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Textile Internship Report

Vardhman Textiles, Baddi

Mentors: Group Members:

Mr. Yoginder Kumar Anshita Aggarwal

Dr. Noopur Anand Isha Aggarwal
Priyanka Gupta
Sukriti Singh
Vardhman Textiles:
Company Profile
 It was started in 1965 under the dynamic leadership of its
chairman, S.P.Oswal.

 Has 22 manufacturing facilities in 5 states across India.

 The Group business portfolio includes

 Yarn
 Greige and Processed Fabric
 Sewing Thread
 Acrylic Fibre
 Alloy Steel
 The group has a turnover of $1.1 bn.
Division Wise Turnover 2012-13

25.39 Garment
Power Plant
10.05 Steel
Sewing thread
8.98 Fabric

1.2 4.14 0.4

Vardhman Yarns
 Yarn Manufacturing is the major activity of the group
accounting for 51.02 percent of the group turnover.

 Production
 Wide range of cotton
 Synthetics and blended yarn
 Grey and Dyed yarns
 Hand Knitting Yarns (market leader in India)

 25 production plants with a total capacity of over 10 lacs


 Largest exporters of yarn from India, exporting yarns worth

more than USD 218 million.
Vardhman Fabrics
 State-of-the-art fabric weaving and processing facilities in its
plant at Baddi and Budhni.

 The group has over 1300 looms and a fabric processing

capacity of 115 million meters per annum in collaboration of
Tokai Senko of Japan.

 The core strengths of manufacturing high quality, wide variety

and specialty yarns have enabled Vardhman to create
unparalleled collection of fabrics.
Fabric Range

 Sheers  Cotton/Nylon

 Top and bottom weights  Cotton/Tencel

 Dobby and textures  Cotton/Modal

 Supima cotton fabrics  Cotton/Linen

 Organic range  Cotton/Melange

 Compact yarn products  Cotton/Silk

 Stretch products with  Cotton


 Soft  Carbon finish

 Peach  Diamond finish

 Mechanical Stretch  Airo enzyme

 Micro sand  Soft easy care

 Easy to iron  Soil resistant

 Water resistant  Feather touch

 Stain release  Liquid ammonia finish

 Stiff finish  Airo Finish

Sewing Thread

 Second largest producer of sewing thread in the country.

 Manufacturing capacity is 38 tons per day in its sewing thread

plants located at Hoshiarpur, Baddi, Ludhiana, Prendurai (Tami
Nadu) and Visakhapatnam.
Vardhman, Baddi

 Our internship period, which was for 15 days was scheduled in

way so as to cover 5 main units of Vardhman Textiles in Baddi.

 They are:
 Auro Spinning Mills
 Auro Weaving Mills
 Auro Dyeing Mills
 Mahavir Spinning Mills
 Auro Textiles
Auro Spinning Auro Weaving Auro Textiles

Auro Dyeing

Image source:,76.8
Auro Spinning Mills
 Yarn is the largest strategic business unit of the Vardhman

 Vardhman is India's largest exporter of cotton yarn to the most

quality conscious markets like Europe, USA and Far Eastern

 Auro spinning mills is one of its oldest yarn production units

 Capacity of 40 tonnes of yarn per day.

 In order to ensure smooth and efficient working of the unit, the
unit has been divided into various departments. For Auro
Spinning Mills

Marketing Raw Material Production

PPC Department
Department Department Department

P&IR Engineering Electrical&

Department Department maintenance
 The mill has 5 main production units which are divided into halls.

Hall No. Production

1 100% Lycra Production

2 Sampling Unit

3 All kinds of yarn.

It is the biggest unit
4 Open End Plant

5 100% compact yarns

The unit assigned and observed was Hall No.
5, that produces compact yarn which is
mainly used for furnishing.
 Vardhman Textiles produces a wide variety of yarns for its in
house use as well as for export.
 In Auro Spinning Mills only a specific variety of yarns are
produced depending on requirement.
 Following types of yarns are produced:
1. Normal Yarn
2. Lycra Yarn
3. Compact Yarn
4. Siro Yarn
5. Elitwist Yarn
6. Multicount Yarn
7. Multitwist Yarn
 Yarns of various counts are produced, the most common being
20s, 30s and 60s

 Their main raw material used is cotton for yarn production

which comes in the bale form
Raw Material
 The following table summarizes all the varieties of cotton that
are imported by the mills for their production.
Raw Material
 Daily consumption for production of yarns - Around 165kg of

 The foreign varieties of cotton are preferred over Indian ones

since foreign cotton has long fibre length.
Storage and Godowns

 The cotton bales when received are stored in godowns until

required for production.

 There are 9 godowns  each of them are having different

storage capacity.

 At a time the mills can store approximately 16,000 – 17,000


 In addition to this there are 6 godowns for storing the

manufactured yarn with a total storage capacity of 500 tonnes
Process Flow of Spinning
Blow Room
Cotton from (Opening,
Bale/Unsorted Carding (Sliver)
Godown Cleaning,

Breaker Draw Finisher Draw

Lap Former Comber
Frame (DO6) Frame

Speed Frame Ring Frame Winding T.F.O (Doubling)

Conditioning Packing
A. Sorting
 Sorting is the process of removing contamination from the fibers.

 If the quality specified by the buyer is high, sorting is done.

 Done manually, so mostly only 70-75% sorting is done.

 Sorted or unsorted bale is then moved to blow room.

B. Blow Room
 There are 3 basic objectives of Blow Room:
1. To open the compressed bales of fibers
2. To remove dirt and dust, broken leaf, seed particles or any other
foreign impurities from the fibers.
3. Transfer the opened fibers for further action for carding.

 The cotton is passed in the form of lap from blow room.

 Machines used in Blow Room:

 Trutzschler Blend-o-mat
 SPF Machine
 Multimixer
Working of the Blow Room

Following the opening

of the fibers, suction is The multimixer machine
Blendomat machine
done after which the has 8 chambers where
opens the tufts of the
fibers are sent to 2 homogenous mixing of
chambers (Multimixer fibers is carried out.
 This machine is used to open and send the bales further for
removal of contamination.

 Along with the opening, some amount of cleaning also takes

place in this machine.
SPF Machines
 SPF Machines are used to remove contamination in the blow

 It is capable of removing 100% contamination.

 Only white cotton fibers are passed so that contamination can

be detected.

 The machine sorts the contaminants on the basis of three

primary colors – Red, Green, Blue.
SPF Machines
 It has an electronic panel, where the ratios of these
contaminations are detected.

 The machine consists of 64 nozzles and when the white thread is

passed, the contamination is removed through those nozzles
and transferred to a condenser.

 It is capable of detecting 5000 contaminants per hour.

 This machine is used for making a homogeneous mixture of
various varieties of cotton.

 Each type of cotton has distinctive level of brightness.

 Hence in order to have the same intensity and look, cotton

varieties are mixed together.

 The machine has 8 chambers.

 Different blends can be made in this machine. The various ratios
are as follows:

 Blending of cotton helps in improving performance as well as

functional properties of the end product.
C. Carding
 The disentanglement, cleaning and intermixing of fibres to
produce a continuous sliver suitable for subsequent processing
is called carding. (Page 48, Textile Terms and definitions, The Textile Institute, Ninth Edition)
 Objectives of carding process can be summarized as follows:
 Opening the tufts into individual fibers
 Eliminating all the impurities contained in the fibre that were not
eliminated the previous cleaning operations
 Selecting the fibers on the basis of length, removing the shortest ones.
 Removal of neps
 Transformation of fibers into sliver, therefore into a regular mass of
untwisted fiber.

 In Hall No5, there are 10 carding machines that have a

production rate of 5.5 ton/day.
Machine for Carding
Machine Parts
1. Feeder

2. Licker-in Cylinder

3. Drum

4. Flats

5. Doffer

6. Drawing Unit

7. Coiler
Working of the Carding
 The fibres are separated and then brought together into a
loose strand (sliver).

 The machine splits up the locks and tangled clumps of fibre and
then lines up each fibre so that all the fibres are almost parallel
with each other.

 The carding machine contains a single large roller that is

surrounded by small rollers.

 The rollers are enveloped with small spikes.

Working of the Carding
 The cleaning efficiency of the machine refers to the efficiency
with which the machine removes the neps.

 The machine has 80% efficiency.

 The end product of carding is sliver.

 If the sliver has less than 40 neps , it is considered of top quality,

and if it has more than 70 neps than it is considered of bad
D. Breaker Draw Frame
 Drawing/Drafting is a process of attenuating the loose fibers
called sliver, sliver is passed through a series of rollers which
straightens the fibers and makes them more parallel.
 During this process 8 slivers produced by carding machine are
parallelized to produce one sliver.
 Breaker Draw Frame is a drawing frame that has manual
settings and it utilizes the carded yarn.
 In breaker draw frame, variation in wrapping will work and is
 There are 2 breaker draw frames in Hall-5
Machine Specifications
E. Lap Former
 Sliver from card which is passed through the breaker draw
frame is not suitable for feeding in the comber because the
feed material rqd. for the comber is a lap sheet

 So the preparation process known as lap preparation is done

and machine used for the preparation is known as lap former.

 28 drawn sliver cans are doubled and drafted together to form

lap, lap is then fed to the comber machine.
E. Lap Former
 Objectives of lap preparation:
 To make even feed for comber
 To present sliver hooks as leading hooks to the comber
 To make the fibre more parallel

 There is 1 lap former in Hall No 5

Machine Specifications
 Slivers are fed to form a lap of 20 inches wide condensed with a
slight draft and weighing as per set length.

 One such Lap former is sufficient to feed 8 comber machines.

 The machine is equipped with sliver break stop motion 

Whenever the sliver in any of the cans happens to break, the
machine stops and a red light goes up to indicate the operator
that it has stopped.
F. Combing
 The straightening and parallelizing of fibres and the removal of
short fibers and impurities by using a comb assisted by brushes
and rollers is called combing. (Pg. 65, Textile Terms and definitions, The Textile Institute,
Ninth Edition)

 Combing process is used to produce smoother, finer, stronger

and more uniform yarns.

 It is commonly confined to high grade, long staple natural

Objectives of Comber
 Elimination of precisely pre-determined quantity of short fibers

 Elimination of the remaining impurities

 Maximum possible evenness

 Producing of more straight and parallel fibers

 Combing is a very critical activity. It removes 20-22% of waste

known as noil.

 There are 3 comber machines in Hall No 5.

Machine Specifications
Machine Specifications
 The lap formed in the lap former is passed as an input.

 The combing system consists of two combs.

 The first one is a rotating bottom circular comb that performs

the main combing action.

 The second one is a linear top comb that completes the

function of the bottom comb through vertical combing

 The waste (noil) is later removed from the needles of the

bottom comb using a revolving brush.
G. Finisher Draw Frame
 Finisher is the last machine where the irregularities in the strand can
be modified and no fault will pass onto the yarn.

 It has an electronic control and an auto-leveler.

 The auto-leveler continuously scans the incoming slivers and

increases or decreases the draft in the drafting zone to maintain

 8 breaker or comber sliver cans are fed together.

 This machine is monitored continuously and carefully. There is a fixed

wrapping for finisher draw frame. Any variation in wrapping will not
pass through this draw frame.

 There is 1 finisher draw frame in Hall No 5.

Machine Specifications
H. Speed Frame(Roving)
 The main action of roving section is to reduce the linear density
of the draw frame sliver since the sliver is thicker and is not
suitable to feed into the ring frame directly to produce yarn.

 The speed frame converts the thick drawn sliver into thin sliver
with low twist and produces fine roving.

 In this process sliver is input and fine roving is output.

 This is first stage where twist is inserted for making a yarn in

spinning mill.
Objectives of Roving

Drafting Twisting Winding

There are four speed frame machines in Hall No 5.

Machine Specifications
 Drafting: Attenuation of thick draw frame sliver into fine roving. The twisting
and stretching of sliver following the reduction in its diameter is called
drafting. The drafting frame used in Hall 5 is 3 over 3. It consist of 3 rollers
1. Front Roller
2. Middle Roller
3. Back Roller

 Twisting: Insertion of small amount of twist into the roving is called as

twisting. It is an important action as it imparts strength and twist to the fiber.
Twist is inserted with the help of flyer. When flyer rotates, the twist is
produce in the sliver. Twist level depends upon flyer speed and delivery
speed. The twisting zone is called fake-twister.

 Winding: It is the winding of the twisted roving on bobbin which is fed onto
the ring frame. The twisted yarn is wound around a bobbin. There is a flyer
over the bobbin which rotates at a different speed than bobbin.
 An overhead blower machines keeps removing the dirt and
dust particles from the roving frame.

 It sucks impurities from the top and blows air at the bottom.

 Machine used: SARA ELGI NUGEN – 5

 1 machine has a capacity of 120 spindles.

I. Ring Frame
 Ring frame is the last machine in the spinning section.
 In ring frame, finally the yarn is produced.
 The ring frame transforms the roving from the roving frame into
spun yarn.
 Twist is also imparted in the yarn to obtain the desired strength.
 Twist depends on the number of revolutions of the front roller.
 Objectives of ring frame:
 To convert roving into yarn of required count.
 To wind yarn on the cop.
 There is one ring frame in Hall No 5
Machine Specifications
 The feed material comes from speed frame i.e. roving bobbin is
placed on the creel.

 Then feed material is passed under the guide rollers and into
the drafting zone where some draft is inserted in to the roving.

 The roving is then twisted by the movement of the traveler

around the ring.

 The yarn is then wound on the ring cop.


Image Source:
J. Winding
 It is primarily the last step in spinning process.

 It can be defined as transfer of spinning yarn from one

package to another large package.

 In Vardhman, winding was done on cheese cones to be sent

for further in house production whereas it was done on paper
cones for export purpose.
Basic Functions
 Cuts are made in the yarn to avoid any difference in the yarn’s
linear density to maintain uniformity.

 Splicing of cut yarn to maintain uniformity, which is done by

automatic splicer.

 Ensures fault free yarn for packaging

 Machine is equipped with LEDs to identify any defect in the yarn

and later on rectifying them

 Measures any yarn count difference and identifies classimat faults.

 Prepares soft packages for dyeing.

Machine Specifications
 There are four winding machines in Hall no 5 out of which 3 are
Automatic machines and one is manually operated.
Machine Specifications
Yarn Conditioning
 When yarn is made, textile fibers are subjected to various
physical operations like opening, carding, drawing and

 Hence conditioning of yarn is necessary for better performance

such as strength, handle, etc.

 It maintains and improves the quality of yarn and the hardness

of the package.
Machine Specifications
 With the vacuum principle and indirect steam, the yarn is
treated very gently in an absolutely saturated steam

 The vacuum first removes the air pockets from the yarn
package to ensure accelerated steam penetration and also
removes the atmospheric oxygen in order to prevent oxidation.

 The yarn is uniformly moistened by the gas.

 The great advantage of this process is that the moisture in the

form of gas is very finely distributed throughout the yarn
package and does not cling to the yarn in the form of drops.
 The material is treated at around 70o-80o C.

 The yarns are given moistures for 20 mins.

 The packages are then dried and kept in such a condition that
moisture content remains 8% in the finished yarns.
 After the yarn packages are conditioned they are sent for
packaging. The yarn cones are packed for domestic

 ASM follows two types of packaging:

 Pallet Packaging
 Carton Packaging
Pallet Packaging
 Pallet Packaging for domestic market or in house use
Carton Packaging
 Carton Packaging for exports
Auro Dyeing Mills
 Yarn and fiber dyeing is done in the unit

 Established on 29th march 1995, today it has a huge production


 2 types of dyeing carried out:

 Yarn Dyeing - 22 tonnes dyed yarn/day
 Fibre Dyeing - 15 tonnes dyed fibre/day

Commercial Production
P&IR Department
Department Department

Engineering Electrical &

R&D Department
Department maintenance
Yarn Dyeing Section
 Imparting of color to yarn by various processes is called yarn
 In this section dyeing of blends also takes place.
 The dyed yarns are used for making stripe woven fabric in
Mahavir Spinning Mills.
 The Yarn Dyeing Section is divided into 4 main halls:
 Hall Number-1
 Hall Number-2
 Hall Number-3
 Lavin Area
Basic process flow of Yarn
Dyeing Section:

Raw Material in Pre-Winding/Soft

Godown Winding

Rapid Dryer/R.F
Hydroextractor Post Winding

Godown for
Conditioning Packing
A. Raw Material from

Customer Places
Order to
Marketing Division

Marketing Divison
co-ordinates and
provides yarn

Yarn Stored
before processing
A. Raw Material from
 The capacity of the godown is 40 tonnes and its area is 45 X 18

 The godown is used for storage of different kinds of yarns. The

yarn packages are classified as follows:
 Organic Cotton
 GOTS Material
 Grey P/C Yarns
 Grey Cotton Yarns
A. Raw Material from
 When it comes from ASM it is not tested as it comes after a quality

 A report is also sent to ensure the quality of the yarn.

 If the yarn has to be outsourced, ASM checks for quality of the yarn
before sending it to ADM to assure quality for processing.

 Some of the quality parameters considered for the incoming yarn:

 Hairiness
 Yarn strength
 Count
 Density
B. Pre-winding/Soft Winding
 Preparation of soft package from paper cones by winding
them separately onto plastic cheese for further processing.

 The weight of the produced soft packages : 600gm – 1800gm

but mainly 1600gm packages are used for further processing.

 The quality of the soft package is determined by the density of

the packages. Following parameters are kept in mind while
calculating the density:
 Inner diameter of the soft package
 Outer diameter of the soft package
 Weight of the package
B. Pre-winding/Soft Winding
 There are 21 pre winding machines which are distributed in 3

 The temperature in these halls is maintained at 31oC and

relative humidity is kept between 50% - 51%

 There are following types of machines for the process of pre


Machine Name Number of machines

SSM PS6+ 8
Total 21
B. Pre-winding/Soft Winding
 After the packaged have been prepared, a Control Card is put
on each package for their identification.

 It is basically a slip that indicates the information of the lot in


 It consists of the following:

 Count
 DY Lot No.
 Grey Lot No.
 Pre Winding Lot No.
 M/C Man
 Date
C. Dyeing
 The process of imparting color to the yarn is called dyeing.

 In ADM, only HTHP (High Temperature High Pressure) machines

are used.

 Mostly reactive dyes are used in the industry. Second most

commonly used dye: Vat Dyes.

 Two methods by which yarn dyeing is done:

 Package Dyeing
 Beam Dyeing
C. Dyeing

Scouring Post Sample

Scouring Dyeing Fixer Softener
Neutral treatment Check
 Process of removal of impurities such as oils, wax, gums, soluble
impurities and dirt commonly found in textile material
 Chemicals Used in Scouring:
 Strong alkali
 (Caustic flakes) at high temp. (50-110O C on an avg. for 20 mins.)
 Bleaching Agent
 Hydrogen Peroxide
 Peroxide Stabilizer
 Soap, for wettability & absorbency improvement
 Klireex Per-30 (thelates the yarn to remove hardness of yarn)
 Klinoez Knitz
 Alinodz – Nids
 To carry out the process of dyeing, the dye liquor with a suitable
recipe is added to the machine. It is carried out basically in 3

Reaction of the
Dyes are dissolved in Exhaustion of dye on
chemicals to form a
soln. fiber surface
covalent bond

The carrier of the HTHP machine is then loaded with the soft packages
on spindles or warp beams and then the carrier is loaded in the machine
for processing.
Post Treatment

Neutralising Soaping Dye Fixation

1. The pH of the dye liquor is neutralized by adding acetic acid.

2. Soaping is done by using a detergent. It is done once at 95oC
if 2-3% of depth is required.
3. Dye fixation by adding an agent.
4. Sometimes hard wash makes the yarn hard so in order to
impart softness, softener like Mild Cationic Softener, Wax
Emulsion Based Softener is added.
Sample Check
 To ensure that the colour of the dyed yarn is according to the
shade given by buyer, after the first lot of yarn packages are

 Around 5-7 gms of yarn is wound around fingers and then the
shade is compared manually against the sample/shade card.
Machines Used

Machine Name Number of machines

Hisaka 7
Fong’s 43 (2 beam dyeing)
Thies 14
Pozzi 5
Total 69
Working – Package Dyeing
 In package dyeing, the dye solution is forced through the yarn
packages in alternation inside-out and outside-in direction
through a pumping system.

 The packages are loaded onto a perforated spindle into the

perforated cans, then fastened to a seating in the bottom of
the package machine.

 The production rate is higher in package dyeing.

Working – Beam Dyeing
 Beam dyeing is an exhaustion method in which the dye liquor is
force through the yarns.
 The dye liquor is pumped through the beams in a similar way as
in package dyeing.
 The warp beams are loaded into a cylindrical chamber and
the door is shut and sealed.
 The dye liquor is pumped through the beam in a two way cycle
 Per day three lots are done in beam dyeing machine where in
one lot is of 162kgs.
D. Hydroextractor
 It extracts the excess water from the yarn dyed packages so
that they can be dried efficiently in RF Dryer.

 There are five hydroextractors in ADM with a capacity of 36


 The machine is Berta 36 manufactured by Dettin.

D. Hydroextractor
 The packages are suspended vertically on package holders.
The basket is then spun around the central axis.

 The yarn packages are pressed against the outside wall.

 The extracted liquor is drained off through the perforated

outside wall
E. R.F.Dryer
 Radio Frequency Dryer
 The moisture content in the soft package after dyeing is roughly
150% than its weight.
 The required moisture is 6-6.5% in cotton.
 So, to dry the package to have a suitable moisture content it is
first subjected to hydro extractor to remove excess water and
then dried in an R.F Dryer.
 There are 4 RF Dryers in ADM
 Company: Monga Strayfield
Working of RF Dryer
 In RF Dryer alternating electric field between two electrodes is created.

 The dyed yarn packages are put across between the electrodes, where
the alternating energy causes polar molecules in the water to continuously
re-orient them to face opposite poles.

 This movement causes friction due to which water in the material rapidly
evaporates throughout the material.

 The radio waves vibrate the contained water molecules million times per

 Ventilator fans are used to remove damp air from the drying chamber.

 The RF waves concentrate in the wettest, densest portion of the garments

and therefore RF drying has a leveling effect that practically eliminates
any problems of uneven shrinkage and over drying.
F. Post-Winding
 The process of winding the dyed yarn from the soft packages
on the final paper cones to produce an output package for
shipment is called post-winding.

 Following types of post winding machines are available in Auro

Dyeing Mills:

Machine Name Number of machines

Schlafhorst – Autoconer 238 8
Total 13
G. Conditioning
 This process is done to maintain the moisture content
throughout the packages.

 Also, to maintain the evenness of the dye in the yarn,

conditioning is done.

 If the package weight measures 1100 gm, the moisture content

in the package is 100 gm.

 More conditioning time is given to packages where dye uptake

is not even.
G. Conditioning

1st Dwell Time

Time (min) 5
Pressure (Pa) 630
Temp (oC) 55
2nd Dwell Time
Time (min) 20
Pressure (Pa) 610
Temp (oC) 60

 The capacity of conditioning machines is 1500 packages and

the packages are dried for 15 mins. and cleaning of packages
is done using a pressure pipe.
H. Packaging
 The cones are packaged in suitable packages for shipment.
The cones are packed in cartons for commercial market.

 The cones are packaged in plastic crates for in-house

Fiber Dyeing Section
 Fiber dyeing is the method of dyeing fibers before blending with
other colors to give fancy yarns or fabrics.

 Amount of dye is high as compared to yarn dyeing process

and is comparatively more costly than yarn dyeing.

 In Auro dyeing, fibre dyeing is done only for in house


 It is not exported or sent to commercial market.

 Only cotton fibres are dyed in this section.

Fiber Dyeing Section
Basic Process Flow

Grey Fibre from

Stomping Fibre Dyeing

Drying Sample Check

Packing Despatch
A. Stomping
 According to shade specified, the carrier is cleaned and put in
 The operator then starts the feed lattice.
 Material is opened and fed on the lattice and water valve is
 The head is put on the carrier and is pressed.
 Pressing height depends on the weight of the lot.
 Dimmi carrier is then lifted through the pressing unit and the carrier
is covered with a cap and latch.
 Then with the help of the panel and crane, carrier is lifted and put
over dyeing machine.
B. Dyeing
 The dyeing machine consists of the following parts:
 Main Tank
 Side Tank
 Main Panel

 The loading carrier is put in the main tank of the dyeing machine.

 With the help of the side tank, the dose is injected according to
the recipe.

 The fiber is dyed through the IN-OUT movement of dye liquor,

which is thoroughly circulated.

 After dyeing, the fibres are taken for a quality check.

C. Sample Check

Fibres matched
2-3 gms of dyed Dried over sample Carded using against the
fibres taken dryer sample carder standard given by

Once the quality check is done, the cake is then taken to

the hydro unloading section.
D. Hydro Unloading
 This machine is operated for 3 mins.

 It helps in removing the excess water from the cake.

 The carrier is taken to the unloading section.

 Here turning the carrier upside down unloads the cake.

 Once unloading is done, the control card is put on the cakes.

 The carrier is then taken to the washing range.

E. Washing
 Washing helps in the removal of extra dye. Material is first
checked in pre washing area.

 Cake breaker is operated in order to disintegrate the cake into


 Fibres are loaded onto the feed lattice. There are 3 bowls in the
feed lattice
E. Washing

• Temperature is 45OC
• Addition of chemicals
Bowl 1 • Pressure given by squeeze rollers

• Temperature is 600 C
• Use of hot water
Bowl 2

• Use of cold water

Bowl 3

• Finish is opened
• Temperature is 45o C
Bowl 4
E. Washing
 Hopper2 and hydro machines are started.

 Then the material is checked onto the feed lattice and

afterwards fed on the conveyer belt for packaging
Testing and its Methods

Lab dip sent to

Order from Lab dip request Order released
buyer for
buyer from buyer by buyer

QA of dyed deparment
Prouction generated by
material places order to

Winding Packaging
 In Auro Dyeing Unit, the R&D department is responsible for
testing of the input as well as the output materials.

 Testing is basically done to ensure quality and avoid accidents

and faults in the products.

 The input material consists of the chemicals used to prepare

dyes whereas the output material consists of the dyed fibre and
dyed yarn.
Testing of Chemicals
 The basic equipment used for testing of chemicals includes
burette and beakers. The chemicals include auxiliaries , dyes
and other chemicals.

 Process flow of chemicals

If Report OK
Sent to input Chemical Report chemicals
from suppliers
section testing generated issued to
to main store
 Following tests are conducted for checking the quality of
incoming chemicals and auxiliaries.
Material Tested For
Chemicals Percentage Purity
Moisture Content
Chlorine Content

Auxilliaries Solid Content

Water Hardness
Moisture Content
Percentage Purity
Testing of Dyed Yarn
 Following tests are conducted for testing the dyed yarn:
Tests Type of yarn
Colourfastness to washing Reactive dyed yarn
Vat Dyed yarn

Colourfastness to Rubbing

Colourfastness to Hypochlorite
bleach/Peroxide bleach

Resistance to cold water bleeding Reactive dyed yarn

Vat dyed yarn

Colourfastness to mercerizing

Determination of whiteness index of


Colourfastness to perspiration

pH of water extract from bleached


Colourfastness to light
Testing Of Packing Material
 Following packing materials are tested:
 Cartons
 Paper Cones
 Nylon Strips
 Wax
Testing Of Packing Material
 Cartons:
 Checked for brushing strength and the instrument used is Brushing
Strength Tester.

 Paper Cones:
 Instrument used is Colaspe Strength (CP) Tester or Core Strength (CS)

 Nylon Strips:
 They are tested by determining no. of grains/inch

 Wax:
 It is checked for its composition and oil%.
Auro Weaving Mills
 Weaving unit of Vardhman Group

 100% grey fabric is produced in this unit.

 264 looms (Airjet looms).

 Capacity of producing 1,00,000 m/day of fabric.

 Yarns of count ranging from 10s Ne – 80s Ne are produced.

 Departments in Auro Weaving:

Marketing Production
PPC Department
Department Department

Engineering Electrical &

P&IR Department
Department Maintenance
Process Flow of Weaving
Order Planned
Order to the
by PPC (Makes Yarn from
raw material storage

Folding and
Preparatory Loom Shed
Section Section

Assurance Packaging


Production Loomshed

Preparatory Section
 Warp related preparation of the yarn

 Raw material - Grey Yarn from ASM.(99%)

 Yarn is outsourced if the yarn cannot be made available

internally, e.g. Tencel, Micro-Modal, Linen, Polyester (1%)

Warping Sizing
A. Warping
 Process of winding the yarn from cones onto a beam, to
create a warp beam.

 Only direct warping is carried out.

 A predetermined number of ends (usually 640) are pulled

from a creel ,are wound onto a large spool (beam) and
placed on a warper to produce warp beams.

 All types of yarns can be warped on this machine including

blends such as, P/C (65/35), CVC/Cotton (40/60), Viscose
Cotton, Tencel Cotton, Modal Cotton, etc.
 After warping a Warping Beam slip is attached to
every warp beam, and it consists of the following:

Warper’s name
Sort no.
Beam no.
No. of ends
Shade no.
 Process of applying a protective coating on the yarn
surface mainly to impart strength for further processing.

Passing of yarns Removal of Movement of the

Loading of Warp
through the size excess paste yarns through Pre
Beams in Creel
paste in the size through squeeze Dryer to Dry the
box rollers yarns

Passing of yarns Passing of the

Final winding through Dry split yarns through
zone Final Dryer
Basic components of the
 The speed of the sizing machine depends on the
moisture and count of the yarn.

Creel Zone
Size Box-1
Pre Dryer
Size Box – 2
Pre Dryer
Final Dryer
Steam Hood
Drying Zone
Head Stock
Control Panel
Control Panel Dryer
Control Panel Headstock
Sizing Chemical
 The following four main chemicals are used to
make the starch paste:

Name of the chemical Percentage/Amount

Starch Modified Tapioca 75%

Binder (PV Based) PVA 50%

Acrylic Based Binder 50%

Softener Mutton Tello 3-4 kgs

 To prepare the weaver's beam for weaving different kinds of
fabrics on the loom.

 Can be done manually or through machines. In Auro weaving

mills, only auto drawing - in is done.

 Sized yarn is passed through heald wires and then through

reed dents as per the required weave of the fabric in order to
make the weaver’s beam.
Loom Shed Section
 Weaving is done on the loom.

 Basic weaves like 1/1, 2/1, 3/1, 4/1, Oxford fabric, etc.
are produced.

 Only Airjet Looms are used in Auro Weaving Mills.

Loom Shed Section
 Division of Loom Shed Section:

Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 3A

72 machines 88 machines 48 machines 58 machines

4 basic processes in weaving:

Let Off Shedding Picking Beating Take-Up

Motion Motion Motion Motion Motion
Airjet Loom
Jet of air is used to propel the weft yarn through
the shed.
Carried hrough the shed by compressed air flow
supplied from a main nozzle and relay nozzles.
Process flow of warp

Back Rest Dropper

Reed Cloth Fell Emery Roll

Press Roll Take Up Roll

Process flow of weft

Creel Leaf Tension Pre-winder

nozzle + Weft
Main Nozzle Relay Nozzle

Weft sensor
Folding and Inspection
 Activities such as measuring, examining, gauging,
testing, one or more characteristics of a product or
source and comparing these with specific
requirements to determine conformity is called

 The cloth is inspected thoroughly in this section and

then it is folded and packed for further processing.
Folding and Inspection
 4-point inspection system is followed in the Inspection

 Only 37 points are allowed in 100 yards of fabric roll and only
4 major faults are allowed in the fabric per 100 yards.

 Machines:
 7 machines - only inspection
 2 machines - inspection and folding.
Quality Assurance Section
 Responsible for checking the fabric faults.

 They segregate the fabrics in three grades – A, B & D.

 The checked fabric goes mainly to Auro Textiles for piece


 The fabrics are checked under all kinds of lights at different


 Some of the checked fabric is stored in the godowns also and

the storage capacity of godown is 25, 00,000 m.
Woven Fabric Defects
 Any abnormality in the Fabric that hinders its acceptability by
the consumer.

 The most common fabric defect seen in the grey fabric

produced in Auro weaving Mills is Missing ends and Missing
Spinning Mills
 Sub unit of the Vardhman Group in Baddi .

 Mainly comprises of two main units :

Weaving Production Unit

Central Product Development Cell

 Production of fabric per day: 60,000m approx

The unit is divided into many departments:

Product P&IR Production
Development Department Department

Preparatory Drawing in
Sizing section
Section Section

Loomshed Inspection and Packaging

Section folding Section Section
 Further Division

Preparatory Drawing in
Section section

Sectional Manual
Direct Warping Auto drawing
Warping Drawing
Central Product
Development Cell
 Related to the designing and development of the fabric
according to customer requirements.

 Division of CPDC


Pilot plant
Design Cell

nt Cell
Creative Design Cell
 Comprises of designers
 For fashion forecasting
 Making designs and collections in accordance with the world

 Collections are made for different seasons, one year in



To get new
According to
orders from
their customer
Creative Design Cell
 Before designing, a thorough research work is done
 To know the colour and style for the next season
 To know the end use of fabric.

 Penelope Software is used for design development.

Creative Design Cell

Research Story Initial

Work Making Concept

Customer Sample for

Approval customers

Bulk Order
Product Development Cell
 Completely customer based

 Takes complete orders or only directions from the customer.

 The orders are received in the form of fabric cutting, analysed

before production to check its feasibility.

 Analysis of fabric cutting:

Count Construction

Weave Blend
Product Development Cell

Replicate the Develop Modifications

directions given desklooms and according to
by custmers yardages feasibility

Order received
Bulk Order Article creation
after deskloom
Execution for bulk
Product Development Cell

 Prepared for shade approval and quality approval by the


 For yarn dyed desklooms, dyed yarn is ordered from Auro

Dyeing Mills

 Deskloom if approved is sent in a package to Auro Textiles for

further processing.
Pilot Plant
 Desklooms and yardages are prepared for all kinds of fabrics.

 Deskloom samples are prepared on handlooms or CCI

weaving machines.

 Process flow



 One of the most important operation to attain
maximum weaving efficiency .

Machine Model No. Capacity Speed


Yamada YS-6 4 12 cones 300m/min

Machine Beam No. No. of creels Speed
make length
Suzuki 14 m – 70 m 3 8 of only one color 300m/
and any yarn min

Karl mayer 24 of any color and

any yarn
 Done in two ways :

Manual drawing

Auto drawing

No. of machines

Manual drawing 9

Auto drawing 1
 It is conducted in the loomshed section .

 Two types of looms used :

Airjet looms

Flexible Rapier looms

 Airjet looms

No. Of machines 6 colour threads 4 colour threads

6 2 looms 4 looms

 Flexible Rapier Looms

Machine make No. of machines Weft color threads

Picanol Gammax 6 6
Production unit
 All the processes followed are same as in Auro
Weaving .

 Production/day : 60,000 m

 Fabric wastage: 500m/day

 Yarn Wastage: 7%
Process flow of weaving
from dyed yarn
Dyed Yarn

Sectional Warping

Beam to Beam Sizing

Weaver's Beam Stock


Fabric Production
Process flow of weaving from
greige yarn
Greige yarn

Direct Warping

Creel to Beam Sizing

Weaver's Beam Stock


Fabric Production
 In Mahavir Spinning Mills both grey fabric and yarn dyed
fabric is produced .

 Warping is done to create warp beam

 In this unit, direct warping and sectional warping is done.

 Direct warping is and sectional warping is done for yarn dyed

Direct Warping
 Done for piece dyed fabric
 Transference of yarns from single-end yarn packages, wound
packages, directly to a beam in a one step process.
 Number of packages in the creel area = Ends on the beam.
 No. Of machines: 2
Comb warp – 1
Benninger – 1

Benninger direct warping

Sectional warping
 Equal length of yarn is first wound in small sections or sheets
on a drum.

 Then it is transferred to the beam.

 By this process, the weavers beam is achieved directly.

 Two stage method and is used for making fancy fabrics.

Creel Drum
Sectional warping
 Benninger Bentronic  Prashant Gamatex
 4 machines  2 machines
 Capacity: 684 cones  Capacity: 784 cones

Benninger sectional Prashant Gamatex

warping machine

There are six sectional warping machines

There are 3 sizing machines

 Tsudokoma  Sucker Muller

 1 machine  Total 2 machines
 Creel to beam sizing  1 m/c for creel to beam
 Capacity: 20 beams sizing
 1m/c for beam to beam
 Capacity: 1 beam
Main weaving unit
There are 224 looms
Airjet Looms Rapier Looms

 No. Of machines: 142  No. Of machines: 82

 Company: Tsudokoma  Flexible Rapier looms: 64

 Rigid Rapier looms:6

Rapier Looms

 Shuttleless weaving looms in which the filling yarn

is carried through the shed of warp yarns by
fingerlike carriers called rapiers.

 There are two types of rapiers.

1. Rigid rapier

 2. Flexible rapier

No. Of machines:

 Flexible Rapier – Picanol gamma X (64)

 Rigid Rapier – Dornier (6)

 Dobby Machines: Toyota(12)

Packaging & Folding

 Done to protect the fabric from any outside damages .

 Various things to be kept in mind while packaging are :

 Triming of hanging thread,

 Pressing
 Inspection
 Stitch Finishing.

No. Of machines: 7

 Sri Laxmi LX 250

Inspection and Folding

 Activities such as measuring ,examining ,

gauging ,testing , one or more characteristics of
a product or source comparing these with
specific requirements to determine conformity is
called “Inspection” .

 No. Of machines: 4

 Penguin
Auro Textiles
Auro Textiles
 Auro Textiles was set up in Baddi (H.P) in DECEMBER

 Production of 30 million meters per annum.

 100% Cotton fabric is produced in Auro Textiles. Other

than that blends are also produced. Following are the
 Cotton/ Lycra (35/50)
 Polyester Cotton
Process flow of Auro Textiles
Grey Pretreatme
Singeing Desizing
Opening nt

Scouring Bleaching Emerizing

Dyeing Finishing Inspection

Rolling Dispatch
A. Grey Opening
 Auro Textiles deals with RFD fabric(grey fabric).Grey fabric
is their basic raw material.

 The raw material comes in three forms:

Bale Form Roll Form Pallet Form

 There are four in house made machines that are used for
roll opening. The speed of the machines is 60-70m/min
and the fabric after opening is checked for air tightness
and creases.
B. Stitching
 This department deals with the stitching of fabric to
ensure the continuous length for further processes.

 It stitched from selvedge to selvedge.

 There are six machines for stitching of the fabric. The

fabric that comes in bale form is directly stitched.
C. Pretreatment



Soft Finish Peach finish

Dyeing Sueding



 Singeing is the first pretreatment process.

 In Auro Textiles, oshtoff singeing is done.

 A dry finishing process that burns off protruding fibers from

yarn and fabric by passing them over a gas or jet flame or
heated copper plates.
Process flow
Burner( with
Guider cooling

Brush Singeing Unit

Fluff removal Plaiter

Parts of the machine
 In feed unit: Feeding of the fabric into the

 Fabric guide:Aligns fabric centrally

 Exhaust: To diminish the flames

 Burner(with cooling cylinder): Reduces the

temperature,Normal burner temperature-180
degree celsius

 Singeing machine: Surface treatment of woven

fabric with open flame by burning off non bound
free fiber ends.

 Spark extinguishing device: Extinguishing the

burning fiber selvedges

 Plaitor device: Folds fabric into the trolleys

 After oshtoff singeing the fabric is divided as

whitenes Ostoff Chloride
s of

PTR(Perble Range)
Desizing and
Guider Washing

Bleach Washing H2O2 Bleach

Washing Drying Plaitor

Desizing and scouring
 Fabric is padded through the saturator ,containing both the
Desizing and scouring chemicals.
 Passed onto the Reaction Chamber where a dwell time is
given, so that the proper swelling of fiber can occur - causing
proper penetration of chemicals.
 Chemicals Used:
 Bleaching chemical – H2O2
Stabliser – BRT
Wetting Agent – OSG
Chelating Agent – ZUDY
pH Controller – Caustic
Washing and drying
 Now the fabric enters the four washers.
Temperature of first four washers is kept at 85C.
The fifth washer-cold wash.

 Nip pressure of each washer is kept 2 tons.

 To avoid formation of creases the washers are

provided with an expander roll.
Vertical Drying Range
 There are three VDR’s to dry the fabric.

 The fabric after washing is passed through nip bowls

having a pressure of 5 tons. Then it passes through the
first drying range.

 The drying cylinders are steam heated. The main

steam pipe has a pressure of 6 kg/ and so for
each drying range there is a pressure of 2 kg/
 Objectives of mercerizing:

Provides greater absorbency

Improves dyeing chracteristics

Increases affinity for dyestuff thus producing brighter


Allows fabric to take resin finishes better.

Increases luster of fabric when done under high

 Fabric is passed rapidly over revolving cylinders covered
with abrasive paper of desired grit for the fabric being

 Peaching increases the brightness of the fabric and the

tear and tensile strength of the fabric.

 No. of machines:4

 In two machines, emery paper is used and in the other

machine – diamond paper is used.
Process of dyeing in pilot

Prediction of
Customer Qulaity
recipe by Recipe selection
requirement check(feasibility)

Colour Developing
dispensing(Techno Drying CDR(Continuous
rama) drying range)

Soaping Finishing
Chemical Substore
 The pilot plant gives the recipe to the dyeing. Mostly
reactive or vat dyes are used for cotton and disperse dyes
are used for polyester.

 And then a slip is issued that includes:-

Dye stuff quantity

Length of shades
Main Dyeing Process
Customer Lab Dip Order
Order Preparation Approval

Slip Issued for

Recipe from Color Service
pilot plant Section

Pad Dry Batch

Pad Steamer
Machine Processing
Pad Dry Machine

Padder (Dye soln

added upto 65%)

I.R Zone

Hot flute

Cooling cylinder
Pad Dry Machine
 In the I.R Zone drying of fabric takes place. Upto 70% of
fabric is dried.

 In the Hot Flute Chamber further drying of fabric is done

using hot air at 120 oC.

 There are three pad drying machines in Auro Textile Unit.

Pad Steam Machine
Padding Steam(fixation)

Washing Neutralisation

Vertical drying
Check fastness Finishing
range(27 rollers)
Pad Steam Machine
 Alkaline solution is prepared in the tank area.

 Fabric is first padded in a padder with a dye and passed

through steam for proper dye fixation.

 Then it is passed through various chambers where washing

is done. With each chamber temperature gradually

 In chamber 5 and 8, washing is done with soap solution at

90oC.(soap used-nonionic)

 From 9th chamber onwards , intensive washing is done.

 Then it is neutralized by acetic acid

Polyester Dyeing


removeunfixed dye)
Thermofix Process
 It utilizes the high rate of dyeing achieved at high
temperature (commonly in the region of 210oC).

 The advantages of thermo-fixation are:

No carriers are used.

Heat setting and dyeing can be achieved simultaneously.

No pressure equipment is required.

High volume of material can be economically processed

owing to the continuous nature of the process and dye
fixation in the range of 75-90%.
Machine Name Thermofix
Speed 40m/min
Steam pressure 3.5 bar
Batch Processing
 There are 3 jet dyeing machines and 1 sample jet
dyeing machine which takes 8-9 hours in
processing a single batch.

 Capacity depends on fabric thickness. The load

capacity is 1500kg.

 Application-dye taken cloth dyed for 1.5 hours,

exhaustion done, alkali put for fixation.
Some Examples of Finishing
 Normal soft finish (silicon finishes)

 Oil and repellent finishes

 Soil release

 Airo Release

 Calendar finish

 Anti UV
Process Flow

Tank Stenter

Pad Dry /Calenderin
 Functions of stenter machine

Width of the fabric is controlled by the stenter

Moisture of the fabric is controlled by the stenter.

Fabric is dried by the stentering process.

Shrinkage property of the fabric is controlled.

 The fabric is collected from the batcher and is passed
through the padders -finishes are applied.
 The fabric is entered into the mahlo (weft straightner). The
function of mahlo is to set the weave of the fabric which is
gripped by pins and clips
 There are 8-10 chambers .each chamber contains a
burner and filter to separate dust from air.
 The circulating fans blow the air from base to the upper
side and exhaust fans suck all the hot air within the
chambers. Attraction rollers are provided to stretch the
warp yarns.
 Lead time- so that machine is not empty at any giventime
 Its function is to fix the finishing chemicals. Only
some finishes are cured.

 It consists of four chambers and thermoic oil is

used to heat these chambers. Speed of the
machine is 60–90m/min
 Sanforizing or shrinkage is the final step of finishing

 The function is to impart pre-determined shrinkage to

the fabric so that there is no further shrinkage in fabric
during washing.

 The shrinkage given is 2-7%

 In this process an elastic felt blanket is passed around

a metal roller in contact with its outer surface in
process is extended and the inner surface contracted.
 Calendaring utilizes different types and number of
heavy rollers arranged above and below the fabric.

 The rollers and different combination of heat, pressure

and surface friction closes or tightens the pores of the
fabric making the cloth compact and imparting
different degrees of luster to the cloth.

 Imparts a soft, full, thready feel to the fabric.

 Produces a fabric with more light reflection, sheen and


 Adds aesthetic value and imparts a good appearance.

 A 3-bowl calendering machine is used in Auro Textiles.

Manufacturer’s Name Ramisch Guarneri
Machine width 132
 Physical Lab testing:

 It is used for testing of finished fabric where

physical parameters like epi, ppi, gsm, tear and
tensile strength are tested.
Machine Name Manufacturer Name Model Name
Hygrometer Dry and Wet James H Heal Paramount
Strength Tester Hounsfield
Titan 3 910 Titan
Tear Tester Inno Lab
James H Heal Elma tear2 Digital Tear
Pilling Tester James H Heal
James H heal Nu Martindale
Crocking Tester JIS RT 300
Automatic crocking tester Paramount Digi (Rock)
Stretch and growth Tester Fryma Dual extensionmeter
Fryma Dual MO3
GSM Check Machine Adventurer Indian OHAOS
Scorch Tester Atlas
Accelerator Atlas M249
EPI/PPI Machine Paramount Indian
Spectrophotometer JenWay 6400 Spectrophoto
Random Tumble Pilling Atlas PT4
Xenon Weatherometer Atlas Ci400
Stretch Test Machine (Lycra) Steel Smith Indian
Spectralight III Macbeth
Inspection Scheme
 In Auro Textiles, four point system is used for inspection
of the fabric where the speed of the fabric is 15m/min.
Usually more number of faults are found in yarn dyed
fabrics and mostly fault are related to the spinning of

 The operator is able to check around 7000m of fabric

in 8 hours on one machine if the fabric contains less
number of damages.
 It is a penguin machine and the load is 40 kgs.
 1st Slide Images (From Left):

 Machine Specifications: