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Seismic Retrofit of Structures Using FRP
Saurabh Bansal

Fiber-reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites consist of Different Techniques used for FRP strengthening of structures
continuous carbon, glass or aramid. The fibers bonded are:-
1) Basic Technique-It involves manual application of wet-
together in a matrix of epoxy, vinyl ester or polyester. The layup using cold cured adhesive bonding. The fibers of FRP
fibers are the basic load carrying component in FRP where composites are kept parallel to principle tensile stresses.
as the plastic, the matrix material, transfers shear. FRP 2) Automated Wrapping- It involves wrapping of wet fibers
products commonly used for structural rehabilitation can continuously with a slight angle around columns and other
take the form of strips, sheets and laminates. structures.
3) Prestressed FRP- It involves prestressing of FRP strips then
The characteristics of FRP Composites depend on many bonding the Frp with concrete substrate and after that the
factors such as type of Fiber, its Orientation and Volume, FRP is anchored at the ends to be released later upon
type of resin used and quality control used during the hardening of the adhesive.
manufacturing process.
Constituent Materials available for FRP repair system
1) Resins
2) Primer
3) Putty Fillers RESULTS
4) Saturating Resins This study provides results from IDA analysis of coupled RC core
5) Adhesives walls using a nonlinear macromodeling approach to investigate
6) Protective Coatings the collapse capacity of coupled RC cores. A set of 50 artificial
ground motion records, more than 2,400 time history analyses
7) Fibers
– were conducted on nonlinear 3D models of 12-story buildings CONCLUSIONS
AIM with different torsional irregularities and strengthening
To study the different installation techniques employed to
FRP Retrofitting layout along Core Wall schemes. The fragility curve represents the intensity of the ground
strengthen the structures which involves the application of 1)Combined shear/ flexural failure was found to be the most motion versus the collapse probability. The structure
FRP as a structural reinforcement bonded to an existing common failure mode.- By developing the cracks in the strengthened with horizontal FRP wrapping showed an
concrete substrate structure and also to study the Seismic tension wall in a coupled shear wall system, penetration of the increase in collapse capacity up to 17%, whereas there was
Collapse Risk Assessment of FRP Retrofitted of RC Coupled C- flexural cracks near the compression edge was expected; as a more significant improvement obtained by H&V-FRP and
Shaped Core Walls-using the FEMA P695 Methodology result, a greater contribution from the dowel action of the H&X-FRP configurations, which showed 44 and 63% increases,
vertical reinforcement was expected for resisting the sliding respectively. Although retrofitting increases the capacity of
shear failure; this increased the probability of shear sliding the system, it also increases the shear demand. Torsional
failure in the wall (Pauly and Priestly 1992), which was captured sensitivity has a significant effect on the collapse capacity of a
by applying the corresponding limits on the horizontal springs building, resulting in up to 8 and 36% decreases by reaching
representing the shear behavior of the wall segments. the torsional sensitivities of B . 1.7 and B 2.5, respectively.
2) By using a proper strengthening scheme with FRP material,
more than 60% increase in the CMR(collapse Margin Ratio) can
be achieved for the structural system. 1) Calabrese, A., Almeida, J. P., and Pinho, R. (2010). “Numerical issues in
distributed inelasticity modeling of RC frame elements for seismic
3) It was found that the FRP retrofitting performed well in analysis.” J. Struct. Eng., 14(S1), 38–68.
controlling the maximum interstory drift ratio during ground 2) ACI (American Concrete Institute). (2008). “Guide for the design and construction of
FEMA P695 Methodology motions at the design level. A significant decrease in the peak externally bonded FRP systems for strengthening concrete structures.” ACI Committee
440, Technical Committee Document 440.2R-08,
FEMA P695 (FEMA 2009) has proposed a methodology to assess median was observed in comparison with the original structure 3) Baker, J. W. (2015). “Efficient analytical fragility function fitting using dynamic
the seismic performance of structures. This methodology with B = 1.7, starting from a 14% decrease in the H-FRP structural analysis.” Earthquake Spectra, 31(1), 579–599.
provides a rational method for evaluating the adequacy of structure and peaking at a 31% decrease in the H&X-FRP
4) Boivin, Y., and Paultre, P. (2010). “Seismic performance of a 12-storey ductile concrete
shear wall system designed according to the 2005 National Building Code of Canada and
proposed response parameters, including the response structure. This can be justified by the effect of FRP composites the 2004 Canadian Standard Association standard.” Can. J. Civ. Eng., 37(1), 1–16.
modification factor (R), the system over strength factor (Ω), and on increasing the shear strength of original walls and coupling
deflection amplification factor (Cd) of a seismic force–resisting beams through wrapping the members. Increasing the shear ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
system. Using nonlinear analysis techniques, the methodology strength can alter the failure mode of each part to a more
combines certain steps to develop and analyze a specific ductile mode with higher energy dissipation. Subsequently, it
I would like to express my humble gratitude to Dr. Nan Hu who encouraged
and guided me to study the different ways of retrofitting the structures using
structural model for probabilistic collapse assessment of a limits the interstory drift ratio of the RC core wall, which leads FRP and to critically examine the increase in seismic capacity of the structure
structure. The methodology explicitly considers uncertainties in to more ductile behavior. and also increase in collapse margin ratio.
selected ground motions, modeling approach and test data.