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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

AIRCRAFT DESIGN
CERTIFICATION
Prepared by: AZLAN BIN TAJUDIN
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

CONCEPT OF AIRWORTHINESS

An aircraft is LEGALLY allowed to fly provided that it is:

a) designed to the APPROVED technical standards

b) maintained to retain the aircraft approved design standards

c) adequately equipped for its appropriate role.


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

INTRODUCTION
An AIRCRAFT DESIGN must be approved by the Airworthiness Authority
before it can be legally produced and flown

It must follow the Approved Design Standards imposed by the Airworthiness


Authority

The Airworthiness Standards are generally mutually recognized by all


countries in the world as per the ICAO ANNEX 08

However the country to which the certified aircraft is to be exported may


impose its own additional design requirements before it can be certified in
the importing country.
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 Some of the Approved Design Standard (derived from Annex 8)


imposed by the Airworthiness Authority are:

FAA EASA

FAR 23 CS 23
FAR 25 CS 25
FAR 33 – Aircraft Engine CS E – Aircraft Engine
FAR 35 – Propellers CS P – Propellers

FAR / CS23 FAR / CS25

•Normal Category Airplane •Transport Category or Large Airplane


•Utility Category Airplane
•Aerobatic Category Airplane
•Commuter Category Airplane
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AIRCRAFT DESIGN STANDARD


NO SINGLE FAILURES OF STRUCTURES, COMPONENTS
OR SYSTEM MAY IMPERIL THE AIRCRAFT

THE FUNDAMENTAL PREMISES ARE EMBODIED IN A STRATEGY CALL


FAIL-SAFE DESIGN
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AIRCRAFT DESIGN STANDARD


SINGLE FAILURE of any component or system during any one flight are
assumed, regardless of its probability. These single failures cannot prevent
continued safe flight and landing, or significantly reduce the capability of the
aircraft or the crew to cope with the failure.

LATER FAILURE during the same flight, whether detected or hidden, and
combinations thereof, are assumed, unless their joint probability with the
first failure is shown to be extremely improbable.
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FAIL-SAFE PHILOSOPHY
FAIL-SAFE DESIGN USES A COMBINATION OF THESE DESIGN METHODS

a) Design integrity and quality, including LIFE-LIMITS, to ensure intended function and
prevent failures

b) Redundancy, fault tolerance, or BACK-UP SYSTEMS to enable continued function


after any single (or other defined number of) failure(s), e.g. two or more engines,
hydraulic systems, flight control systems.

c) ISOLATION of systems, components, and elements so that the failure of one does not
cause the failure of another. Isolation is also termed INDEPENDENCE
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FAIL-SAFE PHILOSOPHY
d) Proven reliability so that multiple, independent failures are unlikely to occur during the
same flight

e) Failure warning or INDICATION to assure failure detection

f) Flight crew Procedures for use after failure that enable continued safe flight and landing

g) TESTABILITY which is the ability to check a system/component's airworthiness


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FAIL-SAFE PHILOSOPHY
h) Designed failure-effect limits, including the capability to sustain damage that limits
the safety effects of a failure

i) Designed failure paths that control and direct the effects of a failure in a way that
limits its safety impact

j) Margin of safety that allowed for any unforeseeable condition

k) Error tolerance that considers the adverse effects of foreseeable errors during the
aircraft's design, test, manufacturer, operation and maintenance.
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GETTING THE DESIGN TO BE APPROVED


There shall be an approved design consisting of such drawings, specifications, reports and
documentary evidence as are necessary to define the design of the aircraft and to show
compliance with the Basis of Certification.

Aircraft shall be subjected to such inspections and GROUND & FLIGHT TESTS as are
deemed necessary by the Authority to show compliance with the Basis of Certification.

Once the design is approved, the State of Design (the Authority) will issue a
TYPE CERTIFICATE
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TYPE CERTIFICATE (TC)


TCDS & STC
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PROOF OF COMPLIANCE

TYPE CERTIFICATE
The State of Design, upon
receipt of satisfactory evidence
that the aircraft type is in
compliance with the design
aspects of the appropriate
airworthiness requirements,
shall issue a Type Certificate to
define the design and to signify
approval of the design of the
aircraft type.
(Chapter 1, Part II of Annex 8 )
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TYPE CERTIFICATE
TYPE CERTIFICATE: A document issued by a
Contracting State to define the Design of an
Aircraft Type and to certify that this design meets
the appropriate Airworthiness Requirements of
that State.

VALIDITY
Remains valid until TC is surrendered, suspended,
revoked, or by termination date established by the
Authority.
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TYPE CERTIFICATE(TC)
Type Certificate validates the conformity
of the design to the approved standard.
AIRCRAFT
Type Certificate is applicable for design of
aircraft, engine and variable pitch
APPLICABILITY propeller.

Type Certificate (TC) consists of:

ENGINE a)Airplane Flight Manual – info on Operational Limitations


b) TCDS – info on Technical Characteristics
c)Drawings, flight test data, inspection results and other
documentations
VARIABLE PITCH d) Basis of Certification
PROPELLER
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TYPE CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET (TCDS)


Provides full information and characteristics on the particular type of
design. It shall also documented the conditions and limitations requirements
of the particular design in order to meet the airworthiness requirements.
The TCDS is published by the National Aviation Authority and are
maintained by the TC holder and is part of the TC itself.
Contents of TCDS:
a) TC Holder particulars information
b) Basis of Certification.
c) Power-plants Data.
d) Fuel type.
e) Limitations.
f) Qualifying prototype serial number.
g) Weight and Balance.
h) Minimum Crew.
i) Maximum Passengers.
j) Service Information.
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SUPPLEMENTAL TYPE CERTIFICATE


STC- MAJOR DESIGN changes to a TC but NOT so
extensive to aqquire a new TC. STC is an
additional document which is added to the TC.

e.g. a)New Passenger Cabin Interior


b)New power-plant type
c)Aircraft conversion
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FAR 23/25 AIRWORTHINESS STANDARD:


Normal, Utility Aerobatic, Commuter & Transport
Categories Aeroplane.
Type Certification validates the conformity of the design to the basis of
certification. It applies to airplanes, power plants, and propellers.

It may require up to 05 YEARS for a new airplane design.

It follows the Approved Design Standards such as F.A.R. 23 and any


additional conditions specified by the National Airworthiness Authorities.
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FAR 23.3 AIRWORTHINESS STANDARD:


Normal, Utility, Aerobatic and Commuter Categories
Aeroplane.
NORMAL CATEGORY: Airplane with 09 seats or less excluding the pilots with
MTWA less than 12500 lbs intended for non-aerobatic operation

UTILITY CATEGORY: As in normal category and intended for limited aerobatic


operation

AEROBATIC CATEGORY: As in utility category and intended for unrestricted


aeroplane operation

COMMUTER CATEGORY: Airplane with 19 seats or less excluding the pilots


with MTWA less than 19000 lbs, multi-engine and propeller driven intended
for restricted non-operation
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FAR 25 AIRWORTHINESS STANDARD:


Transport Categories Aeroplane

SCOPE OF STANDARDS

i) Flight characteristics.

ii) Airframe and Engine SYSTEMS requirements and performance

iii) Engine requirements and performance

iv) Structural performance


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CERTIFICATION OF
AIRCRAFT :

MALAYSIA
REQUIREMENTS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

P.U.(A) 97
CIVIL AVIATION REGULATIONS 2016
PART III - AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT

Regulation 21 - Certificate of Approval for the design, manufacture and


construction of aeronautical product

Regulation 22 - Certificate of Validation for the design, manufacture and


construction of aeronautical product

Regulation 23 - Certification, validation and approval of aeronautical product

Regulation 24 – Certification, validation and approval of designs


of modifications and repairs of aeronautical product

MAJOR MODIFICATION:- means Modification of an aeronautical product which in the


opinion of the Director General MAY adversely affect the airworthiness of an aircraft
directly.

MINOR MODIFICATION:- means Modification of an aeronautical product which in the


opinion of the Director General DOES NOT adversely affect the airworthiness of an
aircraft .
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FURTHER REFERENCE OF AIRCRAFT DESIGN CERTIFICATION


ARE HIGHLIGHTED IN DCA MALAYSIA
*A.N. No. 1 – CERTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT *

AND SUPPORTED BY :

a) Appendix 1 – Certification of Aeronautical Products of U.S. origin imported


from U.S.A.

b) Appendix 2 – Certification of Aeronautical Products and Parts


manufactured in Malaysia

c) Appendix 3 – Certification of Aeronautical Products originated and


imported from countries that are FULL MEMBERS of the JAA
(Joint Aviation Authorities)
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Certification of Aircraft (AN 1)


Applicants For Malaysian Certification
Subjected to investigation by the DCA in order to establish, taking into account their
design, construction, modification standard and original certification basis, that a
level of airworthiness equivalent to that provided by Malaysian airworthiness
standards has been achieved.

The DCA will also require knowledge of the arrangements for post-certification design
support in order to be satisfied that this airworthiness standard may be expected to be
sustained after certification.
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Certification of Aircraft (AN 1)


Type certification is a process to ensure that the design, construction, material,
specification and performance of the aircraft meet the prescribed design standards,
rules and regulations.TC will be issued upon successful completion of the process.

MALAYSIA DOES NOT ISSUE TYPE CERTIFICATES FOR IMPORTED AIRCRAFT

Note : The DCA only accepts applications for the Type Acceptance of aircraft type
certificates. The acceptance procedure will involve consideration of the aircraft's
engine and/or propellers as well. If all the requirements, including investigations,
audits and also full flight test have been carried out and results found satisfactory,
DCA shall issue Certificate of Airworthiness (C of A) upon acceptance.
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CATEGORY OF MALAYSIAN CIVIL AIRCRAFT, PURPOSE OF FLIGHT

•Refer First Schedule of MCAR or AN 81:

•Categories of Aircraft and the purpose for which the aircraft may fly are as follows:

–Transport Category: Any purpose (Passenger)

–Transport Category: Any purpose (Cargo)

–Aerial Work Category: Any purpose other than public transport.

–Private Category: Any purpose other than public transport and aerial work.

–Special Category: Any purpose other than public transport

specified in the Certificate of Airworthiness (C of A) but not including the carriage of


passengers unless expressly permitted.
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AN 1 (Appendix 1) – Certification of Aeronautical


Products of U.S. origin imported from U.S.A.

US Aircraft eligible for export to Malaysia must comply with the requirements of sub-
part L of FAR Part 21

Aircraft must be eligible for the issue of a STANDARD AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE


as prescribed in sub-part H of FAR 21 unless otherwise agreed by the DCA

In compliance with Airworthiness Notices(AN) Number 4 issued by the DCA which are
classified as requiring a mandatory action

In compliance with Airworthiness Directives (AD) issued by the DCA (Ref : AN No. 4)

COMPLETION OF A FLIGHT TEST carried out by the State of Design in accordance


with a DCA approved Airworthiness Flight Test Schedule (AFTS) unless otherwise
agreed by the DCA
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AN 1 (Appendix 2) – Certification of Aeronautical


Products and Parts manufactured in Malaysia
The process of validation is a pre-requisite for the issue of a C of A

The DCA also require knowledge of the arrangements for post-certification


design support in order to be satisfied that this Airworthiness Standard may
be sustained after certification

*Types for which a Malaysian C of A has not previously been issued, is


subject to a DESIGN INVESTIGATION by the DCA Malaysia
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TYPES FOR WHICH A MALAYSIAN CERTIFICATE of AIRWORTHINESS


HAS NOT PREVIOUSLY BEEN ISSUED

DESIGN INVESTIGATION

Type certificated in another State, the certification process is generally reduced to


one of examination of the type design record and the certification documents held
by the State which initially certificated the aircraft (State of Design).
The examination normally includes :

a) an assessment of design standards applied and amendment status

b) Compliance the standards of ICAO Annexes 8 and 16

c) Variation granted by the State of Design

d) Special conditions specified and certified by the State of Design

e) Operating conditions and Airworthiness Philosophies of the DCA.


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

DESIGN INVESTIGATION
The Malaysian Investigation will be directed primarily to areas where the
Airworthiness Standards, as applied by the original Certifying Authority, may
not, in the view of the DCA, be equivalent to Malaysian Standards.

Compliance with the requirements of the Malaysian Civil Aviation Regulation


(MCAR) in respect of Mandatory Equipments will also be investigated.
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AN 1 (Appendix 3) – Certification of Aeronautical Products


originated and imported from countries that are
FULL MEMBERS of the JAA (Joint Aviation Authorities)
Eligibility For Export To Malaysia

Aeronautical products must comply with the requirements of sub-part L of


JAR Part 21 and the requirements of this document. In addition, aircraft must
be eligible for the issue of a Standard Airworthiness Certificate as
prescribed in sub-part H of JAR Part 21 unless otherwise agreed by the DCA.

For used aircrafts, the prospective Purchasers of used aircraft are encouraged
to discuss their proposals with the DCA Malaysia first before arranging import
for Malaysian Certification.
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AIRWORTHINESS
FLIGHT TEST
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AIRWORTHINESS FLIGHT TEST

Airworthiness Flight Tests are accomplished to establish that the aircrafts


performance, handling characteristics and systems functionality do not differ
significantly from those similar aircraft that were type certificated.

Airworthiness Flight Testing are also established as part of an aircrafts Certificate of


Airworthiness (C of A) issue/ renewal requirements as well as the approval of
AIRCRAFT MODIFICATION after the issuance of a C of A.

After flight test has been carried out, Aircraft Operator shall ensure the Airworthiness
Flight Test Report is completed satisfactorily prior to submission to DCA Airworthiness
Division. Any incomplete or unsatisfactory Airworthiness Flight Test Report submitted
may be rejected and the aircraft may be subjected to a repeat of the flight test.

An Aircraft Operator shall notify DCA Airworthiness Division in advance of


airworthiness flight test plans, for example, annually, semi-annually or quarterly to
enable DCA personnel to conduct appropriate quality audits of Airworthiness
Flight Testing.
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AIRWORTHINESS FLIGHT TEST SCHEDULE (AFTS)


The AFTS shall be prepared by the Aircraft Operator and submitted together with a
completed DCA Statement of Compliance (SOC) to enable DCA to review and approve
the AFTS.
CONTENTS

(a) Reference Number and Date


(b) Policies/ Procedures in respect of Minimum Flight Test Crew including Cabin Crew,
Carriage of Passengers during Test Flight, Aircraft Flight Manual limitations and
Approved Pilots & Engineers for Flight Test.
(c) Flight Test Certificate
(d) Flights conducted under A or B Conditions or otherwise specified
(e) Mandatory placards / markings checking
(f) Defects encountered during the test flight and their rectifications.
(g) Individual tests, for example, climb test, low speed handling test, autorotation test,
stall test, dive to never-exceed speed test
(h) Load sheet
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APPROVAL OF PILOTS TO CARRY OUT AIRWORTHINESS FLIGHT TEST

Aircraft Operators shall nominate PILOTS who are properly QUALIFIED & ADEQUATELY
EXPERIENCED to carry out Airworthiness Flight Test.

Note: DCA Aeronautical Information Circular (AIC) 8/97, suitable qualified and
experienced pilots shall be approved to conduct Airworthiness Flight Testing for :
(a) AEROPLANE < 5,700 kg.
(b) HELICOPTER
(c) AEROPLANE > 5,700 kg

Note: If a pilot does not meet the above requirements,


DCA may accept if they are Professional Test Pilots or
Flying Instructors. DCA may also accept applications
from pilots who are sole owners of
Private Category aircraft up to 2730 kg MAW.
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POST-FLIGHT PROCEDURES AND AIRCRAFT


PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
Upon completion of the Airworthiness Flight Test, the pilot shall ensure that the
aircraft performance analysis is completed and compared with the AIRCRAFT
FLIGHT MANUAL performance data. If the aircrafts performance is found to be
worse when compared with the Aircraft Flight Manual, the pilot shall record in the
Flight Test Certificate, as well as, in the Technical Log for corrective action.

If an ‘Airworthiness Flight Test’ Engineer or Aircraft Maintenance Engineer is part


of the Aircraft Operators Airworthiness Flight Test Team, the Engineer shall ensure
that the flight test results including aircrafts performance analysis are complete
and properly recorded.
Upon completion of the Airworthiness Flight Test, the pilot shall record in the Flight
Test Certificate, as well as, in the Technical Log any defects arising from the Flight
Test. If a re-flight test is required, the pilot shall ensure all areas to be flight tested
are completed. After the Airworthiness Flight Test, the pilot shall ensure that all flight
test results are available and properly recorded.
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POST FLIGHT REPORTING


An Aircraft Operator shall submit the following together with the
Airworthiness Flight Test Report :

(a) Load Sheet


(b) Achieved/ Actual Performance Climb Graph
(c) Scheduled Performance Climb calculations including Flight Manuals climb
graph /chart
(d) Scheduled Stall calculations including Flight Manuals stall graph/chart
(e) Power Assurance Checks calculations including Flight Manuals power assurance
graph/ chart (for helicopters)
(f) Autorotation Checks calculations including autorotation graph/ chart (for helicopters)
(g) Aircraft defects encountered during Airworthiness Flight Test and their rectifications
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AIRCRAFT OPERATOR’S FLEET- AIRWORTHINESS FLIGHT TESTING

An Aircraft Operator having an approved


Organization Quality System may carry out
Airworthiness Flight Testing on 10% of the
Operators aircraft fleet.

Operator having A FLEET OF DIFFERENT


AIRCRAFT TYPES shall carry out
Airworthiness Flight Testing on 10% of EACH
of the Operators aircraft types.

Even with an approved Quality System, an


Aircraft Operator may be required to carry
out Airworthiness Flight Testing EXCEEDING
the required 10% if their aircraft performance
is DEGRADING or the Airworthiness Flight
Test Report submitted to DCA Airworthiness
Division is UNSATISFACTORY.
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