chisel & file scalers iv) ultrasonic & sonic instruments 4) Periodontal endoscope 5) Cleaning & polishing instruments . root-planning and curettage instruments rooti) Sickle scalers ii) curettes iii) hoe.CLASSIFICATION 1) Periodontal probes 2) Explorers 3) Scaling.

with a blunt rounded tip.1) Tapered.& mark pockets.rodlike instrument calibrated in millimeters. . measure. 4) Determine their course on individual tooth surface. 2) Locate.

1) Locate subgingival deposits & carious areas. . 2) Check the smoothness of the root surfaces.

2) First instrument used to remove large.1)The sickle scaler is primarily used for supragingival calculus removal. . heavy deposits thus improving access to subgingival area for other instruments.

. Curettes is finer than sickle scalers.Used for removing deep subgingival calculus. Each working end has a cutting edge on both sides of the blade and a rounded toe.

.They are used for scaling the ledges or the rings of the calculus. Cutting edge is bebelled at 45 degrees. Blade is slightly bowed so as to maintain contact at two points on a convex surface.

Primary function is to fracture or crush large firm deposits of tenacious calculus. . They can easily gouge & roughen the root surface when used improperly.

They are of two types Magnetostrictive Piezoelectric . scaling. & removing stains.Used for removing plaques . curetting.

Double ended instrument with a curved shank at one end and a straght at the other.Used in the anterior part of the mouth. Designed for proximal surfaces of teeth. .

Used for the diagnosis & treatment of the periodontal disease. .Used to visualize deeply into the subgingival pockets & furcations. Fibreoptic endoscopes fits onto the periodontal probes & ultrasonic instruments easily.

Rubber cups Bristle brushes Dental tapes Air-powder polishing Air- .



head erect. back straight. thighs parallel to the floor. .Feet flat on the floor.ACCESIBILITY Facilitates thoroughness of the instrumentation. for maxillary arch. lowering the chin until the mandible gets parallel to the floor. CLINICIAN POSITION:. chin should be raised slightly. PATIENTS POSITION :. for mandibular arch.Supine position.

from dental light. illumination & retraction ´Direct illumination:. ´Indirect illumination:.Visibility.using mouth mirror. . ´Retraction provides visibility accessibility & illumination. Fingers & mouth mirror can be used for retraction depending on the position of the operator.

Condition and sharpness of the instruments Instruments should be clean & sterile. Working ends should be sharp as it enhances the tactile sensitivity & increases the efficacy of the operator. . Dull instruments lead to incomplete calculus removal.

Maintaining a clean field Adequate suction of saliva is necessary as it interferes with the visibility during instrumentation & impedes control because firm finger rest cannot be established. .

INSTRUMENT ACTIVATION Adaptation refers to the manner in which the working end of the periodontal instrument is placed against the surface of the tooth. Angulation refers to the angle between the face of the bladed instrument & the tooth surface. Lateral pressure refers to the pressure applied against the surface of the tooth. .

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