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Analytical techniques in

physical planning

R. Biswas

Why is analysis required? • It breaks down the complex phenomena in to simple elements. – Classifies. • Analysis – Organizes. . – Resolves. – Illuminates. – Correlates. display the phenomena.

.• Various analytical tools are available which perform one or several tasks as mentioned earlier.


. • Technological direction and applicability • Environmental conditions • Changes over time . What planner needs to study • The settlements • State and situation of society • Physical and social attributes and conditions.

models etc. Types of analysis • Simple – reporting. trend analysis etc • Complex – statistical and mathematical analysis. .

• Simple logical reasoning. • Put the information in ordered format • Structure. • Simple deductive techniques to arrive at conclusions. organize and present phenomena for understanding and for further analysis. Reporting • Explanation of studied phenomena. • Judicious use of tables. graphs and maps .

tables . graphs charts and diagrams. • Analysis is displayed in terms of maps. Trend analysis • Simple techniques to study changes in a system over a period of time. .


. • Ranges from use of basic statistics to complex mathematical models. Models in planning • Quantities planning analysis tools includes extensive ranges of concepts and techniques developed to understand and articulate the nature of cities and also to predict the consequences of changes.

. highly expensive. major government services etc is physically impossible. Why models in planning? • Full-scale field work to understand urban activities like – cities development. which can be studied on paper. and other studio or laboratory facilities. computer. commuters travels. • Hence simulate these activities with the aid of models. commercial activities.

• Factual information required for model calibration is likely to be expensive or difficult to obtain. . • Model is probabilistic presentation of real life – based on expected or average behavior of the elements. Difficulties • Impossible to model a urban process in full determinist details.

either physically or in abstract. in some way relevant to their characteristics. . • It helps to understand reality where it is not possible to construct an experiment in the real world. What is model? • A model is a way of representing reality in which real world objects and relationship are expressed.

Abstract models • Represent the relevant characteristics of the original in language which might be expressed using words and syntax of mathematical symbols and equations. .

Physical model • Can be created by replicating the original at different scale – Planning model of a proposed development – Plans . 3D models. . maps.



• Can be a static model or a dynamic model. Mathematical models • It provides the opportunity for computation. • A dynamic model describes how a evolves through time naturally or in response to stimuli. • A static model describes the equilibrium behavior of system where in little or nothing changes with time. .