :242 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)
Brush assemblies – consists of two brushes, two springs and
two brush holders
- the brushes ride on the surface of the
slip rings and brought the current supply
to the field coils

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :243 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)
End-Frames – made of cast aluminium
i - Drive end frame – support the rotor shaft in ball bearing
ii – Slip ring/brush end frame – mounting area for brush
assembly, capacitor, diode
rectifier and terminals
- ‘F’ terminal is attached to
positive and other is
attached to ground
- support the shaft in roller
bearing
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :244 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)

DC Alternator Assembly
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :245 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)

Brushless-type Alternator

• For high-output DC alternators.

• Two alternators in the same


housing.

• One alternator produces DC for


the load, and the other is
controlled by the voltage
regulator to provide excitation
voltage for the output.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :246 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)
• The exciter is stationary and receives field DC from the voltage
regulator.
• If output is low, the regulator will supply a larger amount of current and
vice versa.
• The magnetic field of the exciter stator is cut by the exciter rotor and
the resulting three-phase AC is rectified by the three diodes which act
as a half-wave rectifier.
• The rectified output of the exciter rotor flows into the output field
windings, which are also a part of the rotor.
• This field creates north and south poles on the rotor frame, and as it
rotates within the three-phase stator, generates it becomes DC for the
output circuit.
• A capacitor is placed across the output of the alternator to prevent
voltage surges from destroying the rectifying diodes.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :247 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)
Vibrator-type Voltage Regulator

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :248 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)

• The diodes prevent the flow of current from the battery into the alternator
stator windings, even when the alternator is not producing any voltage,
so no other form of reverse-current protection device is required in the
load circuit.
• The field excitation taken from regulated voltage.
• Maximum amount of current the alternator can produce is automatically
limited.
• No need for a current limiter as we used with a generator.
• Two controls are needed
- a voltage regulator to control the amount of current flowing in the rotor,
or field,
- a field relay to open the field circuit when the generator is not operating.
This prevents the battery discharging through the field.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :249 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)
• When the alternator master
switch is closed, the field relay is
energized, closed, and allows
current to flow from the battery,
flowing through the field relay
contacts, the voltage regulator
lower and center contacts, and
into the alternator field.
• The alternator can now produce
electricity, and when the voltage
rises to the regulated value, the
voltage regulator coil opens the
contacts. The field current must
now flow through the resistor RF
to energize the field.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :250 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)

• As long as the alternator is operating in the lower end of the


regulated voltage range, the points are vibrating between the lower
and center contacts, allowing the current to go directly to the field or
to pass through the resistor.

• As the alternator speed increases, the points are pulled down so


that as they vibrate, they alternate between placing the resistor in
the field and grounding the field.

• With both ends of the field grounded, there is no current in the field
and voltage drops off immediately.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :251 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)

D.C.
D.C.

Alternator Control Unit

D.C. D.C. A.C. D.C.

Battery Rotor Stator Diode


Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :252 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :253 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

8. DC Alternator (cont’d)
Most important advantages of the alternator is the fact that
load current is generated in the stator or stationary winding
and does not have to flow through brushes to the load.
Advantages :
i – High output at low RPM due to the number of poles.
ii – Better power output compare to weight ratio.
iii – Less maintenance due to less brush wear and using solid
state diode
iv – Simplified control unit
Disadvantages :
i – Required external excitation.
ii – Voltage regulator difficult to adjust (sensitive).
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :254 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC 8
DC ALTERNATORS

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :255 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TOPIC 9 :
INVERTER AND RECTIFIER

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :256 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier


Inverters

An inverter is a device for converting direct current into


alternating current at the frequency and voltage
required for particular purposes.

Certain systems and equipment in aircraft electrical or


electronic systems require 26-V 400-Hz AC power, and
others require 115-V 400-Hz power.
– To provide this power, it is often necessary to
employ an inverter.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :257 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Inverters (cont’d)
Inverters are typically used on large aircraft for
emergency situations only.
– In this case the aircraft employs engine-driven
generators (alternators) to supply needed AC
power during normal operating conditions.
If all AC generators should fail, the inverter would then
be used to convert battery DC power into AC power
available for essential AC loads.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :258 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Inverters (cont’d)
Many light aircraft employ static inverters during
normal operating conditions.
– These aircraft require a relatively small amount of
AC and therefore utilize engine-driven DC
generators or alternators as their main electric
power source.
Aircraft using inverters to get the alternating current
they need, such as Beechcraft King Air, Cessna 421
and 310, and small business jets, Lear Jet 23.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Inverters (cont’d)
The aircraft use alternating current to power a variety
of components, including engine instruments, heated
windshields, and lighting circuits.
In some cases the components are feasible only if
operated by AC power; therefore, the inverter is
essential.
There are two basic types of inverters, rotary and
static.
Modern aircraft employ static inverters because of
their reliability, efficiency, and weight savings over
rotary inverters.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :260 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :261 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Inverters (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :262 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Rotary Inverters
Inverters were simply special types of motor generators.
– That is, a constant-speed motor was employed to drive
an alternator that was designed to produce the
particular type of power required.
The rotary section consists of a DC motor driving an AC
generator.
– The rotors of the motor and the alternator are
dynamically balanced and are mounted on the same
shaft.
– Fans are also mounted on the shaft to provide for air
cooling.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :263 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Rotary Inverters (cont’d)

Typical rotary inverter

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :264 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Rotary Inverters (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :265 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Rotary Inverters (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :266 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Rotary Inverters (cont’d)
The rotary inverter utilizes an input voltage of 26 to 29 V
dc.
– The output is 115 V, single-phase; 115 V, three-phase;
and 200 V, three-phase.
– Frequency is 400 Hz for all phases.
Disadvantage: Require regular servicing and maintenance
Maintenance of rotary inverters is similar to that for motors
and generators.
– Maintenance practices are set forth in the
manufacturer's maintenance or service manual.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :267 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Rotary Inverters (cont’d)
Rotary Inverter – Starting
Larger rotary inverter
normally requires a starting
circuit to prevent the dc
motor armature from
overheating at low rpm
while back emf is low.
Figure on the right shows a
typical ‘T’ start circuit. The
start resistor is shorted
once back emf has built up.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :268 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Rotary Inverters (cont’d)

Rotary Inverter – ac voltage control


Voltage controlled by varying ac generator’s rotating dc
field.
This is done using carbon pile regulator as shown in the
next figure or transistor controlled voltage regulator.
The ac output is monitored by rectifying the sensed ac
voltage and feeding it to voltage regulator which control
the field current.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Rotary Inverters (cont’d)
Rotary Inverter – frequency control
Frequency is controlled by varying dc
motor speed. It is done by controlling the
dc motor shunt field current – lowering
the current, increase the speed.
Figure on the right is one way of doing it.
By making TR1 and/or TR2 to conduct it
will put R1 and/or R2 in series with R3.
this will change the field current.
A small PMG mounted on the shaft can
be used to monitor the speed of the
motor. This is used to control the
frequency.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Rotary Inverters (cont’d)
Torque Switch
The figure shows a torque switch comprises of three phase
induction motor, a control spring and switch mechanism.
When the motor is running, the rotor will move the cam
against a spring until at a normal running voltage, the
contact are open.
Torque switch can be used to
monitor rotary inverter output.
The inverter failure light will
illuminate for:
o Low ac voltage
o Incorrect phase rotation
o A phase failure of the ac
output
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Rotary Inverters (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Static Inverters
Essential AC power can be obtained during standby
power use from a static inverter.
The static inverter changes 28 VDC to 115 VAC to
power essential flight instruments that operate on 115
VAC.
– Aircraft power is time limited in the standby mode
because of battery limits.
A static, or solid-state, inverter serves the same
functions as other inverters.
– It has no moving parts and is therefore less subject to
maintenance problems than the rotary inverter.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Static Inverters (cont’d)
The internal circuitry of a static inverter contains
standard electric and electronic components, such as
crystal diodes, transistors, capacitors, and
transformers.
By means of an oscillator circuit, the inverter develops
the 400-Hz frequency for which it is designed.
This current is passed through a transformer and
filtered to produce the proper waveshape and voltage.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Static Inverters (cont’d)
Feature of static inverters:
o High efficiency
o Low maintenance costs
o Short warm up time
o Quiet operation
o Quick response to load
change.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Static Inverter –
principle of operation
The square wave
oscillator will switch
on SCR 1 and 2
alternately. The
oscillator output
maintain ac output at
400 Hz.
SCR1 and 2 can be switch off by reversed biasing through
C1 and C2.
When SCR1 conducting, C1 and C2 is charged. When
SCR2 conduct, the capacitors discharges and reverse
biased SCR1 and switch it off.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Static Inverters (cont’d)
Voltage control is done by switching the SCR off before
the peak is reached as shown in below.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Static Inverters (cont’d)

Typical static inverter


Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Static Inverters (cont’d)
An electroluminescent (EL) panel is a high-efficiency lighting
system powered by alternating current.
– The panel is constructed of phosphorous material
laminated between two clear plastic layers.
– The phosphorous material glows when connected to an
AC voltage.
– The front plastic layer is painted black except where
stencils of appropriate letters or numbers are placed.
– The letters and numbers therefore remain clear in order to
transmit the light from the glowing phosphorous material.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Static Inverters (cont’d)

An electroluminescent panel

An electroluminescent panel and


associated static inverter
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU)
TRU
Used to convert ac power to dc power
Consists of transformer and rectifier
Transformer step the voltage down while the rectifier
convert it to dc current.
In majority of aircraft, TRUs are their main dc power
source.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU) (cont’d)
Cooling
Cooling is very important for continuous operation of
TRUs.
Various methods are used for TRU cooling such as:
o It is fitted with its own fan as shown in the next figure.
The fan is powered by TRU ac supply.
o Central cooling system pass air through the TRU.
o Using natural heat convection through heat sink.
Normally used for low rated TRUs.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU) (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU) (cont’d)
AC ripple
As shown below, single phase full wave rectification produces
an output at twice the original frequency but the ac content or
ripple has been reduced.
The next figure shows a full wave rectification of a three
phase supply. We can see that the ripple has reduced a lot
and the frequency is six time the supply.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU) (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU) (cont’d)

AC ripple (cont)
To further reduce the ripple, two secondary windings,
each connected to its own full wave rectifier, are used.
The outputs are connected in parallel as shown in the
next figure. This arrangement give an output with ripple
frequency of twelve time the input. This will reduce the
magnitude of the ripple.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU) (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU) (cont’d)
Protection
If TRU temperature is allowed to
increase, damage can occur to the
diodes.
In some installation, an overheat
thermostat is fitted to give warning
to the crew or to automatically
remove the ac power from the TRU
during overheat condition.
In wild frequency ac system, RCCB
is fitted to prevent dc busbar pull
down in the event that one TRU
has an earth fault.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU) (cont’d)
Diodes
To increase the current capacity and reduce the heat
effect, the diodes are connected in parallel. Therefore,
TRU with 24 diodes would have 4 diodes in parallel in
each leg.

Ratings
Given in output voltage and maximum current rating.
E.g.: 28 volt dc, 500 amps.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

9. Inverter and Rectifier (cont’d)


Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU) (cont’d)
Maintenance
Ensure TRU has adequate cooling, ducts not blocked
Ensure cooling air flow in the right direction.
Check that electrical connections are secured.
Functional test the overheat circuit.
Functional test the TRU.

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END OF TOPIC 9
INVERTER AND RECTIFIER

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TOPIC 10 :
POWER DISTRIBUTION

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution


Introduction
 An organized form of distribution throughout an aircraft is essential for the
generating sources power to be made available at the power-consuming
equipment and systems.

 The distribution arrangement is governed by the type of aircraft, its electrical


system, number of consumers and location of consumer components.

 In small light aircraft, electrical power requirements may limit to a few consumer
services and components situated within a small area, and the power may be
distributed via only a few meters of cable, some terminal blocks, circuit breakers
or fuses.

 In a large aircraft on the other hand, literally miles of cable are involved,
together with multiple load distribution busbars, protection networks, junction
boxes and control panels.
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


1. Aircraft electric power source

Four common sources:


DC alternators – used on piston engine a/c
DC generators / starter gen. – used on medium –sized turbine powered a/c
AC alternators / Generators – used on transport – category or military a/c
Aircraft battery – used on emergency & any intermittent system overloads

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10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


Primary source

 DC generator / DC alternator (typically 28VDC)


 AC generator/alternator with Constant Speed
Drive (CSD) unit. (typically 115VAC)  more
power

Secondary source

 DC source – battery, converter, and transformer


rectifier (TR) (AC to DC)
 AC source – transformer or inverter (DC to AC)

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


Emergency Source

 Battery or TRU. (DC load via DC bus)


 Complete gen. failure
 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) driven
alternator.
 Ram Air Turbine (RAT) driven
alternator.
 Battery power inverter. – AC inverter to
operate all essential ac loads

Auxiliary Source
 External power – Ground Power Unit (GPU).
 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU).
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


2. D.C. Electrical distribution system
 The simplest one only consists of a basic a basic copper conductor
called bus bar.
 It designed to carry the entire electrical load and distribute that load to
the individual power users.
 Protective device, such as circuit breakers (CB) and fuses are used
between the Bus Bar and the load.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


Type of distribution:
Single wire system
 Positive voltage is distributed to components through an insulated wire.

 Negative voltage is connected through the metal airframe (ground)

 Only one wire used to operate the components.

 Also known as ‘negative-ground system’.

 Use only on conductive material airframe structure

 Advantage: 1) less cable weight


2) reduce Radio Freq. Interference (RFI)

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10. Power Distribution (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


Dual wire system

 Used on non-metal
airframe structure, ex:
Composite, since it is non
conductive material

 Two wires used for positive


and negative connection.

 Negative side is connected


to remote ground plane
(added to the structure)

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


3. Schematic Diagram
 Used to analyze the a/c electrical system more efficiency in
determining fault and troubleshooting.
 Usually, it represents the electrical configuration of one or more
systems.
• Explain the operation of a particular a/c electrical system in
circuiting form
 BUT, it DID NOT show physical location or configurations of
components in the electrical systems.
 It only shows the relationship of the components electrically.
• Some schematic indicates the wire size within coded number.
• The manual which illustrates or show the electrical schematic
diagram is the WIRING MANUAL / SERVICE MANUAL
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


Schematic Diagram

- only shows the relationship of the


components electrically.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


4. Electrical Load
 It is important that electrical load of a/c be known by operator or
technician.

 No electrical component can be add unless total load is computed


& found that power source has sufficient capacity to operate the
additional equipment.

 To determine electrical load, an electrical–load analysis is made.

Purpose – to ensure a/c’s power system will not be overload when , &
compare the sum with generator maximum output. Each individual
electric current load is provided by service manual or from data plate.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


ii - by measuring electrical load. Place accurate ammeter in
generator output lead. Start the engine, let battery regain full
charge, then turn all continuous elect. Equipment & monitor
the ammeter (total load). Compare the value with the
generator’s rated output.
The total continuous load must be equal or less than generator’s
maximum rated output.
Load :-
- Continuous – ex: nav lights, radio receiver, elect instruments, elect
fuel pump, units and systems that can be operated continuously during
flight
- Intermittent – ex: landing gear, flaps, emergency hydraulic pumps
operate less then 2 min then turn off / a very short period of time.
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


 Recommended that total probable continuous load be not more
than 80% of generator capacity when special placard / monitoring
devices are not installed.
 Placard is used to inform pilot of the appropriate load configuration.
Ex: ”Do not operate the air-cond and windshield heat
simultaneously”. It is placed near windshield heat & air-cond control
switches.
 If has ammeter as monitoring device, a/c can operate continuous
load up to 100% plus indicating (light) for alternator failure is
required.
 Heavy intermittent overload will be met by battery and generator
together.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


5. Small multi-engine aircraft

 most light twin-engine uses 2


generators/ alternators

 the output voltages of the 2


sources are regulated to be
equal. This is called
paralleling.

 The paralleling circuit operated


on load sharing.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


1. Paralleling with vibrator-type
voltage regulators

 Voltage regulator (VR) relay has


extra coil that connected through
a ‘paralleling switch or relay’, to a
similar coil on the other VR.
 When left generator produced
higher voltage, current will flow
from left engine VR to right
engine VR thru paralleling coils.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


 The flow of current at left coil assists
voltage coil  contact open sooner
 inserting field resistor more often
 lower the output voltage of left
engine.
 The same current flow to right
engine, but in opposite direction its
magnetic field cancel voltage coil’s
magnetic field  contact kept close
 allows more field current to flow
thru the right engine and increase its
voltage output.
 The only current that flows in
paralleling coils is caused by the
difference in the output voltages.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


2. Paralleling with Carbon-pile
voltage regulator.

 Used with generator of greater


output.

 The field current is controlled by


varying the pull of electromagnet on
VR armature.

 Higher the output more current thru


electromagnet  more pull on the
armature  loosen the carbon pile
 increase its resistance &
decreasing the field current.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


 The paralleling coil is connected in
the same way as in vibrator-type
regulator.
 The difference is the current that flow
thru it is produced by the voltage drop
across paralleling resistor in the
ground wire leads to the armature of
both generators.
 If left gen. yields more current than
the right, the voltage drop across left
paralleling resistor will be higher, and
electrons will flow thru paralleling
coils of both VR.
 The magnetic field of left gen. will assist the left paralleling coil  loosen the
carbon pile  increase resistance  decrease field current.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


6. Reverse current protection

 In all types of electrical systems the current flow is, of course, from the
power source to the distribution busbar system and finally to the power
consuming equipment.

 The interconnection throughout being made by such automatic devices as


voltage regulators and control units and manually controlled switches.

 Under fault conditions, it is possible for the current flow to reverse direction and
this would damage to a circuit and associated equipment and it must have means
of protection.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


Reverse Current Cut-off Operation :
- relay consist of two coil
wound on a core and a spring
controlled armature and
contact assembly.
i – shunt winding – known as
voltage coil connected
across the generator
output
ii – series winding – in series
with main supply line via
contact assembly.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)

- when the generator voltage


exceeds that of the battery,
the shunt winding energise
thus contact close and act as
an automatic switch to
connect the generator to the
busbar and the battery is on
charge
- the series winding aids the
shunt winding field in keeping
the contacts firmly closed

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)

- when generator output falls below the battery voltage, there is a


momentary discharge of current from the battery i.e. a reverse
current through the cut-out relay series winding

- the series winding will oppose the shunt winding which reduce the
core magnetization until the spring pull the contact opens

- if the contact remain closed, the generator will be motoring by


battery current

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


7. Overvoltage protection

- Overvoltage is a condition which could arise in a generating system


in the event of a fault in the field excitation, e.g. internal ground of
the field windings or an open circuit in the voltage regulator sensing
lines.

- Devices are therefore necessary to protect consumer equipment


against voltages higher than those at which they are normally
designed to operate.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


Overvoltage protection operation :
- relay consists of a number of
contacts connected in all
essential circuits of the
generator system and
mechanically coupled to a
latching mechanism.
- this mechanism is
electromagnetically
controlled by a sensing coil
and armature assembly in a
overvoltage relay

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)

- under normal regulated


voltage conditions, less
current flow to the sensing
coil thus relay latch
mechanism remain
deenergised and so the
contacts remain closed and
generator remains connected
to the busbar

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


- if an open circuit occurs in the
regulator voltage coil sensing
line, the generator output
voltage will increase which will
cause the sensing coil
energized the latch
mechanism to release all the
relay contact to the open
position, thereby isolating the
system form the busbar
- after the fault has been
cleared, the contacts are reset
by depressing the push button
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


8. Undervoltage protection

- Undervoltage occurs in the


normal course of operation
when a generator is being
shut down, and reverse
current flow from the battery
to the generator is a normal
indication of this condition.

Subject Code AAB 10402


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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


- The undervolt relay is energized by the generator supply through the
generator field switch, and a warning light is connected in series with
the normally closed contacts of the unit.
- When the engine and
generator is at rest, or the
generator isolated or faulty
(approximately 2V below pre-
determined level), the
undervolt unit will be de-
energised and the warning
light illuminated.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


9. A.C. Electrical distribution system

A/c power distribution system is constructed based on the requirement that:


- There must be a control and monitoring of the a/c power sources
such as the voltmeter, ammeter, frequency meter & protection
circuit plus voltage regulators.
- The power sources are so arrange that failure or malfunction of one
source does not deprive the user of the power source – multi
purpose bus system
- The busses must bear the minimum damage if malfunction occurs
and are able to provide power supply to the users.
- Failure or malfunction of the users must not prevent the operation
of the users.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


For large multi-engine aircraft
There are 3 types namely:
a. Split bus system
b. Parallel system
c. Modified split bus system (split parallel)
Term used in a/c power distribution system
1. Generator breaker (GB)
a. A contactor or solenoid located near to the source.
Purpose is to feed the generator output to its bus when
generator switch is selected to ‘On’ or ‘CLOSE’
2. Bus tie breaker (BTB)
a. A contactor, function is to connect or isolate the power
source output to the tie bus
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :322 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


a) Split Bus System

- used in two or twin-engine a/c


- independent of each other : each has its own AC gen., TRU & distribution bus
- no load sharing (no paralleling)
- right distribution bus is isolated from the left bus by Bus Tie Breaker (BTB)
- The failed generator is isolated by generator breaker (GB), and BTB 1 & 2
closes to connect the isolated bus to operating generator.
- if APU can be started during flight, it will carry the failed gen.’s load.
- has a transfer switch  to allow transfer of power from one bus to another.
- a generator can never be connect to the same distribution bus
simultaneously.
- Advantage: output freq. & phase relationship need not be so close since
independent.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :323 Date : 14/01/ 08
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :324 Date : 14/01/ 08
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


b) Parallel System

- used in a/c with 3 or 4 engines


- has load sharing facilities perform by voltage regulator to equalize all the
generators output using:
i - paralleling current and switch
ii - paralleling voltage drop across shunt resistors

- requires strict monitoring in paralleling operation

- if generator failed, it will be isolated from the system by its GB

- the others will continue supply power & nonessential load are automatic
disconnect.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :325 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :326 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


Parallel operation

1. To connect all the generators to the bus or


sync. Is done manually by the pilot or flight
engineer.
2. The No.1 generator is placed on the tie bus
by manually switching the No.1 switch to
‘ON’
3. The No.2 and the No.3 generator outputs
have to be adjusted for correct phasing,
voltage and freq. before paralleling those
generators.
4. The tie bus will accept those output , the
output are synchronized and in phase with
the tie bus.
Subject Code AAB 10402
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


5. This is indicated by the extinguishing (no
light) of the synchronizing light.
6. After synchronizing  the load sharing of the
generators will be done automatically using;
the paralleling or equalizing current method
by voltage drop across the shunt resistor.
7. The shunt resistor is located at the negative
side of the generator.
8. If the generators are not adjusted to the
equal values during the manual setting, it
could damage the CSD and generator during
the paralleling operation.
9. All emergency switches are guarded and
wire locked using fuse wire. The Guard is
red.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :328 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


10. Paralleling is a term used to describe
where the generators output are of equal
values by the action of voltage regulators.

11. The function of voltage regulators in a


paralleling circuit are to ensure that the
generator share the same load.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :329 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


c) Modified Split Bus System

- used in 4 engines
- a combination of split &
parallel system
- split system breaker can
used to isolate the right &
left system

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :330 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


10. Overvoltage Protection
- A typical method of overvoltage protection, as used in an a.c. power supply
system utilizing magnetic amplifiers (mag amp)for the control and
protection.
- The circuit is formed by the combination of a single phase magnetic
amplifier and a rectifier bridge, the output of which is applied to the
operating coil of a protection relay.
- The a.c. windings of the magnetic amplifier are normally supplied from a
supply and reference transformer, while a voltage sensing network is used
in conjunction with the control winding.
- At the nominal supply voltage the circuit is adjusted so that the protection
relay is de-energised, the magnetic amplifier is not saturates thus less
current flow.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :331 Date : 14/01/ 08
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)


- With an increase of supply voltage, the magnetic amplifier saturates
which allow more current to flow and energises the protection relay
which interrupts the d.c. supply to hold –in circuit of a line contactor
thus disconnects the generator from the busbar.
- At the same time, the main control unit interrupts the supply to the
generator field, causing its output to collapse to zero.

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :332 Date : 14/01/ 08
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

10. Power Distribution (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :333 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC 10
POWER DISTRIBUTION

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :334 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TOPIC 11 :
EMERGENCY POWER DISTRIBUTION

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :335 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

11. Emergency Power Distribution


1. Boeing 727 distribution system
• Use parallel system
• Has 3 engines drive 3 generators thru Constant Speed Drive (CSD) unit.
• CSD :- provide frequency control
• Single phase transformer :- reduce 115VAC to 28VAC for lighting
• 3 x Transformer Rectifier unit (TRU) :- convert 115VAC to 28VDC for
emergency lights, system control circuits and also used for battery
charging.
• Auxiliary Power unit (APU) :- used to supply all the needed electrical &
pneumatic power when a/c is on ground.
• APU can’t be operated during flight since it will automatic disconnect the
entire main generator and connect APU itself to the busses.
• Each generator feeds its own bus thru GB, and all three busses can be
tied to a common bus thru BTB.
• Battery is used to start the APU and provide power for emergency use.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :336 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

11. Emergency Power Distribution (cont’d)

• Battery is used to start the APU and provide power for emergency use.
• In normal operation the battery is disconnected from d.c. loads and
being kept fully charge by a battery-charger that draws its power from
the AC transfer bus
• AC & DC essential bus can get power supply from any of 3 main AC
busses, the external power supply or APU by essential power selector
• In emergency situation (all three generator fails), standby AC and DC
busses are supplied directly from battery bus with standby inverter
provide AC

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :337 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

11. Emergency Power Distribution (cont’d)

Boeing 727
Distribution System
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :338 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

11. Emergency Power Distribution (cont’d)

External Power
Connected
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :339 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

11. Emergency Power Distribution (cont’d)

Emergency
Condition using APU
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :340 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

11. Emergency Power Distribution (cont’d)

Three Generators
Operating
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :341 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

11. Emergency Power Distribution (cont’d)

Emergency using
Battery
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :342 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC 11
POWER DISTRIBUTION

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :343 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TOPIC 12 :
EXTERNAL / GROUND POWER

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :344 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

12. External / Ground Power


1. External Power Circuit
• Purpose: to provide electric power or pneumatic power for engine starting and
to prevent draining of a/c battery by the high current starter motor.

• External power equipment can be in the form of:


a. Ground power unit – AC or DC elect power
b. Battery cart – DC power
c. Air start unit – pneumatic power for pneumatic starter
d. Gas turbine starter unit (GTSU) - pneumatic power. Consider
as APU

• External Power Cable


- DC type consist of 3 sockets which is coupled to the 3 pins on the a/c
- 2 larger/long pins carry a positive and negative terminal. The short pin
is interlock pin.
- AC type consist of 6 sockets which is coupled to the 6 pins on the a/c
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :345 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

12. External / Ground Power (cont’d)

Socket
(cable) 3 Pins (a/c side)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :346 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

12. External / Ground Power (cont’d)


• Safety designed for:
i Prevent reverse current connection.
ii Ensure solid contact of the receptacle to
the terminal

• When plug in, it make solid contact with 2 larger


plugs but ext. power relay still open (no current
flow) until the plug is forced all the way & the
smaller pin makes contact.

• When the interlock pin is engaged – the ext.


power relay in the a/c is energized, only then the
current flow from GPU into the a/c system.

• The third small pin will supply current to the


contactor coil to close the contactor.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :347 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

12. External / Ground Power (cont’d)


• For battery charging, a circuit consists of:
i A diode (D2)
ii A current limiter resistor
iii A fuse

• This circuit allows enough current to energize


contactor coil, in case the battery is completely
discharged.

• Reverse polarity/Diode D1  To prevent


external power contactor to close if wrong
polarity power source installed.

• Diode D2  To prevent positive pin of the


external power receptacle from being ‘HOT’
when no external power connected to the aircraft.
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :348 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

12. External / Ground Power (cont’d)


• External source supplies power for starting and at
the same time for charging the battery.

• CAUTION: Be sure to use the correct external


power voltage for the aircraft. 12V or 24V?
Since it can damage sensitive elect. Equipment

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :349 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC 12
EXTERNAL / GROUND POWER

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :350 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TOPIC 13 :
AIRCRAFT LIGHTING

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :351 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

13. Aircraft Lighting


Purpose – to illuminate cargo compartment to
pilot instrument panel and to ensure
safety by illuminating landing and
taxi environment

Types – a. Exterior light


b. Interior light

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :352 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

13. Aircraft Lighting (cont’d)

Type of lights used at exterior lighting

a) Incandescent lamp
- use for exterior and interior
- used tungsten wire (filament) with bulb
containing inert gas
- when electric current is applied to the lamp it
causes filament to illuminate
- check serviceability by using ohmmeter;
continuity indicate good, infinity indicate open
circuit
- comes in difference voltage and current rating

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :353 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

13. Aircraft Lighting (cont’d)


b) Halogen lamp
- used as flashing beacon
- bulb with tungsten filled with halogen
gas such as iodine vapor allow to
burn brighter
- increase useful life
- avoid bare hand contact with the bulb
can cause burn during operation
- check serviceability as incandescent
lamp

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :354 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

13. Aircraft Lighting (cont’d)


c) Xenon lamp
- flashing anti collision light (or
strobe light)
- develop flash of white light and
greater intensity at night and
day
- no filament and bulb filled with
xenon gas
- illuminates when high voltage is passed through the flash tube
between two end electrode
- wait at least 5 mins before performing any maintenance on power
pack (high voltages produced by capacitor charging system)
- test this lamp by swapping with the good one
- avoid touching the tube
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :355 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

13. Aircraft Lighting (cont’d)


Exterior Lights
a) Position lights
- also known as navigation light
- indicate position of aircraft during night operations
- red light; left side of aircraft : green light; right side :
white light; tail cone
- green and red are seen, aircraft toward observer
- white light is seen, aircraft moved away from observer

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :356 Date : 14/01/ 08
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

13. Aircraft Lighting (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :357 Date : 14/01/ 08
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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

13. Aircraft Lighting (cont’d)


b) Anticollision light
- rotary beacons either on top of vertical stabilizer or bottom of the
fuselage with bulb stationery and rotating reflector (red)
- new system; use solid state electronic to create flashing

Subject Code AAB 10402


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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

13. Aircraft Lighting (cont’d)

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :359 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

13. Aircraft Lighting (cont’d)

c) Landing and Taxi lights


- provide night visibility for landing and taxiing
- mounted on leading edge of wing, landing
gear strut and in the cowling
- high power and control by solenoid or relay

d) Wing inspection lights


- to allow pilot do a visual inspection from inside the aircraft if ice
formation on leading edge
- flush mounted on fuselage and directed towards the leading edge

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :360 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

13. Aircraft Lighting (cont’d)


Interior lighting
- instrument light
- overhead light
- step light
- reading light

Type of lights used in interior


lighting
a) Incandescent light
- same as exterior light but
require dimming circuit using
transistor
- transistor installed on a heat
sink to dissipate heat
Subject Code AAB 10402
Revision : Original Page No :361 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

13. Aircraft Lighting (cont’d)


b) Fluorescent light

- gas filled glass tube with mercury vapor


- inside tube coating with phosphorous
- when current flow through electrode at each end, it emit electrons
and strike atom of mercury vapor produce ultra violet light
- ultraviolet light strike phosphorous coating produce visible light
called fluorescence
- use potentiometer for dimming
- ballast, to strike high voltage during starting and limit the current
flow after starting

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :362 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

13. Aircraft Lighting (cont’d)

Fluorescent Light

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :363 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

13. Aircraft Lighting (cont’d)


Instrument panel lighting
- electro luminescent (EL) panel
- fluorescent paste sandwiched between two layer of plastic
- the paste glow when AC voltage is applied to the panel
- the light glow through unpainted area of plastic
- operate by solid state inverter

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :364 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC 13
AIRCRAFT LIGHTING

Subject Code AAB 10402


Revision : Original Page No :365 Date : 14/01/ 08
Issue No : 01