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Voigt, Performance
Reuss, 27-301
A. D. Rollett,
M. De Graef
Microstructure Properties

Last modified: 2nd Nov. ‘15


Lecture Objectives: Composites
• The main objective of this lecture is to introduce you to
microstructure-property relationships in composite
Applns. • Composite materials constitute a huge class of materials.
Properties The objective of this lecture will therefore be to provide
Voigt, some definitions and describe some of the basic
Reuss, relationships.
• Cellular materials will be emphasized because of their
connection to natural materials (biomaterials) and
especially wood, which some of you will study in the
Cellular second Lab.


Questions & Answers for Part 1
1. What are the general advantages of composite
materials over monolithic materials? Give both 7. Explain what is meant by the Voigt, Reuss and Hill
biomaterial and man-made examples. Composites average moduli. Voigt=iso-strain, Reuss=iso-
generally have higher specific properties. Wood and stress, Hill averages these two.
carbon-fiber reinforced plastics are examples. 8. Which model for stiffness applies to a composite
Intro 2. What is the rule of mixtures as applied to composites? material with a compliant matrix and a well
Integrate the property of interest over the volume of dispersed particulate second phase that is stiffer
Composite the composite. (than the matrix)? In this case, the Reuss (iso-
Applns. 3. What do the terms isostress and isostrain mean? As stress) model applies because the individual
implied, iso-stress means same stress in all materials; particles are not connected and thus there is little
Properties iso-strain means same strain in all materials. For iso- load transfer between them.
stress you can think of the phases as being connected 9. Which model for stiffness applies to a composite
Voigt, in series between the planes across which the load is material with a compliant matrix and a well
transmitted (and vice versa for iso-strain). dispersed, parallel, stiff fibers that is loaded along
Reuss, 4. Derive the isostrain model. See the notes; derivation the fiber direction? In this case, the Voigt (iso-
Hill relies on averaging the stresses in the different phases. strain) model applies because the individual fibers
are strained equally with the matrix.
5. Derive the isostress model. See the notes; derivation
Anistrpy. relies on averaging the strains in the different phases. 10. Why are cellular or foam materials useful for
achieving low modulus? By making a substantial
6. Sketch the variations in modulus expected for
CTE composites in which the components have strongly
fraction of the “material” empty space (air or
trapped gas), one can reduce the modulus to the
different moduli. See the notes; iso-strain model gives
Cellular linear variation (same as Rule of Mixtures in this case)
volume average of the solid material and gas.
This accesses modulus values that are
Matls. whereas iso-stress model gives non-linear variation.
inaccessible to fully dense materials.


elastic modulus. Wood • Cellular/foam materials as shock absorbers.g. • Properties of wood as a cellular material. • Application of the Rule of Mixtures. e. Cellular • Anisotropy of composite properties. Intro • Classification of composites by reinforcement type (dimensionality) Composite . Matls. . Reuss. Applns. Properties • Dependence of composite properties on the spatial arrangement of Voigt. Voigt and Reuss approximations. the phases.example of elastic Hill modulus. • High property:density ratios achievable with composites. Anistrpy. 4 Examinable Key points • Composites are regarded as artificial (man-made) mixtures of phases. • Upper and lower bounds on properties .particles. CTE • Engineering with residual stress in composites. fibers and laminated.

Hill Anistrpy. CTE Cellular Matls. Properties Voigt. Reuss. 5 Examples Intro Composite Applns. Wood .

Intro • Almost all materials contain more than one phase. clam shell. Hill • Composite Material Examples: glass fiber reinforced Anistrpy. transformation toughened alumina (Al2O3-CeO2). Mars bar. plastic (GRP). Reuss. steel. 6 Examinable What are Composites? • Composite materials contain more than one phase. so Composite what’s the difference? Applns. wood. CTE • Multi-phase Material Examples: precipitation Cellular strengthened aluminum alloys. • The term composite is typically applied to a material when Properties the multi-phase structure is constructed by direct Voigt. Ti-6Al-4V. intervention (external to the material). dual-phase Matls. Wood • Caution! There is some overlap between the categories! .

Often Voigt. variable resistance to degradation. medium modulus. Wood formable.ionic or covalent bonding. Reuss. medium melting point. (thermoplastics) to covalent links (thermosets). symmetric crystal structures. CTE resistant to degradation. high melting point and modulus. high modulus. Cellular • Metals . brittle. Matls. lower symmetry Anistrpy. Low Properties density. ductile. Intro • Polymers .metallic bonding. crystal structures.long [carbon] chain molecules with anything Composite from van der Waals bonding between the chains Applns. Hill • Ceramics . . low modulus compared to other materials. 7 Examinable Properties • It is useful to review the basic properties of the different types of materials that are used in composites. highly formable (ductile).

know. Wood . Evolution has resulted in structures that combine materials together Intro for properties that far exceed those that could be obtained in the Composite basic materials. land-based multi-tonne creatures are possible such as elephants). is calcium Properties phosphate in the form of crystalline Ca10(PO4)6(OH) and amorphous CaPO3. high values of strength:density and toughness:density result. This ceramic is brittle and not particularly stiff. The matrix of Voigt. Reuss. for example. fibrous collagen is tough but even less stiff. however. remarkable values of stiffness:density and toughness:density are achieved (and Anistrpy. the basic materials tend to be weak and/or brittle. 8 Why Use Composites? [Biomaterials] • In nature. • The basic inorganic constituent of bone. CTE • A similar situation exists in wood where the basic materials are quite Cellular compliant but arranged in the multi-level composite forms that we Matls. Applns. When embedded Hill arranged in the form of a cellular material.

the Anistrpy. matrix at ~ 2. • In SiC-reinforced aluminum for brake rotors. for example. Properties the combination of light weight. and stiffness (from the SiC Reuss. In this case the high strength is a Matls. toughness (from the Al Voigt.7 Mgm/m3). Hill • In Cu-Nb for high strength electrical conductors. Wood . additions) is not possible in either constituent by itself. Composite Applns. 9 Why Use Composites? [Man-made] • The basic reason for the use of composites is always the same: some combination of properties can be achieved Intro that is impossible in a monolithic material [for a given cost]. synergistic property of the composite. combination of >1 GPa yield strength and high electrical CTE conductivity (in the Cu) could never be achieved in either Cellular constituent by itself.

followed by Cellular fiber composites. Woven structures are the Matls. as Intro compared to monolithic materials. Laminates are next. Hill Anistrpy. • The simplest composites are particulate CTE composites. Properties Voigt. • Therefore there must be a strong motivation for Reuss. making a composite structure to offset the cost. most complex. Wood . 10 Examinable Key aspects of composites • Composites are expensive to make. be controlled. especially if Composite the shape and arrangement of the phases must Applns.

The three major [structural] material Reuss. 11 Examinable Typical Microstructures • We show next some typical microstructures. Intro • In biomaterials. Matls. dense. Applns. Wood . many are cellular composites at Composite some length scale (typically around 1 µm). [metal matrix composite]. Properties • Man-made composites are more often fully Voigt. CMC [ceramic matrix CTE composite]. and PMC [polymer matrix composite] Cellular are commonly used. types are all used so the abbreviations MMC Hill Anistrpy.

difference to their CTE properties. 12 Cellular Biomaterials Note the variation in Intro density. Properties Voigt. Cellular Matls. woods. Wood Gibson & Ashby: Cellular Solids . Note also that the Reuss. shape of the cells and Hill their walls makes a Anistrpy. also the presence of distinct Composite layers of cells in some Applns. and in bone.

basic type of fiber- reinforced composite is Properties strongly anisotropic. Voigt. adhesion between fiber CTE and matrix is discussed Cellular in the lecture on Matls. and Intro the use of fibers for Composite reinforcement. Wood SiC fibers in a CAS ceramic matrix Dowling: Mech. Behavior Materials . composites and the Hill need for limited Anistrpy. This Applns. 13 Man-made Examples Note the typical length scale of ~100µm. Fracture. The toughness of such SiC fibers in Ti3Al matrix Reuss.

Hill see below) Anistrpy. CTE Cellular Matls. top Intro to bottom: Composite a) Bread Wood Jaffa: thetastingbuds. 14 Food! From left to right. b) Meringue c) Chocolate bar Properties d) Chip Voigt.jpg . f) Jaffa cake ( Gibson & Ashby: Cellular Solids Maltesers image: commons. e) Malteser (Candy) Reuss.wikimedia.

15 Food for Thought! • How does ice cream represent a material in which Intro the thermal-mechanical history is critical to its Composite microstructure which. cream. CTE Cellular Matls. voids) and Hill particle coarsening (the ice). composite materials (ice. controls its Applns. • Hint: this involves both the properties of Reuss. Anistrpy. Wood . properties? Properties Voigt. in turn.

Applns. • It is more complex than it appears. Thus reinforced concrete Voigt. and fiber because the steel rods reinforce the Cellular concrete. 16 Examinable Examples of composites • The classical example of a composite is concrete. . This is an Composite example of a particulate composite. • Ordinary concrete (properly made) has excellent compressive Properties strength but poor tensile strength. particulate because the aggregate (coarse gravel) reinforces the CTE cement. There are typically coarse Intro and fine particles (rocks!) embedded in a matrix of silicates and sulfates. There is a high fraction of pores of all sizes. See following slides on residual stresses. It is Anistrpy. Matls. compressive strength of concrete. was invented to combine the tensile strength of steel with the Reuss. This is an example of a Hill multiscale particulate and fiber reinforced composite. • A subtle but very important variant of reinforced concrete is Wood pre-stressed concrete in which the reinforcing rods are placed in tension before the concrete is allowed to set.

17 Glass-ceramics • Glass ceramics are useful materials that combine chemical Intro inertness with thermal stability. • Typical phase mixture includes lithium silicate(s). . They typically are Composite stronger than amorphous glasses. a relatively high CTE with values intermediate between ceramics (typically low) and metals CTE (typically high). nickel alloys). material (insulator) that would have a good match for the Reuss. steel. Wood cristobalite and residual glass phase. Cellular Matls. Applns. i.e. Hill thermal expansion characteristics of metals (stainless Anistrpy. • This material class was invented (by the Sandia National Properties Laboratories) for the specific purpose of making a Voigt.

monolithic materials. Cellular Matls. Wood Gibson & Ashby: Cellular Solids . Reuss. The Anistrpy. and densities than fully Hill dense materials. Foams Properties permit much smaller moduli Voigt. 18 Examinable Property Ranges A much wider range of Intro properties is possible in Composite composites than in Applns. following chart illustrates a CTE few basic properties.

d displacement KIC fracture toughness [plane strain] Wood P load x position (or location. B. rs. C phases A and B. Composite VA volume fraction of phase A PA property of phase A Intro EA (Young’s) modulus of phase A Composite C (average) strain in composite Applns. 19 Examinable Notation A. rcell cell wall density Hill r* relative density (cellular material) Anistrpy. A stress in phase A K bulk modulus Properties G shear modulus Voigt. a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) Reuss. l length (of a beam) CTE t thickness Cellular b depth Matls. in a material) .

The average property of the Voigt. composite is then given by. often considerably in error and better methods Wood are required. • Define the volume fractions. of the various materials Properties comprising the composite. It is. V. . however. CTE • The Rule of Mixtures is an acceptable first approximation Cellular for estimating composite material properties. Matls. discrete: PC = VAPA + VBPB + … = S ViPi Hill continuum: PC = ∫ P(x)dV Anistrpy. Reuss. 20 Examinable Simple Models: Rule of Mixtures • What is the simplest model that can be used to predict a material property in a composite? Intro Answer: Rule of Mixtures Composite Applns.

bounds • There are some circumstances under which one would like to be able to make quantitative predictions of the Intro properties of a composite but an exact solution is not Composite Applns. can demonstrate that an either an upper or a lower (or CTE both) bound exists for a given structure and loading. Cellular • An upper bound means that the value of the property Matls. Properties • Under these circumstances. cannot go any higher than a certain value and vice versa Wood for a lower bound. known as bounds because they are the result of analysis Hill using the principles of solid mechanics. it is still possible to set Voigt. available. In a formal sense these limits are Reuss. . limits on the property. Such analysis Anistrpy. 21 Examinable Limits.

thermal expansion. 22 Examinable Exact versus bounds • Exact solutions are usually available for simple Intro geometries. especially those Reuss. Hill with cracks fall in this category. Matls. Anistrpy. Most particulate composites. we are seeking methods for Wood averaging a property over the heterogeneous elements of the microstructure. Applns. Reinforced concrete with parallel rods is Composite such an example. • In the most general sense. strength. estimate. . • Complex geometries are almost always limited to Properties approximate solutions and bounds provide the best Voigt. • The most interesting properties for this lecture are CTE those associated with mechanical behavior such as Cellular stiffness.

Properties assumption that the phases are subject to the Voigt. isostrain • “Iso-” is a prefix meaning “same”. Reuss. Matls. Wood . isostrain makes the Applns. Hill • Each assumption leads to very different results. Anistrpy. Isostress is an Intro assumption that the phases experience the Composite same stress. 23 Examinable Isostress. same strain. especially when the properties of each phase CTE are divergent. By contrast. as we see from the example of Cellular the brick and the foam.

• Composite modulus. is therefore the Matls. and modulus EA. EC? Hill • We assume isostrain because Anistrpy. Cellular • The strain. Phase B has Properties volume fraction VB and modulus Phase A EB. 24 Examinable Isostrain • Imagine parallel slabs of material between platens that apply a Intro load. field. the stress is the response Wood (and the stiffness is the property). . Phase B Voigt. each phase sees the same CTE change in length. Composite • Phase A has volume fraction VA Applns. = C. Reuss.

25 Examinable Isostrain: 2 • Each phase gives a different stress: A=EA C. • The modulus is the ratio of the stress to Phase B Reuss. the strain in the composite: Hill EC = C/ C = VAEA + VBEB Anistrpy. • This modulus is thus the arithmetic mean CTE of the moduli of each phase. B=EB C. stiffnesses. the rule of Cellular mixtures has been applied to the Matls. • We average the stresses over the Intro composite in proportion to the volume Composite Applns. Phase A Voigt. . weighted by the volume fractions. In effect. fraction of the phase: Properties C=VAA+ VBB = VAEA C + VBEB C. Wood • Exercise: prove to yourself that this can be extended to any number of phases.

volume fraction VB and modulus Properties EB. Voigt.  = C. Cellular Matls. Phase B has Phase A Applns. . Hill • We assume isostress because each phase sees the same stress Anistrpy. EC? Phase B Reuss. Intro • Phase A has volume fraction VA Composite and modulus EA. 26 Examinable Isostress • Imagine parallel slabs of material between platens that apply a load. (assuming same cross-sectional CTE area). • The stress. • Composite modulus. is therefore the field. the strain is the Wood response (and the compliance is the property).

Anistrpy. compliances: CTE 1/EC = C/C = VA/EA + VB/EB Cellular • The composite modulus is thus the Matls. composite as before. C=VAA+ VB B = VAC/EA + VBC/EB. • We average the strains over the Intro composite in proportion to the volume Composite fraction of the phase: Applns. i. harmonic mean of the moduli of each Wood phase. . B= C/EB. except that it is Phase B Hill easier to work with inverse moduli.e. 27 Examinable Isostress: 2 • Each phase gives a different strain: A= C/EA. of the stress to the strain in the Reuss. weighted by the volume fractions. In effect. Phase A Properties • The modulus of the composite is the ratio Voigt. the rule of mixtures has been applied to the compliances.

the particulate Reuss. Cellular however. composite is close to the isostress. isostrain estimate. The fiber composite corresponds very closely to the Voigt. Wood “Structural Materials”. the two estimates differ widely. • Note how the isostress and isostrain Anistrpy. isostrain happens to be the same as Matls. and Composite series to isostress]. the Rule of Mixtures. • Here. When the CTE moduli differ by an order of magnitude. Hill although not quite so precisely. (b) an example of the Applns. Weidemann. measured difference in modulus of Cu-W composites. 28 Examinable Example of Cu-W Composites • The graphs show (a) examples of the difference in the calculated modulus Intro based on the 2 different assumptions [parallel is equivalent to isostrain. Lewis and Reid . contrasting wire [=fiber] with Properties particle reinforcement. estimates are similar when the moduli differ by only a factor of two.

• We can also treat the composite property (for elastic modulus) in Hill terms of an arithmetic mean (isostrain) versus a harmonic mean Anistrpy. Reuss. Hence the average of the Isotress and Voigt. Intro • The isostrain approach is known as the Voigt modulus. Milton and several others. Nemat-Nasser. description of the Hashin-Shtrikman estimates of modulus. 29 Examinable Voigt. • The isostress approach is known as the Reuss modulus. Isostrain values is known as the Hill Average Modulus. There are Wood also textbooks by Mura. Composite Applns. • Hill proposed that a reasonable average of the two would be appropriate in materials where the loading is intermediate between Properties the two extreme cases. (isostress). Cellular • Are there better estimates? Yes. Hill • These simple estimates of modulus have names associated with them. which is the reciprocal of the average of the reciprocal CTE values. look in the Supplemental slides for a Matls. Reuss. .

• You may be asked to rationalize deviations of measured modulus Hill values from calculated ones by considering microstructure. example. Reuss. For Anistrpy. to plot the Voigt. 30 Examinable Homework Questions • No worked example is provided here on the iso-strain and iso-stress models. Intro • Examples were quoted of theoretical combinations of materials and Composite for Cu-W. SiC in Al) has higher modulus than you compute from the iso-stress model. results (linear or log scale) and to compare against experimental data. • Homework/exam questions are likely to ask you to calculate modulus Properties values at different volume fractions (of two phases). then this may be because the particles are not Cellular perfectly dispersed and they form networks through inter-particle Matls. e. Wood . Applns. contacts.g. if a particulate composite (with stiff particles in a compliant CTE matrix.

for field quantities such as stress or strain. Hill • The next simplest approach to computing the properties Anistrpy. often with different material types. • The simplest way to estimate properties is to use the Rule Properties of Mixtures. The iso-strain model Matls. glass (ceramic) as a stiffening Intro reinforcement in epoxy (polymer). 31 Examinable Summary: Part 1 • Composites are man-made mixtures of phases. depending on Reuss. For CTE the example of elastic modulus. Composite Applns. happens to give the same result as the Rule of Mixtures Wood but has a physical basis. boundary conditions. of a composite is to look for upper and lower bounds. e. the iso-strain and iso- Cellular stress models were developed. Such simple volume averaging is also valid Voigt. .g.

• We also examine the anisotropy of composite CTE materials. but the cell walls are themselves composite Properties Voigt. • Wood is a natural example of a cellular material. about composite structures. 32 Examinable Part 2 • In this Part. we consider the properties of wood. Reuss. Wood . Hill Anistrpy. structures. partly as a way of tying together what Cellular we learned about anisotropy with what we learn Matls. Intro • Wood is a multiscale composite material. in the Composite sense that it is self-evidently a cellular material Applns.

of wood. 8. There are also radial structures known as with its own characteristic lay-up angle of the micro- fibrils. resistant to pests. which makes it stronger and more 9. In particular. with parallel to the grain than across the grain. walls contain lignin. the angle between the microfibrils Hill “rays”. the cell size sensitivity to moisture. How does elastic modulus depend on density in wood? 2. See the Voigt. comment on its Cellular 6. What is the structure of the cell walls? There are several correlated with stiffness. layers and cell organization (“grain”). What makes wood a multiscale composite material? Wood is strongly with the mechanical properties of wood? a multiscale composite material because there is identifiable Properties such as modulus. Cells are 10. What are “rings” in wood? As noted above. 33 Questions & Answers for Part 2 7. .Explain the structure of cell walls in wood. 13. What is the macrostructure of wood? Wood contains highly matrix of hemicellulose and lignin. wood is a cellular material and deforms primarily via bending of the cell walls. layers. S2 & S3 layers. and the axial direction in the S2 layer is strongly anti- 5. elongated cells. Increased moisture content increases stiffness and Wood each ring corresponds to one year. Certain components of the Matls. Anistrpy. varies during the year with larger diameter cells during times of rapid growth. Several layers are present in the cell wall. What distinguishes wood from other plants? The main difference between wood and other plants is that its cell density squared across the grain (radial or circumferential). different layups of the microfibrils.Describe the anisotropy of the mechanical properties there is a “middle lamella” that contains most of the lignin. each Reuss. varies on an annual basis which means that a cross-section wood (esp.Based on the chemistry of wood. The variations in strength. strength and fracture structure at the scale of filaments. cellulose) are hydrophilic and absorb water. that define the “grain” of wood.Why does the modulus vary faster than linear across cell size also reveal changes in local climate. What are the main chemical components of wood? Wood Intro contains mostly cellulose (in various forms) and lignin. deposited on a nearly continuous basis but their diameter notes. outside of which 11. Each microfibril is a bundle of cellulose fibers in a Properties 4. 12. What microstructural characteristic correlates most 1. there are the S1. which permits the age of a tree to be estimated with good reliability. Explain the structure and components of micro-fibrils. Applns. the grain? Crucially. microfibrils. There is a Primary outer layer (P). The elastic modulus varies either in proportion to density for the axial/longitudinal direction or with the Composite 3. Wood is much stiffer. through a trunk reveals what look like rings in the structure. cell wall toughness correlate most strongly with density. stronger and tough CTE Inside the P layer.

The long direction of the cells is the axial or longitudinal direction. The “Rays” are aligned with Wood the radial direction. Properties Voigt. This variation in cell size CTE produces the characteristic “rings” that indicate the age of the wood Cellular because of the yearly cycle in cell size (and the magnitudes of the cell Matls. 34 Examinable Wood: Macro-structure Intro Composite Applns. summer) to Latewood (summer-autumn). Follow a ring around the trunk and this is the circumferential or tangential direction. . sizes correlate with climatic conditions). Hill • Note the variation in cell size during the year from Earlywood (spring- Anistrpy. Reuss.

Wood . • T: transverse T-L R-L Reuss. sections Properties Voigt. 35 Examinable Wood: Microstructure T-R • Columbian Intro pine - Composite 3 orthogonal Applns. (vertical in both CTE Cellular images) Matls. R: radial Hill L: longitudinal Anistrpy.

linings of the cell walls is critical for both structural properties and for Wood wood’s (relative) insensitivity to environment. other critical component of wood is lignin. which occurs C Hill as a (mostly) crystalline fiber. D amorphous material containing CTE phenyl groups. Lignin sets wood apart from other plants. The figure illustrates the hierarchy of length scales from Properties the atomic structure of cellulose (A) to the structure of a tree trunk Voigt. which is a complex. wood is the polymer of glucose known as cellulose. The basic building block of Reuss. however. 36 Examinable E Wood: multiscale It is important to understand wood as a cellular. visual scale. It is one. A B . The Anistrpy. its Cellular occurrence in the outer and inner Matls. that has several F different length scales from that of Intro the cellulose molecule to the macrostructure of lumber as we Composite accustomed to looking at it at the Applns. (E). composite structure.

Voigt. fibers at 10-30°. Therefore it is a fiber-reinforced composite! The P layer is 5 % of the thickness with Intro random fiber directions. Wood . the S3 layer is 1 %. the axis. some of which are used for transporting water (but not all). the S2 layer is 85 %. C Hill Anistrpy. Each cell is a Properties long tube.r. the S1 layer is 9 % with fibers at 50-70° w. CTE Cellular Matls.t. on the microfibril angle in the Outer Wall. Note the dependence of the tensile strength Applns. with Composite fibers at 90° to the axis. labeled “S1”. each of which is a bundle of cellulose fibers in a matrix of hemicellulose and lignin. 37 Examinable Wood: cell structure • Each cell wall contains microfibrils. Reuss.

where n~104. CTE Cellular Matls. Each set of microfibrils forms a bundle that is itself a structural member of the wall of a cell Composite (next slide). A Hill Anistrpy. are organized in bundles (together with lignin surrounding the fibers) Intro called microfibrils whose size is about 10 nm. B Reuss. Applns. (C6H10O5)n. Voigt. • Soft woods have longer cellulose fibers than hardwoods (which Properties matters to the manufacture of paper). Wood . 38 Examinable Wood: Microfibril structure • The filaments or fibers of cellulose.

htm] Voigt. Reuss. polymerization (DP).paperonweb. CTE Cellular Matls. and linear polymer of repeating beta-D-glucopyranose units. It is the main structural Intro element and major constituent of the cell wall of trees and plants. Properties [http://www. Composite The empirical formula for cellulose is (C6H10O5)n where 'n' is degree of Applns. Wood . 39 Wood: Constituents: Cellulose • Cellulose: a high molecular weight. Hill Anistrpy.

40 Examinabl Cellular Materials: Young’s Modulus e • Taking wood as an example. æ r ö 2 Hill E transverse µ E cell ç ÷ Anistrpy. it is found empirically that the moduli vary with (relative) density Intro anisotropically. The theoretical Wood prediction goes as (rrcell)3. [Gibson & Ashby: Cellular Materials] . è rcell ø CTE • Note the discrepancy between the Cellular empirical equation and the slope Matls. Reuss. in the plot. Composite Applns. r Properties E axial µ E cell r cell Voigt.

Hill • The first equation Anistrpy. Reuss. æ r ö2 Composite we have to consider E transverse µ E cell ç ÷ (2) Applns. 41 Wood: Young’s Modulus r E axial µ E cell (1) • To understand what controls the elastic modulus r cell Intro (Young’s modulus) of wood. . Voigt. the volume average of the area fraction occupied by Wood cell wall. quantifies the idea that the CTE tensile modulus of wood Cellular parallel to the grain is just Matls. bending of the cell walls in è rcell ø Properties the microstructure.

When wood is loaded across the Reuss. grain. arrive at the functional dependence of equation 2.than the axial modulus. The reason for this Properties can be understood very simply in terms of the Voigt. This Hill response can be quantified by use of beam theory to Anistrpy. CTE Cellular Matls.with the square of the Applns. • The second equation (modulus transverse to the Intro grain) is more subtle and states that the elastic Composite modulus varies more rapidly . cellular structure. density . the cell walls bend like miniature beams. contd. 42 Wood: Modulus. Wood .

CTE • The variation in modulus with relative density is linear in Cellular the axial direction but varies as the square of the relative Matls. as a cellular material. Wood • In part 2B. • The elastic properties of wood are highly anisotropic: Reuss. more usefully. Hill wood is stiffer in the axial direction and more compliant Anistrpy. Composite • The cell walls of wood are themselves composite Applns. 43 Summary: Part 2A • Wood can be understood as a composite material or. in the transverse direction. Intro • Wood is a multi-scale composite material. structures. density in the transverse direction. we introduce beam bending theory to quantify these effects. Voigt. . Properties • Even the fibers in the cell walls are also composites.

44 2B: Introduction to beam theory • Consider a 3-point beam with length. at which the stress is zero. l: supported at either end and loaded in the center with a force. F. I y R For a force. d max is : l 2 l 2 M l 2 Fl /4 l 3F 3Fl 3 dmax = = = = = 8R 8EI 8EI 32EI 8Ewt 3 [Dowling] . and below it is tensile. above this it is compressive. so s/y is a constant : M =s y òy 2 dA = s y I y= t CTE y= 0 Thus this double equality is true : Cellular M s E = = Matls. M : t ò y= t M= s y dA Voigt. s Ee E(y /R) E = = = Hill y y y R This shows that stress varies linearly with y Anistrpy. n. The most important point is that there is a neutral point in the beam. at the center of the beam Wood the maximum deflection. y= 0 Stress varies linearly with strain : Reuss. The stress is proportional to distance from the neutral Intro plane. I : w Applns. Composite Moment of Inertia. I=ò y= 0 y= t wt 3 y 2 dA = 12 Properties dmax Moment on the beam. F.

that I = wt3/12 . Matls. . d. so for w=t.e. = l2. i. is the displacement.  = d / l = F l3/ 32 l EcellI = F l2 / 32 EcellI. CTE Cellular The strain. divided by the cell length. . d. Anistrpy. Applns. Hill multiplied by area. Reuss. I = t4/12). is given by standard beam theory (see previous slide) as Composite d = F l3/ 32EcellI. the cell wall) and I is the bending moment which is proportional to t4 (recall Voigt. The deflection. of a beam of length l and thickness t. under a load Intro F.e. F =  l2. Properties where Ecell is the Young’s modulus of the beam material (i. The force is stress. Wood . 45 Beam theory applied to wood • The mechanical behavior can be modeled by a framework of beams.

46 Wood: modulus. 2 as the ratio of stress to strain. contd. ( l 32E cell Il) s l 2 3 ( l) CTE Cellular = 32E cell I 4 Matls. for w=t. Hill = s Anistrpy. ( 32E cell Il) Fl 3 Reuss. Intro Composite E transverse = s e Applns. • Thus we can obtain Eq. Properties = s Voigt. I = t4/12 ( ) 4 Wood E transverse = 8 3 E cell t l .

C”~1. easy-to-understand Hill approach. Etransverse = C” Ecell r2. Composite Applns. based on experimental data). Anistrpy. which is closer to the actual structure of Cellular wood. • But we also relate the density to the cell dimensions by writing r  (t/l)2 and obtain Eq. derived here. Properties • Note that this derivation is a general one for open-celled Voigt. not (rrcell)2 as Matls. shows a dependence on (rrcell)3. contd. • Note that the theory for closed-celled foams (see CTE supplemental slides). Wood . 2 (where the proportionality Intro constant. Woods have more complex structures than the open cell model which helps to explain the scatter in the data. Reuss. foams and happens to be a simple. 47 Wood: modulus.

that Cellular the properties vary markedly with direction. is limited by bending and plastic hinge behavior of the Hill cellular structure. Matls. i. The lower the density. 48 Wood: strength r s axial µ s cell r cell æ r ö2 s transverse µ s cell ç ÷ Intro è r cell ø Composite Applns. Voigt. however. hence the linear dependence on density. Reuss. Anistrpy. hence the quadratic dependence on density. wood is much stronger and stiffer along the grain than across the Wood grain. • Here. The axial Properties modulus is determined by the area fraction of cell wall material. More succinctly. The transverse strength.e. the story is very similar to that of modulus. the more obvious the difference. The difference between axial and transverse properties is so great for both modulus and most other mechanical properties that it is CTE always necessary to be aware of the anisotropy of wood. .

propagation of secondary cracks perpendicular to Cellular the primary crack. including fiber pull-out. Again. 10. 49 Wood: fracture toughness More detailed figure available in Gibson & Ashby. Matls. . there are many different directions and planes for crack Wood propagation in this anisotropic material which further increases the variability of the toughness. by a factor of ~ 10! More than one CTE microstructural feature contributes to the high transverse toughness. is much easier than transverse. regardless of direction. and elongation of the polymer chains in the cell walls. fig. The crucial point is that propagating a crack parallel to the grain Anistrpy. the result is given without proof that the cellular Hill structure leads to a 3/2 exponent in the density dependence. • For fracture toughness.17 Intro KIC:axial  KICcell (rrcell)3/2 Composite Applns. KICtransverse  KICcell (rrcell)3/2 Properties KICtransverse » KIC:axial Voigt. Reuss.

Composite • The bound form of water strongly affects Applns. Voigt. 50 Wood: moisture content • Water is found in wood both in chemically bound Intro form. The FSP is about 28 % of the fully dry CTE wood. • The “fiber saturation point” is the water content Hill that corresponds to saturation of the bound Anistrpy. Cellular Matls. water. Reuss. Properties • The free water has only a minor effect. and stored in vessels (“lumin”). Wood . properties of all kinds.

modulus on Reuss. Properties • Dependence of Voigt. CTE • Compressive Cellular strength varies as Matls. depending on the local loading that the body puts on it. wood. 51 Bone • Similar strong sensitivity of properties to Intro moisture content Composite as observed for Applns. . density is less clear Hill even than for Anistrpy. the square of the density Wood Note: bone varies considerably in structure. wood.

Reviews.F. Composite Applns. 52 Future Composites • Carbon nanotube composites: currently based on polymer-nanotube materials. 31 (2004) . Reuss. Hill Anistrpy. PJ. Intl. Matls. Properties Voigt. 49. (c) TEM image of multiwalled nanotube (MWNT)-polystyrene Intro thin film composite. Harris. • (a) Nanotube types (b) TEM micrograph of nanotubes (note fringes in the walls indicating multiple walls). Wood “Carbon nanotube composites”. CTE Cellular Matls. but combinations of nanotubes with ceramics are being fabricated.

Wood .larc.htm - Composite shield design.msfc.html - 53 Impact Protection for Space Vehicles • http://hitf.nasa. Hill • Anistrpy. materials testing. Reuss.nasa.html use of Nextel as a shield CTE material. Applns. Cellular Matls.html Intro • http://see.jsc. Properties • http://oea.

• The cell walls of wood are themselves composite Properties structures. 54 Summary: Part 2B • Wood can be understood as a composite material or. Voigt. • Even the fibers in the cell walls are also composites. a similar dependence of modulus on Wood density.e. Intro Composite • Wood is a multi-scale composite material. as a cellular material. Applns. respects i. more usefully. . Cellular • Bone has properties that resemble wood in some Matls. Reuss. application of beam bending theory to the way in the cell CTE walls deform under load. Hill • We can estimate their properties based on the Anistrpy.

learned about tensor properties. • We also examine the anisotropy of the properties Reuss. which builds on what we Hill Anistrpy. CTE Cellular Matls. 55 Examinable Part 3 • In this Part. we consider the basic characteristics Intro of fibers for fiber composites. of composite properties. Properties Voigt. properties by exploiting residual stress. Wood . Composite • We examine how to engineer composite Applns.

• The basic idea is to take advantage of high strength and stiffness of the fibers and to obtain damage tolerance (and specific shapes) by embedding them in a suitable Properties matrix. the stress on each fiber varies along its length. This means that Anistrpy. More specifically. Also. Reuss. Applns. there should be a wide range of exciting materials possible. glass) is a material that Voigt. • Solid mechanics of fiber composites: the key to understanding the mechanical Hill properties of fiber composites (for fibers whose length is short compared to the size of the component) is load transfer between the matrix and the fibers. the composite materials are CTE strongly anisotropic (so tensors are useful again). Cellular • Modern developments: carbon nanotubes offer exceptional stiffness and strength. Ceramic composites are used typically for high temperature Composite service. such as heat exchangers.g. . would not generally be considered to be a structural material. 56 Examinable Fiber Composites • An important class of composites is that of fiber composites. See discussion in the supplemental slides. the fiber material (e. Carbon-fiber composites are used in higher performance structures such as airplanes where their higher cost is justified by Intro the requirements. Glass-fiber composite is typical in low-cost structures such as boat hulls. If we can figure out how to Wood separate out the various different conformations and how to align the nanotubes. • The materials involved may be metal. not Matls. to mention interesting electrical properties in some cases. ceramic or polymer. graphite.

dominated by volume by Hill carbon. Intro glass. boron. composite business is Reuss. glass and Anistrpy. aramid fibers because CTE they offer the best Cellular performance:price ratio. Applns. alumina. polyethylene. aramid. Wood “Mechanics of Fibrous Composites”. 57 Examinable Fibers for Polymer Matrix Composites • Many types of fibers are available: carbon. C. Composite silicon carbide. quartz.T. aluminosilicate. Herakovich . Properties • The polymer matrix Voigt. Matls.

• Internal structure consists of radially-aligned graphite CTE platelets. but greatest Hill range of properties. • Highest cost compared to glass or aramid. 58 Carbon Fibers • Modulus ranges from 200-750 GPa (compare with steel: 210 GPa) Intro Composite • Strength ranges from 2-6 GPa Applns. Reuss. Anistrpy.2 % Properties • Density ranges from 1. generally good (but then insulation required where metals Wood might be in contact for carbon-fiber composite). .2 .76.15 Voigt. Both thermal and electrical conductivity are Matls. which leads to some anisotropy in properties in Cellular the fibers.2. • Breaking strain ranges from 0.

• Modulus ranges from 70. Anistrpy.7-5 GPa Voigt. for example and higher Matls. Composite Applns. Just as in the Griffith experiments. strength. borosilicate glass] is the cheapest and CTE most common.5 gm/cc. 59 Glass Fibers • Glass fibers produced by spinning liquid glass directly to fine fibers.90 GPa. Properties • Strength ranges from 1. Hill • Density ~ 2. • “E glass” [electrical. • Breaking strain from 2 to 5% Reuss. the Intro strength is based on small diameter. “R glass” and “S glass” is more expensive Cellular but more corrosion resistant. Wood .

• Modulus ranges from 55-120 GPa Hill • Strength ranges from 3 to 3.5 to 4% CTE • Density ~ 1. Applns. polyparabenzamide or polyparaphenylene Intro terephthalamide. Reuss.6 GPa Anistrpy. Voigt.45 gm/cc. • Breaking strain ranges from 2. Composite • Polymer chains arranged in radially oriented. e.g. Wood . Cellular • Aramid fibers vulnerable to environmental degradation (sunlight). 60 Aramid Fibers • Aramid fibers are produced by drawing liquid crystal polymers based on. Matls. Bonding between the molecules is largely hydrogen bonding so the Properties transverse properties are weak compared to on-axis. Therefore difficult to propagate a crack along a fiber. kinked sheets.

Therefore one can assume in Composite beam loading that the stresses imposed by external loading can be added to the internal variations. Wood . Furthermore. is a fiber-reinforced composite with a brittle matrix (concrete) and a ductile fiber reinforcement (steel Properties bars or cable). For example. Matls. a difference in thermal expansion coefficient can produce Reuss. it shatters into many small but compact pieces that are far less hazardous than the typical shards of window glass. the average stress (and moment) must be zero because (Newton’s Laws) there must be no net force on it. a residual stress state in a composite. Such variable internal stresses are Intro often know as residual stresses because they are the left-over from previous processing. • The simplicity of elastic stresses is that they can be superimposed. if the windshield does break. • For fiber-reinforced materials. there are engineering applications. if the fiber has a smaller CTE and the composite is Hill cooled from a zero stress state at high temperature. A compressive residual stress near the surface(s) is balanced by a tensile residual CTE stress in the center. Reinforced concrete. • Safety Glass as commonly used for the windshields of cars rely on residual stress developed through heat treatment. 61 Examinable Residual Stresses and Composites • In a stationary body that is free of external loads. • The stress state inside the body. for example. Applns. The steel is typically held in tension during the setting-up of the concrete. Anistrpy. Voigt. putting the matrix in tension and the fibers in compression. for example. • As with all phenomena. can vary arbitrarily. however. resulting in a composite for which the steel is in a state of tension and the concrete is in compression. then the matrix shrinks more than the reinforcing fibers. the heat treatment is done in such a fashion as to develop a fine Cellular pattern so that.

The steel cables contract elastically but the concrete matrix resists the Applns. Steel remains in tension (did not shrink back to zero strain) whereas the Properties concrete is in compression to balance the tensile stress in the steel cables • http://structsource.e. beam? At the top? Bottom? Hill • Loading of Reinforced Concrete Beams: – As the beam is loaded (e. 62 Examinable Reinforced Concrete • Steps required: 1. Stretch reinforcing steel cables (i. • Question: is there an optimum location for the reinforcement within the Reuss. Matls. the concrete underneath the Anistrpy.g.htm . Fallingwater (image above). the stress remains compressive. Remove tensioning force from steel cables Composite 4. Pour concrete around the cables. plus the CTE tensile stress from the bending load. contraction 5. protecting against brittle failure. place them in tension) 2. Cellular • The composite is highly anisotropic. allow concrete to set Intro 3. • Famous example (local to Pittsburgh): the cantilevered terraces of Frank Wood Lloyd Wright’s house. 3-point bending). loading point experiences the sum of its residual compressive stress. For moderate loads. of course.

Wood Remove external load on steel. allow to set. 63 Examinable Pre-stressed Reinforced Concrete Remember: in the absence of external loads (tractions) the net stress in the material must be 0= ò s dV zero. compressive stress in concrete increases to balance the decreased tensile stress in the steel . Hill Anistrpy. Add concrete. Volume Intro Composite Applns. no stress in concrete CTE Cellular Matls. Reuss. Steel rod: large tensile stress from external load Properties Voigt.

9 = 133 Cellular MPa compressive stress in the concrete. what is the maximum tensile stress that it can withstand? Answer: apply the Griffith Eq. This residual compressive stress in Matls. • If the fracture toughness. what approximate tensile strength can you develop in the concrete via pre-stressing? Answer: assume that you can Anistrpy. Composite with the maximum flaw size as the crack size (since this represents the weak Applns. which suggests that the breaking stress = √{KIc/πc} = Properties √{2.1/0.28 kPa.5 GPa and you can stress the steel to 80% of its yield Hill (representing the safety factor). yield stress is 1.106 / π / 5. its Reuss. KIC. and Intro the maximum flaw size is 5 mm (based on the aggregate sizes). which is very small indeed. of concrete is measured to be 2 MPa√m. the concrete represents the maximum tensile stress that you can apply before you expect the concrete to break. which is balanced by 1500*0. Wood .8 CTE MPa tensile stress in the steel. • If the volume fraction of reinforcing steel in concrete is limited to 10%. neglect the inherent tensile strength. Assume that you can apply 1500 * 0. Voigt. 64 Examinable Homework Questions • A worked example is very simple in this case. link in the material).8*0.10-3} = 11.

Hill Anistrpy. (adapted) Properties Voigt. CTE Cellular Matls. 65 Examinable Anisotropy of Cell Wall De Graef Intro HW 4 Composite 2009 Applns. Wood . Reuss.

• This means that we can use the rule of mixtures CTE for the 3 phases that contribute to the Young’s Cellular modulus: Matls. the iso-strain model. Wood • The next step is to compute the moduli. Properties • Since we are looking at loading the material in the Voigt. C= V11 + V22 + V33 = V1E!C + V2E2C + V3E3C. . Hill Anistrpy. 66 Examinable Cell Wall: Young’s Modulus: Anisotropy • The first decision is which model to use. do we use iso-strain or Composite iso-stress? Applns. Intro • In this context it means. plane of the layers. then it is appropriate to use Reuss.

we need to use the reciprocal compliances. s11 = (c11+c12)/{(c11-c12)(c11+2c12)} Hill = (16+11)/{(16-11)(16+22)} Anistrpy.05789 Wood s44 = 1/c44 = 1/1 = 1. compliances (a simple exercise in algebra!).1421 CTE s12 = -c12/{(c11-c12)(c11+2c12)} Cellular = -11/{(16-11)(16+22)} Matls. Intro The relationships for s (compliance) in terms of c (stiffness) Composite are symmetrical to those for stiffnesses in terms of Applns. Reuss. = -0. = 0. Properties Voigt. . 67 Examinable S in terms of C In order to compute Young’s modulus.

(a1a2)2. of Hill which only the 1st term.1875.1421+0. for S1 Cellular the (a1a2)2 = cos2(60) cos2(30) = 0.05789-0. of compliances = 2*(0.s1 2 . it is easy because the value is zero. layer. For the S3 Anistrpy.3001. is non-zero.5)= -0.1033. The combination Matls. Reuss. 2 s1 1 . so only s11 is CTE used! For S2 (a1a2)2 = cos2(20) cos2(70) = 0.1 s4 4 a12 a 22 + a 22 a 23 + a 32a 12 Properties 2 Voigt. 68 Examinable Rotated compliance (matrix) • The standard relationship is as follows: Intro s1¢ 1 = s1 1 - ( ){ } Composite Applns. • Now we just need to specify the direction cosines. Wood .

Young’s Modulus • s11 for S1: 0. Wood . • Ecell = 1 / 0.1*0.111675 Anistrpy.3001 = 0.111675 = 8.1421 Intro • s11 for S2: 0.08585 = Reuss.1111 Composite Applns.1*0.1033*-0. 69 Examinable Compliance values.1111 + 0.1421 + 0.1421 + 0.954 CTE Cellular Matls.8*0.1421 + 0. Hill 0.3001 = 0. • s11 for S3: 0. • 1/Ecell = 0.08583 Properties • Make the volume-based average: Voigt.1875*-0.

say tetragonal symmetry. Properties Voigt. Wood . Hill Anistrpy. Intro as is more likely than cubic? Then the stiffness Composite tensor will take the following form. compliances rather than stiffnesses. 70 Cell Wall: Young’s Modulus: Anisotropy • What if the fibers have. Reuss. • Here the challenge is to invert the properties of a CTE Cellular tetragonal material so that we ought to use Matls. Applns.

• Next we need to find the formulae for the variation in s11 Wood with direction.s12). . substituted for c. c13 = -s13/s33 CTE c33 = (s11 + s12) /s . and vice versa. s = s33 (s11 + s12) . c44 = 1 / s44 . Composite • Inverting the compliance-stiffness relation. is Applns. This is found in Nye or Properties Newnham. The relationships are written out for c in Voigt.c12=1/(s11. • c11+ c12= s33 / s . c11. non-trivial for non-cubics. but they are symmetrical so s can be Reuss. Cellular Matls. 71 Tetragonal Fibers • Let’s further assume that the 4-fold symmetry axis is Intro parallel to the long direction of the fibers.2s213 . however. Hill Anistrpy. terms of s.

a 2 2 2 3 )( s 13 { + s44 ) + 2s16 a1 a 2 (a . than is possible Matls. Wood by aligning the fibers in only one direction. Hill • The computation is then similar but longer and Anistrpy. Properties Voigt. . or more compliant. contd.a 2 1 2 2 )} Reuss. 72 Tetragonal Fibers. +a (1 . as found in Nye: 11 ( 1 2) ( 12 44 ) 1 a 2 Intro Composite ¢ s11 = s a 4 + a 4 + s a 33 3 4 + s + s a 2 2 Applns. CTE • What emerges is the conclusion that the cell wall Cellular can be stiffer. more detailed. • Again.

Wood . supplemental slides. Further information on Hill anisotropy of composites can be found in the Anistrpy. we learned about the properties of Intro fiber-reinforced composites. 73 Examinable Summary: Part 3 • In this part. anisotropy of composites often is. and how to Properties Voigt. Composite • We also learned about how important the Applns. CTE Cellular Matls. represent that anisotropy in terms of tensor Reuss. properties of materials.

CTE Cellular Matls. we consider the basic characteristics Intro of cellular materials. 74 Examinable Part 4 • In this Part. materials as an example of the application of Properties Voigt. materials). composite properties for foams (cellular Reuss. Hill Anistrpy. Composite • We examine the problem of shock absorbing Applns. Wood .

Especially when load carrying capacity at very low densities is Properties required. Composite • Why study cellular materials? Answer: cellular materials provide Applns. Matls. used in transport applications. a range of properties that are not achievable in bulk materials. Voigt. only cellular materials can satisfy the requirements. Metal honeycombs are Anistrpy. Hill • Cellular structures are feasible (and used for engineering applications) with all materials types. Ceramic foams are used in CTE insulation. Shock resistance is also a vital characteristic of cellular materials. 75 Examinable Cellular Materials • This next section provides some basic information on cellular Intro materials. Reuss. shells…). Cellular structures are ubiquitous in biomaterials Cellular (wood. Wood . bone.

2a vs. absorbing structures (see Wood later slides) [Gibson & Ashby: Cellular Materials] .2e. 4.2b. 4. Reuss. 76 Examinable Honeycombs: properties • Note the contrast between tension and Intro compression (plateau Composite present). 4. • The stress-strain curves Hill are labeled by their Anistrpy. in compression. • Even brittle wall materials Properties exhibit progressive failure Voigt. characteristic stages. CTE • Very important Cellular consequences for energy Matls. Applns.

Hill Anistrpy. Composite Applns. Wood [Gibson] . CTE Cellular Matls. Properties Voigt. 77 Examinable Energy Absorption • Why are foams useful?! One reason is their Intro capacity to absorb energy. Reuss.

Reuss. Properties Voigt. Note the turn-over in the curve of energy versus stress: this is the most efficient use of Intro the material. Wood [Gibson] . Hill Anistrpy. for a particular relative density. 78 Examinable Energy Absorption: 2 • How do these two graphs connect? Each line on the 2nd graph correspond to a locus of points from the 1st graph. Composite Applns. CTE Cellular Matls.

Wood Note that. once the foam starts to densify (steep upturn in the stress- strain curve) then the stress rises with little increase in energy absorbed. 79 Examinable Energy Absorption: 3 During wall buckling. Wall Buckling Properties Voigt. Elastic CTE Cellular Matls. densification proceeds at a approximately constant external stress. Hill Anistrpy. . Reuss. Fully Densified Intro [Gibson] Composite Applns.

energy that can be absorbed Properties at the plateau stress. Varying the Composite density varies the maximum Applns. stress diagram by plotting only these envelopes. Wood [Gibson] . • We can draw an envelope Reuss. Voigt. through the points of Hill maximum energy ÷ plateau stress.4b).4a) can be re-plotted Intro as energy absorbed versus stress (8. 80 Examinable Energy Absorption: 4 • As seen before. the stress- strain (8. • Variations in other parameters CTE such as strain rate can also be Cellular shown on such an energy- Matls. Anistrpy.

U. =ma/A (Eq. Cellular Matls. A. . and the area of contact Composite between object and foam. also specified (as a multiple of gravitational acceleration. the mass of the object. Intro • Given the kinetic energy to be absorbed. it is possible to calculate the optimum thickness. g) which CTE determines the maximum stress. 2) Wood . and the peak deceleration. is given by Applns. where W is the energy absorbed per unit volume in the foam. Reuss. is Anistrpy. Properties t=U/WA (Eq. the thickness. 81 Examinable Shock Cushions • Once one knows the energy-stress characteristic of a material. Hill • Typically. 1) Voigt. t. m. a.

in the foam which affects Voigt.4c): Hill d/dt = v / t (Eq. a function of both stress and strain rate. 82 Examinable Shock Cushion: 2 • In addition. however. 4) Anistrpy. U. Intro U = m v2 / 2. Thus the thickness. d/dt. a drop height is specified which in turn sets the velocity. is. that must be absorbed. v. the energy-stress relationship (see Fig. 8. so some Wood iteration is required to identify a suitable thickness. The energy Matls. Reuss. . CTE • A good place to start is to identify the maximum allowable stress Cellular and read off the associated energy at a high strain rate. 3) Properties • This in turn specifies the strain rate. and the energy. is given by Composite Applns. t = m v2 / (2 W A) (Eq. t.

normalized = p/Es = 0. allowable force on package (10g deceleration). Solid modulus of polyeurethane foam. allowable peak stress. Composite Area of contact between object and foam: A = 0.5 m/s (drop height. Wood Gibson & Ashby: Table 8.0001 Cellular We use Gibson-Ashby. Reuss. Velocity of package on impact. F = ma = 50 N Hill Max.2. 231 . 83 Examinable Shock Cushion: 3 Worked Example Problem specification Intro Mass of packaged object: 500 gms. Es = 50 MPa CTE Max. fig. U = mv2/2 = 5 J Voigt. p. h = 1 m) Properties Energy to be absorbed.8 (next slide). v = 4. 8. 2). p = F/A = 5 kPa Anistrpy. Max.01 m2 Applns. Matls. allowable peak stress (Eq.

84 Gibson & Examinable

Shock Cushion: 4

To start working on the
problem, we have to make
Intro some rather arbitrary choices
Composite of thickness that bracket the
likely result.
Voigt, Choice of thickness, t: 1m 0.001 m
Reuss, Strain rate, d/dt=v/t (Eq 4): 4.5 s-1 4500 s-1
Energy/modulus (W/Es) at p/Es = 0.0001:
(Fig. 8.8) 5.25 10-5 7.4 10-5
Cellular Energy absorbed/unit volume: 2.62 kJ/m3 3.70 kJ/m3
Wood To complete the problem, we have to iterate on the thickness
until we converge on a self-consistent result.

85 Gibson & Examinable

Shock Cushion: 5

To continue with the problem,
Intro we re-calculate the
thicknesses from Eq. 1.
Voigt, Thickness, t = U/WA: 0.19 m 0.14 m
Reuss, Strain rate, d/dt=v/t (Eq 4): 24 s-1 32 s-1
Energy/modulus (W/Es) at p/Es = 0.0001:
(Fig. 8.8) 6.6 10-5 6.7 10-5
Cellular Energy absorbed/unit volume: 3.30 kJ/m3 3.35 kJ/m3
Clearly we have nearly converged, so we have to iterate on
the thickness one more time, using t = U/WA, which gives t=
150 mm and an optimum relative density = 0.01.

86 Examinable

Summary: Part 4
• Foams or cellular materials are an example of
Intro composite materials.
Composite • We developed an example of how cellular
materials are useful as shock cushions.
Voigt, • This lead to worked example of how calculate the
Reuss, optimum thickness of such as shock cushion.

Anistrpy. Voigt. • Careful optimization of the material with respect to all the Reuss. Intro Composite • Use of the composite approach enables much larger Applns. property requirements [for a given application] is Hill essential. • CTE of a composite can be estimated (supplementary CTE slides) from the CTEs of the constituent phases. variations in properties to be achieved within a given Properties material type. Cellular Matls. 87 Summary: Overall • Composite materials have been described with respect to their microstructure-property relationships. Wood .

L.M. ISBN 0521108063. Dowling (1999). E. USA. McGraw-Hill. K. Hadley (1993). 2009. G. Weaver. F. Wiley. Gordon.E. P.-T.F. Oxford University Press. • An Introduction to the Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers. Wood • The Theory of Composites.J. Properties Reid. Potter (1997). Ward and CTE D. T. Cellular ISBN0195068300. 88 References • Cellular Solids. Y. .W. Composite • Mechanical Behavior of Materials. Butterworth Heinemann. Gibson and M. edited by C. D. 3rd edition. N. 2001. 1992. Courtney (2000). S. ISBN 0521781256. I. edited by G. • Materials Principles & Practice. Boston. Applns. G. Lewis and N. Chiang. Nemat-Nasser. Prentice-Hall. W. • Mechanical Behavior of Materials. Wiley. • Plasticity: A Treatise on Finite Deformation of Heterogeneous Inelastic Materials. ISBN 0-412- 73690-X.D. Butterworth Heinemann. 0- Voigt. Hill • An Introduction of Composite Products. Chapman & Hall.P. • Structural Materials. Newey & G. • The New Science of Strong Materials. Ashby (1988). Matls. • Variational Methods in Mechanics. H. ISBN 0-08-036607-4. McGrawHill. Weidmann. Reuss.E. Dieter. Kingery (1997). 471-59873-9. Pergamon. Intro • Mechanical Metallurgy. Cambridge University Press. Princeton. J. Milton. • Physical Ceramics. Cambridge University Press. Anistrpy. ISBN 0-471-93887-4. Toshio Mura. Birnie III. New York.

Properties Voigt. Hill Anistrpy. Reuss. Applns. Wood . 89 Supplemental Slides • The following slides contain supplemental Intro material that will be of interest to those who are Composite curious to obtain more detail. CTE Cellular Matls.

K A (3KA + 4GA ) Cellular Matls. shear moduli GA Hill and GB. VB Klower = K A + CTE 1 3(1 . and Properties Voigt. Wood . • Notation: bulk moduli KA and KB. shear moduli. 90 Improved bounds • Upper and lower bounds for modulus have been Intro developed by Hashin & Shtrikman that narrow Composite the range between the two bounds. K. G. Anistrpy.VB ) + K B . Reuss. • Different formulae established for bulk. Applns.

+ Hill GB . CTE 1.KB (3K B + 4GB ) Applns.VB ) Reuss. Properties VB Glower = GA + Voigt. + Wood GA .GB 5GA (3KB + 4GB ) .GA 5GA (3KA + 4GA ) Anistrpy.VB Gupper = GB + Cellular 1 6(K B + 2GB )VB Matls. 1 6(K A + 2GA )(1 . 91 Hashin-Shtrikman 1 .VB Kupper = KB + 1 3VB Intro + Composite KA .

92 Examples • This example from Green’s text shows Intro how the bulk and Composite shear moduli vary with Applns. Anistrpy. Wood . Reuss. Matls. volume fraction for Properties two phases whose Voigt. moduli differ by a Hill factor of 10. • The result shows that CTE the H-S bounds are Cellular generally more useful.

not Properties because of the intrinsic properties of the Voigt. consider (a) a uniaxial composite CTE (e. Applns. Hill the components. 93 Anisotropy in Composites • The same methods developed in lecture 4 for Intro describing the anisotropy of single crystals can be Composite applied to composites. components but because of the arrangement of Reuss. Anistrpy. • As an example. • Anisotropy is important in composites. Matls. Wood . tennis racket handle) and (b) a flat panel Cellular cross-ply composite (e.g.g. wing surface).

CTE y Cellular Matls. 94 Fiber Symmetry z Intro Composite Applns. Properties Voigt. x Wood . Hill Anistrpy. Reuss.

95 Fiber Symmetry • We will use the same matrix notation for stress. é s11 s12 s13 0 0 0 ù Hill ê ú Anistrpy. stiffness and compliance as for single Composite crystals. Voigt. Intro strain. Reuss. has 5 independent Properties coefficients. s.s12 )û . ê0 0 0 0 s44 0 ú Wood ê ú ë0 0 0 0 0 2( s11 . • The compliance matrix. Applns. ê s12 s11 s13 0 0 0 ú CTE ê s13 s13 s33 0 0 0 ú ê ú Cellular ê0 0 0 s44 0 0 ú Matls.

Matls. stresses applied perpendicular to z give Cellular rise to different moduli and Poisson’s ratios. s1 1 -s -s Wood E1 = = . Poisson’s ratio as: Reuss. e3 s33 è ezz ø CTE • Similarly. s3 1 æ s zz ö Intro E3 = = ç= ÷ e 3 s33 è e zz ø Composite Applns. • This stress causes strain in the transverse plane: Properties e11 = e22 = s1233. n 31 = 13 e1 s11 s11 s11 . e1 s13 æ exx ö Hill n13 = = ç= ÷ Anistrpy. 96 Relationships • For a uniaxial stress along the z (3) direction. Therefore we can calculate Voigt. n 21 = 12 .

compliance coefficients: Hill s66 = 2(s11-s12) = 1/Gxy Anistrpy. • Similarly the torsional modulus is related to Intro shears involving the z axis. CTE Cellular Matls. i. • Shear in the x-y plane is related to the other Reuss. contd. Properties Voigt.e. yz or xz shears: Composite s44 = s55 = 1/G Applns. 97 Relationships. Wood .

98 Plates: Orthotropic Symmetry • Again. stiffness and compliance as for Composite single crystals. • The compliance matrix. strain. é s11 s12 s13 0 0 0ù Hill ê ú Anistrpy. Reuss. ê s12 s22 s23 0 0 0ú CTE ê s13 s23 s33 0 0 0ú ê ú Cellular ê0 0 0 s44 0 0ú Matls. Applns. Voigt. has 9 independent Properties coefficients. we use the same matrix notation for Intro stress. ê0 0 0 0 s55 0ú Wood ê ú ë0 0 0 0 0 s66 û . s.

Reuss. Properties Voigt. has 6 independent coefficients. ê0 0 0 0 s44 0ú Wood ê ú ë0 0 0 0 0 s66 û . ê s12 s11 s13 0 0 0ú CTE ê s13 s13 s33 0 0 0ú ê ú Cellular ê0 0 0 s44 0 0ú Matls. s. Applns. é s11 s12 s13 0 0 0ù Hill ê ú Anistrpy. Composite • The compliance matrix. 99 Plates: 0° and 90° plies • If the composite is a laminate composite with fibers laid in at 0° and 90° in equal thicknesses then the symmetry is Intro higher because the x and y directions are equivalent.

tremendously with direction. 100 Anisotropy: Practical Applications • The practical applications of anisotropy of Intro composites. very important in car bodies. Torsional rigidity is Reuss. Applns. • The stiffness of fiber composites varies Properties Voigt. CTE • Even in monolithic polymers (e. because of the alignment of the long-chain Wood molecules. aeroplanes Hill etc. especially fiber-reinforced Composite composites are numerous. boats. Anistrpy. drawn Cellular polyethylene) there exists large anisotropy Matls. .g.

• Consider loading in Hill the x direction: each Anistrpy. 101 Closed Cell Wall Bending • LHS: response to compressive loading in Intro the x direction. is Wood P = 1(h + l sin q)b [Gibson: Cellular Materials] . Voigt. Composite Applns. RHS: response to Properties compressive loading in the y direction. 4. Reuss.8b . Matls. P. The load.see fig. oblique segment CTE experiences bending Cellular at each end.

M. M = P l sinq / 2 Hill Anistrpy. resolved on the y (vertical) direction Applns. on the segment: Reuss. • The deflection. I = bt3 / 12 Wood . must be zero in order to satisfy equilibrium. • The moment. C. Composite • The force. d. Properties Voigt. and Young’s Modulus Es. Intro thickness t. depth b. 102 Modulus(relative density) • Treat each segment as a beam of length l. of the segment: CTE d = P l3 sinq / 12EcellI Cellular where I is the second moment of inertia: Matls.

Reuss. t Regular honeycomb: Wood b: depth of cell h = l. Hill h Anistrpy. q = 30° (out-of-plane) r*/rs = 2t/√3l . 103 Cell Geometry (general hexagonal) relativedensity= r* = ( t l )( h l + 2) r s 2 cos q ( h l + sin q ) h+lsinq l Intro Composite x2 or y Applns. q Properties Voigt. CTE x1 Cellular Matls.

Reuss. l cos q 12EsI cos q Hill s1 E1 æ t ö cos q 3 Anistrpy. Thus the strain is: Composite Applns. Wood . d sin q s 1( + q ) q 2 2 Properties h l sin bl sin e1 = = Voigt. 104 Modulus(relative density): E1 • We need the component of the deflection that is Intro parallel to the X axis. E1 = \ =ç ÷ CTE e1 Es è l ø ( h l + sin q ) sin 2 q Cellular Matls. d sinq.

h + l sin q 12EsI ( h + l sin q ) Hill s2 E2 æ t ö ( h l + sin q ) 3 Anistrpy. Wood . 105 Modulus(relative density): E2 • The modulus in the perpendicular direction is Intro similar. Reuss. Properties d cos q s 2bl cos q 4 4 e2 = = Voigt. Composite Applns. E2 = \ =ç ÷ CTE e2 Es è l ø cos q 3 Cellular Matls.

Reuss. E1 / Ecell = E2 / Ecell = 2.3 (t/l)3 Properties Voigt.3 (rrcell)3 Wood .3 (t / l). We already established that the relative density for Hill a regular hexagon is Anistrpy. the reduced moduli in the Intro two directions are the same: Composite Applns. 106 Modulus(relative density): regular hex For regular hexagons. 2/√3 (t / l) ~ 2. E1 / Ecell = E2 / Ecell = 2. so we can write: CTE Cellular Matls.

Properties Voigt. Wood . Reuss. 107 Wood Deformation Intro Composite Applns. CTE Cellular Matls. Hill Anistrpy.

108 Moisture. Properties Voigt. CTE Cellular Matls. Hill Anistrpy. CTE Intro Composite Applns. Reuss. Wood .

Properties Voigt. CTE Cellular Matls. Hill Anistrpy. 109 Wood: anisotropy Intro Composite Applns. Reuss. Wood .

Properties c = mVm + fVf Voigt. Anistrpy. Reuss. 110 Strength of Fiber Composites • Just as for modulus. Matls. for example. the fiber reinforcement is often CTE quite brittle compared to the matrix (e. the simplest model for composite strength is the Rule of Mixtures. Wood • The brittleness of the fibers limits the strain that can be applied to a composite. . SiC fibers in Ti). Composite Applns.g. where m is the tensile Intro strength of the matrix. • A better model takes account of the actual stress-strain Hill characteristics of the component phases. • In MMCs. graphite fibers Cellular in Mg.

Reuss. c = mVm CTE Cellular Matls. then the broken fibers no Composite longer support load and their strengthening Applns. Hill Anistrpy. contribution is lost. the strength is Properties just this: Voigt. In this case. 111 Ductile matrix + brittle fibers • If the composite is deformed beyond the breaking Intro strain of the fibers. Wood .

c = mVm + fVf Wood . *f . contd. Under these conditions. Voigt. m m f Properties which corresponds to the failure strain. The matrix then fails at a (constant) Intro stress. matrix at the failure strain of the fibers. The strength of the CTE composite then increases with volume fraction of Cellular reinforcing fibers and is given by: Matls. Reuss. • At high enough volume fractions. the strength of the composite is an Hill average of the strength of the fibers and the strength of the Anistrpy. of the fibers.   = E * . however. the hardening in the matrix is exhausted before the failure strength of the fibers is reached. 112 Ductile matrix + brittle fibers. Composite Applns.

Properties Voigt. • A minimum volume fraction of fibers is required in order for the Intro strength of the fiber composite to exceed that of the matrix. contd. c = mVm + fVf Reuss. 113 Ductile matrix + brittle fibers. CTE Cellular Matls. Composite Applns. Hill c c = mVm Anistrpy. • Thus there is a cross-over between the two types of behavior. Wood 0 Vf 1 .


Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
• The next section relates the coefficient of thermal
Intro expansion (CTE) to the microstructure of
Composite composites, using glass-ceramics as an example.


CTE versus modulus
• The thermal expansion coefficient of a composite,
Intro acomp, can be related to the expansion coefficients
Composite and bulk moduli of the constituent phases by the
Applns. following. Obviously, the composite bulk
modulus must be determined by other means.

KB (a B - a A )( K A - Kcomposite)
acomposite = a A +
Kcomposite(K A - KB )


• The compressibility for b
cristobalite is given as 100.10-
Intro 6 K-1 (alpha-cristobalite) and

Composite 4.8.10-6 K-1 (beta-cristobalite).
Applns. • The CTE is given as 25.2.10-6
Properties for alpha-cristobalite and 11.2
.10-6 for beta-cristobalite.
Reuss, • Compare to the range of 12-
Hill 20.10-6 K-1 claimed for the
Anistrpy. glass-ceramic.
Cristobalite structure:
[Chiang et al.]

Wood . 117 Li-Zn glass ceramics • Note the variation in expansion at the alpha-beta Intro transition (displacive) in cristobalite. Properties Voigt. Reuss. CTE Cellular Matls. Composite Applns. Hill Anistrpy.