The Common Factors Model of Psychotherapy Outcomes

Jane F. Gilgun, Ph.D., LICSW Professor School of Social Work, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities jgilgun@umn.edu September 2010

The Common Factors Model 

Extratherapeutic Factors (40%) Relationships (30%) Optimism, Motivation, Capacities (15%) Skills, techniques (15%)   

Principles of the Model   

 

Clients¶ situations change for the better/worse depending upon external influences Relationships to case managers are complex, but the more trust and problem-solving in relationships, the better the outcomes Client and case managers beliefs essential Case manager skill important Intrinsic links among all four

Description of a Relationship Going Well 

Notice the connections among the factors

Connections Between the Factors 

Model is unclear about how interconnected the four factors are

Relationships 

Model does not state that access to clients can be an issue

Client Motivation: An Example 

Model predicts client motivation a key factor in good outcomes

External Influences 

Not anticipated by the model
Medications Inability of case manager to influence administration of medication

External Influences 

Schools
Abetted by relationships

Selected References On Grounded Theory, Analytic Induction, & Deductive Qualitative Analysis
Gilgun, Jane F. (2005). Qualitative research and family psychology. Journal of FamilyPsychology,19(1), 40-50. Gilgun, Jane F. (2008). On being a sh*t: Unkind deeds and coverups in everyday life. Morrissville, NC: Lulu. Glaser, Barney & Anselm Strauss (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago: Aldine. Strauss, Anselm, & Juliet Corbin (Eds). (1997). Grounded theory in practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Znaniecki, F. (1934). The method of sociology. New York: Farrar & Rinehart.

References for Common Factors Model
Cameron, Mark, & Elizabeth King Keenan (2010). The common factors model: Implications for transtheoretical clinical social work practice. Social Work, 55(1), 63-73. Drisko, James W. (2004). Common factors in psychotherapy outcome. Families in Society, 85 (1), 81-90. Frank, J. D., & Frank, J. B. (1991). Persuasion and healing: A comparative study of psychotherapy (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Lambert, M. (1992). Implications of outcome research for psychotherapy integration. In J. Norcross & J. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (pp. 94-129) NY: Basic. Lambert, M. J., & Ogles, B. M. (2004). The efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergen (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.

Maiter, Sarah, Sally Palmer, & Shehenaz Manji (2006). Strengthening social worker-client relationships in child protective services: Addressing power relationships and ³ruptured´ relationships. Qualitative Social Work, 5(2), 167-186. Miller, Scott D., Barry L. Duncan, and Mark A. Hubble (2007). Outcome-informed clinical work. In John C. Norcross & Marvin R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (2nd ed.) (pp. 84-102). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Miller, Scott D., Barry L. Duncan, and Mark A. Hubble (2007). Escape from Babel: Toward a unifying language for psychotherapy research. New York: Norton

Perlman, Helen Harris (1957). Social casework: A problem-solving process. Chicago: University of Chicago. Rogers, Carl. (1961). On becoming a person. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Saggese, Michael L. (2005). Maximizing treatment effectiveness in clinical practice: An outcome-informed, collaborative approach. Families in Society, 86(4), 558-564. Sprenkle, D. H., & Blow, A. J. (2004). Common factors and our sacred models. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 30(2), 113-129. Sprenkle, D. H., & Blow, A. J. (2004). Common factors are not islands± -they work through models. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 30(2), 113-129. Saggese, M. L. (2005). Maximizing treatment effectiveness in clinical practice: An outcome-informed, collaborative approach. Families in Society, 86(4), 558-564.

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