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WRITING PRACTICE

LINDA SUCI WAHYUNI, S.S, M.A


Cause and effect Essay
 A Cause and Effect essay essay is concerned with why things happen and what
happens as a result (effects). Cause and effect is a common method of
organizing and discussing ideas.
When writing your essay, remember your purpose. Decide if your are writing to
persuade or inform. Focus on immediate and direct effects. Limit yourself to
causes that are close in time and related, as opposed to remote and indirect
causes, which occur later and are related indirectly.

 There are three kinds of cause and effect essays that can be written, but they
are all very similar in written structure. The first is a cause/effect essay that
explains the why or how of something happening and what resulted from it. The
second kind is a cause essay, which usually discusses the many different reasons
that something happened. In this kind of essay, there are many causes but only
one effect. The final type of essay is an effect essay. An effect essay would
focus on the many different happenings after some event occurs. There is only
one cause, but there are many effects.
Multiple Causes
One Effect

This pattern deals with the situation when one effect is a result of
multiple causes.

It contains five paragraphs: introduction, conclusion, and three


paragraphs, each one describing one of the causes, leading to the effect.

One Cause
Multiple Effects

This pattern should be used when one cause leads to


multiple effects.

It contains five paragraphs: introduction, conclusion, and


three paragraphs, each one describing one of the effects,
the cause is leading to.
Causal Chain
(Domino)

Sometimes a cause leads to a situation and that situation


leads to another situation and so on.

This is called a causal chain or domino effect.

Causal chain pattern contains seven paragraphs:


introduction, conclusion, and five paragraphs, each one
describing one causal link.
Cause and Effect Sentences

 Sentences built using cause and effect usually involve an action


that is making something happen and the result of that action. You
can usually find sentences built this way by key words and phrases
they use: so, since, as a result of, because, therefore. It’s also
important to note that the cause is usually written before the effect
is, but there are rare cases when the effect will be written first. You
should realize, however, that no matter what order you present
cause and effect in with your sentences, you cannot have an effect
happen before a cause. When writing a cause and effect
argument, you will be writing many cause and effect sentences. To
help you better understand how these sentences are created, here
are a few examples that have been dissected to show the separate
cause and effect parts.
 Example 1:
It had begun to rain so Sally and Jake had to run inside.
Cause: It had begun to rain.
Effect: Sally and Jake had to run inside.
Key word: so
 Example 2:
Since it was so chilly outside, Benjamin built up a big fire in his fireplace.
Cause: It was so chilly outside.
Effect: Benjamin built up a big fire in his fireplace.
Key word: Since
 Example 3:
Elphaba was getting very angry and frustrated because none of her good deeds were being
recognized as good.
Cause: Elphaba was getting very angry and frustrated.
Effect: None of her good deeds were being recognized as good.
Key word: because
 Example 4:
A great twister picked up Aunty Em’s house, and as a result, Dorothy and Toto ended up
in the wonderful world of Oz.
Cause: A great twister picked up Aunty Em’s house.
Effect: Dorothy and Toto ended up in the wonderful world of Oz.
Key word: as a result
 Example 5:
We went to the grocery store because we needed sour cream, eggs, and milk.
Cause: We needed sour cream, eggs, and milk.
Effect: We went to the grocery store.
Key word: because
 This last example shows the effect being written before the cause. However, you will
notice that they only went to the store because they needed something. They had
a cause to go to the store. Here’s an example of a sentence written with an effect
happening before a cause. You should see why it’s important that the cause always
occur first.
 Bad Example:
Jeremy was sick because Sally went to school the next day with a cold.
Cause: Sally went to school the next day with a cold.
Effect: Jeremy was sick today?
 How can Jeremy be sick when the cause of his sickness is Sally’s cold that he does not
actually catch until the next day? Unless Jeremy is a time traveler, there is little chance
that he is sick from something that will happen to him in the future. It is in your best
interest to avoid sentences like the one above as they will make your argument
invalid.
Comparison essay

 What is a comparison essay?


A comparison essay (or a Compare and Contrast essay) is a commonly
used type of writing assignment in various classes of high school and
college, from art to science.
In a comparison essay you,the student, should critically analyze any
two subjects, finding and pointing out their similarities and/or
dissimilarities.

Depending on your assignment, such essays can be comparative only


(looking only at similarities), contrasting only (pointing out the
differences) or both comparative and contrasting.
Alternating
pattern

Alternating pattern is also known as "point-by-point


comparison".
This mode of comparison will result in your essay having 5
paragraphs.

In it, you will need to consecutively compare and contrast


each of the similarities and differences in the given subjects:
• In the introduction you state your thesis.
• Then you discuss both of your subjects together for each
point of comparison and contrast.
• In the conclusion you restate the thesis and shortly
summarize your essay.
Block pattern

Block pattern is also known as "subject-by-subject


comparison".
According to this pattern, you will be required to separate
the body of your compare and contrast essay in two parts.

The first part of the body will be dedicated to the first subject,
while the other half will be centered around the second
subject:
• In the introduction you state your thesis.
• First you discuss the first subject.
• Then you discuss the second subject.
• In the conclusion you restate the thesis and shortly
summarize your essay.
Argumentative Essay

 What is an Argumentative essay?


An Argumentative essay is an essay on any topic in which you discuss
some opinions for and against your assertion about the debating issue,
i.e. PRO and CON points.

An effective argument essay must contain certain elements that will


persuade your audience to see things from your perspective. During
your essay planning, it’s important to consider strong arguments for the
other side to shoot them down.
PRO-CON pattern

In this simple pattern for an argumentative essay, you discuss


two PRO points and one CON point.

Recommended for short school essays on any topic.

This pattern contains five paragraphs: introduction,


conclusion, and three paragraphs, one for each PRO or CON
point.

CON-PRO pattern

This pattern for an argumentative essay is very similar to the


previous one, but the CON point comes first.

Recommended for short school essays on any topic.

The pattern contains five paragraphs: introduction,


conclusion, and three paragraphs, one for each PRO or CON
point.
3-CON pattern

In this pattern for an argumentative essay you don’t explicitly


present any PRO point, but instead refute three CON points.

Recommended for short school essays on any topic.

The pattern contains five paragraphs: introduction,


conclusion, and three paragraphs, one for each CON point.
Claim / Counterclaim
pattern

This pattern for an argumentative essay is more advanced


than the previous three, and allows for a more complete
development of your argumentation.

Recommended for advanced school and college essays on


any topic.

The pattern contains introduction, conclusion, and two body


parts.
In three paragraphs of the first body part, you refute or rebut
three points for the counterclaim.
In three paragraphs of the second body part, you provide
three points supporting your claim.
Alternating
pattern

This pattern for an argumentative essay provides another


structure for claim and counterclaim discussion.

Recommended for advanced school and college essays on


any topic.

The pattern contains introduction, conclusion, and three


body parts.
In two paragraphs of each body part, you refute or rebut
one point for the counterclaim and provide one point
supporting your claim.
Describing graphs and tables

 In many subject areas you may need to refer to numbers, statistics and other data
during the course of your studies. This is likely to be data collected by other people
which you will use to support your written work, but it may be data that you have
collected yourself as part of your studies. Data is generally presented in the form of
tables, charts and graphs, which makes it easier for readers to understand. However,
it is often necessary to reproduce and refer to this type of information in words, as
part of a report or written assignment. If you include a graph, chart or table in your
writing, you must explain very clearly what the data in it means, and why it is
relevant to your report or assignment.

In the following activities you will consider how data should be presented within your
writing, and you will examine and practice the language used to describe and refer
to data in a graph. Much of the vocabulary is similar, whether you are referring to a
graph, table or chart.
 Activity 1: Understanding how to present a graph
When you write a report or an assignment, it may be necessary to include some data,
for example, in a graph. This data should be included within the body of your text. In this
activity, you are going to consider how data, such as a graph, should be presented in
your writing.
 Activity 2: Understanding information in a graph
In this activity, you are going to examine the graph from Activity 1 in more detail. It gives
some information about the topic of the writing. You are then going to consider the
meaning of the data it shows.
 Activity 3: Describing a graph
Once you are confident that you understand the data described in a graph or table
you are in a position to be able to write about it and refer to the data it contains.
 Activity 4: Writing about a graph
In this activity, you are going to study a graph showing data about the topic you have
chosen, and then practice writing a simple description of the data it shows.
Writing test advice for IELTS
 Follow this Writing test advice, and make sure you know how to manage your time.
 Write your answers in pen or pencil. You may write entirely in capital letters if you wish.
 You may make notes on the question paper, but nothing you write on the question paper will be
marked.

Make the most of your Writing test:


 analyze each task properly and spend some time making notes
 highlight or underline key words in the tasks to make sure that you focus on what you have to do
 plan your answers
 use paragraphs clearly; put one idea in each paragraph
 do not repeat ideas using different words
 do not copy whole sentences from the question – you will receive no marks for this
 keep to the topic; do not write about unrelated subjects
 manage your time; remember, Task 2 is worth twice as much as Task 1
 spend approximately 20 minutes on Task 1 and approximately 40 minutes on Task 2

 pay attention to the number of words required for each task; you will lose marks if you do not write at least 150 words for
Task 1 and at least 250 words for Task 2

 learn to recognize how long 150 and 250 words look in your handwriting; you will not have time to count during the test

 you must write your answers in full; answers written in note form or in bullet points will lose marks

 pay attention to spelling, grammar and punctuation; you will lose marks for mistakes

 avoid informal language

 do not memorize model answers; examiners are trained to recognize them and your test will be invalid

 spend several minutes re-reading and correcting your answers