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TOWS Matrix

Internal strengths (S) Internal weakness (W)


E.g. strengths in
management operations, E.g. weaknesses in areas
finance, marketing, R&D, shown in the strength box
External factors engineering

External opportunities (O) WO strategy: Mini-Maxi


SO strategy: Maxi-Maxi
E.g. current & future e.g. developmental
Successful strategy where
economic conditions, strategy to overcome
utilizing the organization's
political & social changes, weaknesses in order to
strengths to take
new products, services & take advantage of
advantage of opportunities
technology opportunities

External Threats (T) WT Strategy: Mini-Mini


ST Strategy: Maxi-Mini
E.g. energy dependence, e.g. retrenchment,
e.g. use of strengths to
competition & areas liquidation, or joint
cope up with threats or to
similar to those shown in venture to minimize both
avoid threats
the opportunities box weaknesses and threats
TOWS Strategy

Mini-Mini It aims to minimize both weaknesses & threats & hence it is


WT called minimize-minimize strategy. It may require the company,
strategy for eg, form a joint venture, retrench, or even liquidate

Mini-Maxi Minimize the weaknesses & maximize the opportunities. A firms with
weaknesses in some areas may either develop within or acquire the needed
WO competencies (technology, person with needed skills) from outside in order
strategy to take advantage of external opportunities

Using organizations strengths to deal with external environment. Aim is to


Maxi-Mini maximize the former & minimize the latter. A co may use its technological,
ST strategy financial, managerial or marketing strengths to cope with the threats of new
product introduced by its competitor

Maxi-Maxi Co strengths to take advantage of the opportunities


SO strategy
Application of TOWS matrix for M&A, JVs and Alliances

Analyze the S & W of each partner


Step 1
Find out external opportunities' & threats for each of them

Step 2 Draw the alternative strategies before their association

Compare & analyze the two matrix –


Step 3 Eg. Complementary S & W could result in a competitive advantage
Repetition & overlap may result in duplication of efforts

Step 4 After evaluation 3rd matrix is developed for the partnership

Hence 3 TOWS matrices assist in identifying potential problems in M&A


Leadership
What comes to your mind on these personalities
Confident
Simplicity Aggressive
Humble Lead by example
Optimism Good orator
Positivity Boldness
Respectable Negotiation skills
Love & affection or Clarity
people concern Ability to inspire
Leadership
The act or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly &
enthusiastically toward the achievements of group goals

Leadership skills is a compound of 4 major ingredients

Principle of Leadership – Since people tend to follow who offer them a means of
satisfying their personal goals, the more managers understand what motivates their
subordinates & the reflect this understanding in their actions.

Ability to comprehend that Ability to act in a manner


Ability to use power human being have different that will develop a
Ability to
effectively & in a motivating forces at
inspire
climate conducive to
responsible manner different times & in different responding to & arousing
situations motivations

Style of the leader &


Understanding of Inspire the
Power organizational
people followers environviorn
Style Based on Use of Authority

Autocratic leader Democratic or The free-rein leader


commands & expects participative use power very little,
compliance, is dogmatic & leader consults if at all, giving
positive & leads by the with subordinates subordinates a high
ability to with hold or give & encourages degree of
rewards & punishment their participation independence
Manager may exhibit a
combination of these styles
depending on the context &
situation
Traits Approach to Leadership

Physical traits – 5 (energy,


appearance & height)

Social characteristics –
cooperativeness,
4 intelligence & ability traits
interpersonal skills &
administrative skills
Great man are
BORN not Made

16 personality traits –
Task related – 6
adaptability,
achievement drive,
aggressiveness, enthusiasm,
persistence & initiative
self confidence
Leadership Traits and Skills

Traits Skills
• Adaptable to situations • Clever (intelligent)
• Alert to social environment • Conceptually skilled
• Ambitious and achievement orientated • Creative
• Assertive • Diplomatic and tactful
• Cooperative • Fluent in speaking
• Decisive • Knowledgeable about group task
• Dependable • Organised (administrative ability)
• Dominant (desire to influence others) • Persuasive
• Energetic (high activity level) • Socially skilled
• Persistent Stogdill, 1974
• Self-confident Leaders will also use:
• Tolerant of stress Integrity, Honesty, Compassion,
• Willing to assume responsibility Humility
The Managerial Grid

Managerial grid has two


dimensions: concern for
people and concern for
production
Concern for people indicates
Concern for production degree of personal commitment
include – quality of policy towards goal achievement,
decisions, procedures & placement of responsibility on
processes, service quality, the basis of trust than obedience,
work efficiency & volume good working conditions,
of output interpersonal relations etc.
LIKERT’S LINKING PIN CONCEPT
FOR PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT

PRES.

Mgr. Sales Mgr. Finance Mgr. Mfg.

Super Super Super Super Super Super


LIKERT’S LINKING PIN CONCEPT
FOR PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT

PRES.

Mgr. Sales Mgr. Finance Mgr. Mfg.

Super Super Super Super Super Super


LIKERT’S LINKING PIN CONCEPT
FOR PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT

PRES.

Mgr. Sales Mgr. Finance Mgr. Mfg.

Super Super Super Super Super Super


LIKERT’S LINKING PIN CONCEPT
FOR PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT

PRES.

Mgr. Sales Mgr. Finance Mgr. Mfg.

Super Super Super Super Super Super